Printer Friendly

Development of army residency programs: pathology at Fort Sam Houston.


As World War II ended, the recruitment of physicians into the Army Medical Service was in question. (1) In 1946, COL Floyd Wergeland originated the idea to establish a resident training program. (2) In 1946-1949, COL Raymond Duke, who succeeded Wergeland as Director of Education and Training at the Office of The Surgeon General in 1946, implemented the program. (3) Readily assimilated into the residency program was the large group of Regular Army officers commissioned in the 1930s, who advanced during the War to Lieutenant Colonel or Colonel, largely in administrative or command positions. They wished to return to clinical medicine.

Brooke, Fitzsimons, Gorgas, Letterman, Madigan, Oliver, and Walter Reed Hospitals all had abundant clinical material, but they lacked a full staff of preceptors. Civilian consultants alleviated the shortage of board-certified staff. Slowly, the various residency programs gained approval by the specialty boards.

In pathology, the American Board of Pathology representative, Robert Moore, accepted the Army alternative of using civilian consultants. After only three talks, the Board approved the pathology residency programs for the Army. This residency was 3 years long, largely in anatomic pathology, since clinical pathology was considered less important than tissue work at that time.


Pathology as a specialty developed in Berlin and Vienna in the late 1800s. American pathology progressed simultaneously in New York and Chicago and peaked at Johns Hopkins University in 1884 with the appointment of William Henry Welch as Professor of Pathology. (4) Teaching and research in pathology in Texas, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, centered at the Medical Branch of the University of Texas Galveston and at Baylor University in Dallas. (5)

Army pathology paralleled the civilian accomplishments and the Army Medical Museum (later known as the Army Institute of Pathology, and still later as the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology), established during the Civil War, became a leader in the field. Autopsy and surgical specimens submitted from the field enhanced the collection. (6)

Although Washington DC had the Army Medical Museum, other centers of excellence of Army medicine were in different regions of the country-Michigan, California, Colorado, Texas, Washington-and overseas in the Panama Canal Zone. Fort Sam Houston, at San Antonio, was the major hospital base of the south-central area, home of many medical units and principal training base for many medical specialties.

Early construction at Fort Sam Houston, after the Quadrangle in 1876, included a two-ward hospital building on Staff Post that saw service during 1881-1908. The construction program of 1905-1912, on Cavalry and Artillery Posts, included an 84 bed hospital that expanded with the Mexican border mobilization in 1916, the World War I training mission in 1917-1918, and the influenza epidemic of 1919. (7)

In 1918, the Eighth Corps Area Laboratory opened across the street from the hospital. It served as the primary hospital laboratory, as well as the reference laboratory for the corps area (Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Colonel Walter H. Moursund (1884-1959), USAR, a professor of pathology at Baylor College of Medicine in Dallas, commanded the unit.

Harvey Livesay, recently returned from Europe, became the Laboratory bacteriologist in 1919. A 1914 graduate of the University of Louisville School of Medicine, he took 2 1/2 years of residency in laboratory medicine at the University of Louisville before coming into the Army in 1917. After initial service in Europe as a division medical officer, he transferred to the Central Medical Department Laboratory of the American Expeditionary Force in Dijon where he participated in the anaerobic culture study of gas gangrene complicating war wounds. He later transferred to the Third Evacuation Hospital where the early use of blood transfusion was underway; type "O" blood contributed by German prisoners-of-war into gallon jugs, iced and packed in sawdust, was administered to American wounded in shock. (8) Back in Texas, at the Eighth Corps Area Laboratory, Livesay worked in water analysis for outlying border stations and in a study of Malta Fever (brucellosis) involving testing of goat milk and blood. He also performed autopsies at the hospital, but the Army Medical Museum did the microscopic examination and case completion. (9) (Figure 1)


In 1938, a 350-bed station hospital opened at Fort Sam Houston named, in 1942, after Brigadier General Roger Brooke. Pneumonia, meningitis, and mumps accounted for many patients. Colonel Charles G. Sinclair (1889-1945) was the first Chief of the Laboratory. Colonel Alfred R. Thomas, who was previously Chief of the old station hospital laboratory in the early 1930s, again became Chief of the hospital laboratory in World War II (1941-1946). A 1912 graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Thomas entered the Army in 1917. He recalled laboratory activities in the 1930s, such as serologic tests for syphilis, using Noguchi's modification of the Wasserman test. For the hospital, there were surgical specimens and frozen sections, and about 100 autopsies per year. The favorite clinical axiom for fever was: "If it responds to quinine, it's malaria; if not, it's typhoid." During World War II, the laboratory usually had four staff officers. William Tigertt, and later Herbert Davenport, did surgical and autopsy pathology. In bacteriology were Max Levine and Robert Ingersoll. Paul Priesler and later Tom Wallace had the chemistry section. Beecher F. Stout (1877-1957), who in 1921 had been one of the original eleven founders of the Texas Society of Pathology, was the civilian consultant from San Antonio. (10)

