# Devil on the backside: you'll need several cold ones from Yakima's famous Grant's Brewery after this experience. As they say, "The devil is in the details.".

Coming into Yakima yesterday, bright sunlight illuminated the surrounding golden fields and the unique rolling landscape of Eastern Washington. You couldn't help but also notice the rising terrain to the west. Today you're departing westbound into an oncoming front, and the warm fuzzies of VMC are rapidly exiting stage left.

How ironic that the tight rolling hills and gullies looked like brains, because pre-planning and fast thinking are what you'll need when the chips are down and the mountains start to rise.

Your last IPC instructor gave you the acronym NEWS. It stood for: Set up NAVAIDs, plan an Emergency return, re-check the required Weather, and study the SID or DP. It's a good thing he did. You might just need it today. Good luck outwitting the forces of bad luck and evil TERPSters. Answers on page 20.

1. As always, where are you?

a. Joining the R-255 on departure

b. Turning inbound in the TITON hold

c. Turning outbound at ORJOR

d. Turning outbound in the missed approach hold

2. If you plan to climb at 120 knots and 500 fpm, what's the required whether to depart Part 91?

a. 4200-3

b. 700-1

c. 2500-3

d. zero-zero, baby

3. The "Triangle-T" on the departure plate means?

a. This is an ODP.

b. This is an O-SID.

c. This is an "Oh S#@t."

d. This field has non-standard takeoff minima.

4. The DP info (upper right) says for 27 departures to utilize the ZILLA ODP. Why are you flying the WENAS FIVE?

a. You prefer see and avoid criteria

b. ATC assigned the WENAS FIVE

c. You filed the WENAS FIVE

d. You have made a critical mistake

5. TITON is -- miles from liftoff. Observing the minimum climb gradient, you should cross ORJOR at -to reach the minimum altitude of -- by TITON, so you are --.

a. 19, 5500, 7000, OK

b. 19, 5500, 5500, in trouble

c. 14, 2800, 7000, in trouble

d. 14, 3900, not specified, OK

6. SID Bonus: If you maintain 350'/nm from liftoff to TITON, you may skip the charted hold. T or F?

7. If the SID is going so well, what's wrong with this picture?

a. High CHT

b. Turn and bank failure

c. Low oil pressure

d. Nothing. Relax, will ya?

8. What are you going to do next?

a. Press on, I said nothing was wrong.

b. Call ATC for instructions.

c. Get no-gyro vectors ASAP.

d. Turn back to the airport.

a. Continue climbing to ensure terrain separation.

b. Turn to the VOR to avoid terrain.

c. Join the 16 DME arc ASAP for the back course.

d. Fly an arc back at 10 DME or so.

10. You were smart and put the LOC in the NAV 1 flip-flop. You also made sure DME was coming from NAV 1 for both the SID and the emergency return (see next page). Good job! True or False?

11. True or False: Seems like you remembered setting the course reciprocal for your OBS the last time you flew a back course. That's key for this approach.

12. If tower considers 27 the active runway, the localizer back course:

a. Won't be turned on; cal I'em.

b. Will be on, but verify the ident.

c. Cannot legally be turned on.

d. Can still be considered the "approach in use".

13. This approach is called the BC-B. "B" means:

a. There is a BC-A on another page.

b. It was the second approach TERPSed for the airport.

c. It is the second circling approach available for the airport.

d. This approach is a b%#\$.

14. Looking at the approach minima, you note--because--.

a. Only circling mins; there must be a gradient issue

b. Only straight-in mins; it's a LOC

c. Only circling mins; of the VOR offset

d. Only circling minima because it's not aligned, duh

15. The procedure turn on this approach is:

a. Based on the FAF, 10.6 DME

b. The standard "remain within 10 miles," as depicted

c. Only for arrivals from CHINS

d. Irrelevant for this approach

16. As compared to the opposing localizer approach, the width in feet of the localizer back course is

a. wider.

b. more narrow.

c. essentially the same.

d. the same, but the inverted glidesope will get you if you're not careful.

17. You've decided not to descend until you can glide to the runway. You know your Mooney will do 700 fpm at 85 knots glide speed. Assuming you don't climb any farther, where should you start your descent?

a. The FAF

b. The VDP

c. Immediately upon reaching MDA

d. Don't expect me to do math in an emergency.