During World War II, four large general laboratories were assembled on Dodd Field at Fort Sam Houston-the First (under COLs Mallory and Cornell) scheduled for Italy, the Fourth (under COLs Muchenfoss, Angevine, and Smadel) scheduled for England, the Eighteenth (under COL DeCoursey) scheduled for the Central Pacific, and the Nineteenth (under COL Coons) scheduled for the Southwest Pacific.

Initiation of Pathology Residency

In 1945, as the last training division left Fort Sam Houston, the hospital expanded into the vacated buildings on the east side of MacArthur Field. Colonel Thomas chose a ground-level portion of a former regimental barracks (later called Annex IV, and later still, Beach Pavilion) because of its potential to provide a good autopsy amphitheater.

Colonel Elbert DeCoursey, board-certified in pathology at the first examination in 1936, returned from the Pacific in 1946, to become Chief of the Laboratory Service. A 1928 graduate of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, he entered the Army in 1928 as an intern at Fort Sam Houston. At that time, the principal activity in the Corps Laboratory was the preparation of antivenin for the treatment of snakebite. After training in clinical pathology, tropical diseases, and epidemiology at the Army Medical School at Carlisle Barracks, and training in anatomic pathology at the Army Institute of Pathology, he went to Gorgas Hospital in the Panama Canal Zone (1932-1934), where he recalled performing 1000 autopsies. He gained advanced training in pathology with Army-sponsored assignments in New York City with A.M. Pappenheimer, James Ewing, and Arthur Purdy Stout, and in Freiberg, Germany, with Ludwig Aschoff. During World War II, he commanded the Eighteenth General Laboratory in the Central Pacific, with diverse roles such as applying DDT by aerial spraying on Saipan to reduce disease transmission. When the War ended, COL DeCoursey (Figure 2) became part of the Commission assessing the atomic bomb casualties. (11)


The first trainees were Robert Holmes, William W. Hurteau, and Gilbert Stansell. Hurteau resigned after a few months to pursue neuropathology interests. Philip Flynn, John Ellis, and Frank Vellios held the staff surgical pathologist position in sequence. Joseph Ackroyd was the hematologist. To enhance the teaching program, DeCoursey recruited three consultants-Dr. Joseph M. Hill, a hematologist and blood transfusion expert from Dallas, Dr. Eric Muirhead, a kidney researcher from Southwestern University School of Medicine in Dallas, and Dr A.O. Severance, a surgical pathologist from San Antonio.

First Group of Residents--Wartime Officers

Robert Holmes was the first resident. A 1940 graduate of Tulane University School of Medicine, he entered the Army in 1940 as an intern at the station hospital of Fort Sam Houston, including 2 months elective in pathology with COL DeCoursey. After receiving his basic officer training at the Medical Field Service School at Carlisle Barracks, he went to Camp Barkley at Abilene, Texas, to create an officer candidate school for the hundreds of new doctors entering the Army. In 1943, he went to Europe and served in England, France, and Germany. He was Operations Officer in the 66th Medical Group assigned to Patton's Third Army. He entered Paris with the Free French units under GEN LeClerc in his role as Executive Officer of the 106th Evacuation Hospital. He became commanding officer of the 58th Field Hospital before returning to the United States. (12) Unassigned, he talked to Wiley Forbus about a resident position in the Duke program. Forbus did offer him a position with a stipend of $250 per month. Forbus noted that Holmes was already a lieutenant colonel and thus earning more, and told Holmes he would be better off in the newly developing program at Brooke Army Hospital.. So Holmes went to Texas. (13)

Next came a group of colonels to be pathology residents. All served during the War, but not as pathologists--Milward W. Bayliss with the 25th Evacuation Hospital in Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides in the Southwest Pacific, George J. Matt as Division Surgeon of the 44th Infantry Division in France and Germany, Albert M. Richmond as Commander of the 242nd General Hospital at Sissonne in France, and Howard A. Van Auken as Chief Surgeon of the China-Burma-India Theater. (14)