18. Bonus essay question: Explain the difference between climb gradient and climb rate. How is it different from descent gradient or rate?

1. c. You're on the SID and in the turn passing ORJOR.

2. d. However, legal does not equal smart. That planned climb works out to only 250 feet per mile. Knowingly launching with neither required climb performance nor see-and-avoid minimums is a ticket to either a FAR 91.13 voilation or the grave. Use a as your real-world answer.

3. d. Although the information on the SID appears sufficient to stand alone, the symbol reminds one to check the DP info in the front of the book. This paints a more complete picture of the departure options and hazards.

4. b or c. The ZILLA ODP is a means for IFR traffic to get airborne for any direction of flight. ATC, however, established the WENAS 5 as a more convenient method of assuring orderly departure traffic flow. The clearance alludes that you filed it.

5. d. Since DME is not on the field, the back course plate gives enough info to make an educated guess of four miles from liftoff to WENAS. The 60:1 rule (radials are spaced 1 mile at 60 miles) tells us that the arcing leg to ORJOR is four+ miles, and the subsequent leg is six miles; totaling 14. The required gradient will put you no lower than 3900 MSL at ORJOR and, sneakily, the SID gives no hard altitude at TITON; the V4 MEA of 7000 is a distracter. The gradient is not an average, it's a minimum. Computing targets along the way will assure you the climb is working out.

6. False. TITON is 14 flight miles from liftoff on Runway 27. Although there is no minimum altitude specified at TITON, one can infer that 350 feet per mile will place you at 5500 feet just 1.4 miles short of TITON and 6000 at the fix. The SID says to achieve 7000 in holding before proceeding, so hang out and complete the climb. Consult an en route chart to ascertain subsequent MEAs for your route.

7. c. Oil pressure is low. You're used to the oil temps being a bit lower also, so this is a bona fide attention grabber.

8. d. Since you briefed an emergency return, turn back. Yes, the ILS is in use, however you familiarized yourself with the B&B just in case. This engine may quit at any time.

9. d. We'd love to follow the rules, but this is an emergency. The air behind you was rock-free, so turn around and arc back at 10 or 11 DME. Arcs are TERPSed to be eight miles wide and the back course final approach fix is at 10.6 DME. Respect the plate altitudes as much as possible until reaching the course inbound and then slam-dunk to get as close to the field as possible before the motor seizes.

10. False. A better choice would have been selecting the DME from NAV 2. The fine print says that DME is supplied by the VORTAC. By selecting DME from Nav 1, you'll lose the station when you flip-flop the LOC into the active window. Bonus tip: Select the RMI source to NAV 2 for the same reason.

11. True. No tricks. The reciprocal 269 is a must for this HSI and, although not required, considered good SA habit for all traditional CDIs.

12. b. There is only one LOC antenna, one freq, and one ident, which broadcasts the front and back course. Make it a routine to always verify the ident, though--you've already had enough go wrong today.

13. c. We like d; however c is the correct answer.

14. a. Circling approaches can result when seemingly straight-in courses either exceed normal TERPS descent gradients or place the pilot more than 300 feet laterally from the runway's edge. And, no, there's no requirement to make a circling 360 on final to land.

15. d. There is no procedure turn on this plate; the depicted 10-mile circle is a standardized charting convention. We would actually call this a "procedural track" approach because you should continuously track a black line ... unless there's a greater emergency.

16. b. The signal is the same width either way but on the BC you should notice greater sensitivity. Since the course funnels approaching the antenna and the antenna is located prior to touchdown you fly "deeper" into the narrow funnel by overflying the antenna.

17. a and d. Even we don't expect you to crunch numbers like this during an emergency; however, that illustrates the value of pre-planning. If you know your airplane's glide performance--in this case 500 feet per mile-then you can make an educated guess. If it takes two miles to lose 1000 feet then losing your 3000 AGL will take six miles. That's about the FAF here. Err on the conservative side and take some solace knowing you're not gliding on hope alone.

18. Climb gradient is a specific slope while rate is just, well, a rate. A gradient of 350 feet per mile is roughly 3.5 degrees. To get feet per minute, multiply your ground speed in miles per minute by the gradient. (120 knots = 2 miles/minute; 2 x 350 = 700 fpm) Descents are figured the same. The challenge is estimating your TAS and winds aloft before departure to get your groundspeed. Halfway through the SID is no time to find that you aren't meeting your targets in the climb.
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