At first, Dr Severance visited twice per week as a consultant to work with the staff officer handling surgical specimens. Holmes overheard them, however, and came with his microscope to look at the slides also. Later, Hurteau joined them, and thus, the Tuesday and Friday teaching sessions evolved. Dr Severance's own residents at Baptist Hospital joined the Tuesday session in 1952. (15)

DeCoursey suggested joint meetings of civilian and military pathologists in 1941. Civilian pathologist Dr B. F. Stout and COL Thomas started bimonthly Monday evening slide conferences, alternating locations of the meeting between Medical & Surgical Memorial Hospital (later Baptist Memorial Hospital) and Fort Sam Houston. Regular attendees were Dr John M. Moore, Dr Herbert J. Schattenberg, Dr Severance, Dr Beecher F. Stout, COL Thomas, and Dr David A. Todd. This led to the monthly meetings of the San Antonio Society of Pathologists in the post-war period, held in the conference room of the Brooke Pathology Department. Pathologists from all the city hospitals brought interesting cases to share with others, cutting enough slides so that each attendee (including the residents) could have one for his personal teaching set.

The annual Tumor Seminar of the San Antonio Society of Pathologists, first held in 1944 with Arthur Purdy Stout as moderator, continued after the War and became a highlight of the academic year. (16) When the Seminar took place at Fort Sam Houston in the fall, the visiting expert worked with the residents on Friday before the Saturday seminar (Figure 3).


Residents also attended the annual Penrose Cancer Seminar at the Broadmoor Hotel in Colorado Springs, under the direction of Dr Morgan Berthrong for many years. The invited speaker would conduct an all-day conference. (17) Although occasionally an Air Force C-47 was available to take attendees from San Antonio, the traditional way was the automobile caravan, led by Dr Severance, which departed after work on Friday and, by driving all night, arrived on Saturday morning in time for the conference. (Figure 4)


The Loyal Order of the Boar, formed at Carlisle Barracks in 1928, was a fraternal group of Medical Department officers interested in the promotion of good fellowship among officers. Its logo was two hogs pointing in opposite directions with their tails entwined. The annual banquet culminated with initiation of shoats into the Order by the presiding Boar. (18)

Second Group--Medical School Deferments

Military deferment for academic training in World War II included medical students. Having acquired a service requirement because of the deferment, new physicians entered the Army and sought residency positions. In pathology, these individuals succeeded the senior officers who filled the early positions. (Figure 5)


Hugh Hoeffler, a 1944 graduate of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine, began medical school in 1941 and had a deferred military obligation. He participated in the Army Special Training Program (ASTP) and became an Army Private at Camp Dix in 1943 during his junior year, receiving $50 per month. Before morning classes was the daily 7 AM military formation at the school. The medical school course was accelerated so students could finish in 3 years; during one 3-week vacation, the students went for Army basic training at Fort Niagara. Hoeffler entered active duty after a 9-month civilian internship in Buffalo, being first assigned to Camp Edwards on Cape Cod as a general medical officer, then to Indiantown Gap, and then to Fort Eustis. He went to Europe in 1946 on the Gustavus Adolphus. Because of earlier experience as a Medical Technologist (ASCP), Hoeffler received assignments in laboratories: first at the Fourth Medical Laboratory in Darmstadt, next at Munich where Carl Lind was Chief of Laboratory Service, and then at Heidelberg when Carl Lind was Commander of the relocated Fourth Medical Laboratory. When COL Lind became Chief at Brooke Army Hospital in 1949, he chose Hoeffler as one of his residents. When the Korean conflict began, Hoeffler was among the group of residents sent TDY to the Far East to alleviate the shortage of medical officers; he worked at hospitals in Tokyo and Osaka. After 6 months he returned to the residency program in Texas (Figure 6). (19)


Edward Johnston, a 1948 graduate of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, had his internship and 2 years of pathology residency at Oliver General Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, with Colonel Joe Blumberg. The hospital closed, however, possibly because of Senator Thurmond's Dixiecratparty bid in the 1948 presidential election. Johnston moved to Brooke to finish his program. Halfway through his last year, he received orders to go to Korea--to the 1st Field Medical Laboratory, which was attached to the 22nd Evacuation Hospital at Yong Dong Po. He received full credit for his last year. (20)

John Lukeman, a 1945 graduate of the Medical College of Virginia, started a 2-year surgical internship, but was called into the Army at the end of the 1st year. He went to the 406th Medical Laboratory in Tokyo for 21 months and returned in 1948 to a pathology residency at Kings County Hospital in New York at a salary of $65 per month. This was not enough for a family to live on, so he joined the Army to continue his pathology education at Fort Sam Houston. (21)

Third Group--Wartime Service

Service in World War II delayed entry into medical school for some future Army pathologists. Although they had prior service credit, they did not enter with advanced officer grades.

Typical of the group were Harvey Graham, Robert Kellenberger, Peter Macomber, James McCarty, Michael Sulak, and Elmer "Joe" Ylitalo. Kellenberger enlisted in 1942 as a junior in college and went to Japan. Macomber was an infantryman with the 91st Division in Italy. McCarty was a Navy pharmacist's mate in the Pacific. Graham was a 2LT. Signal Corps officer in Honolulu. Ylitalo was a Navy fighter pilot in the Pacific.

Michael Sulak, a high school senior in 1941 when Pearl Harbor was attacked. Many classmates volunteered for military service, but Sulak's poor eyesight excluded him. He worked in an Electric Storage Battery Company, which made batteries for jeeps, trucks, and submarines. Drafted in 1943, he trained at Camp Hood in Texas in a tank destroyer battalion. He gained college credits during his service in Texas as his unit was not deployed overseas. Using the G.I. Bill, he entered Tulane University and graduated from the School of Medicine in 1950. He interned at Brooke, 1950-1951, and stayed for the pathology residency. (22) (Figure 7)


Robert Bosman was in the doctoral program in bacteriology at Johns Hopkins University in 1941 when he was commissioned in the Sanitary Corps. Called to active duty in 1942, he was assigned to the 171st Station Hospital, which deployed to Port Moresby in New Guinea. 1LT Bosman was there as the Laboratory Officer 1942-1945, directing the clinical sections. After the war, he attended Duke University School of Medicine, graduating in 1950. Dr Wiley Forbus, head of the pathology department at Duke, helped him in his choice of residency program, saying "What you want in a residency is to do a lot of pathology-as much as you possibly can. The Army will give you that." With this encouragement, he returned to the Army and entered the Brooke program at the second-year level because Col. Blumberg considered his wartime laboratory experience creditable. (23)

Elmer "Joe" Ylitalo joined the Navy after high school graduation in 1942. An Ensign, he became a Grumman Wildcat fighter pilot on the carrier USS Manila Bay, which was in the Philippine campaign during the invasions of Mindoro and Luzon. Two kamikaze attacks disabled the flight deck for 3 days, but did not sink the ship. After the war ended, Ylitalo remained in the Navy. During the Korean War, he flew the F-4U Vought Corsair from the carrier USS Philippine Sea. Subsequently assigned to a night fighter squadron at Atlantic City, he decided to resign his commission and study medicine. After graduating from the University of Minnesota Medical School in 1959, he took advantage of his prior service and joined the Army. After starting on the Brooke surgery residency program, he developed a surgical soap allergy, and switched to the pathology program. When he finished the residency, he had 18 years active duty. After a short assignment to the Fourth Army Medical Laboratory, he moved to William Beaumont Army Hospital in El Paso, from where he retired. (24)

Fourth Group--Those Brought in During Korean War

William Meriwether, a 1946 graduate of the University of Tennessee, Memphis College of Medicine, had a deferment as a pre-med student in 1942, being an Army Reserve Second Lieutenant in the Medical Administrative Corps (the forerunner of the Medical Service Corps). In medical school in 1943, he was in the ASTP (Army Specialized Training Program) that assured the armed forces a continuing supply of medical officers. He became a Private on active duty in that program. After a 2-year pathology residency, he complete his residency at Gorgas Hospital in the Canal Zone, taking one of its resident positions. He completed his anatomic pathology program and stayed on as a civilian staff pathologist. When the Korean War began, the Doctor Draft also started. Meriwether did not wait to be drafted, but volunteered and became a Captain in the Medical Corps and continued in the same job. Not long afterwards, however, he received orders to Rodriguez Army Hospital and then to Japan and Korea. He remained in the Army, and on General Blumberg's urging, returned to Brooke to complete his clinical pathology training. (25) (Figure 8)


University School of Medicine, participated in this ROTC program for 4 years. He gained Tripler Army Hospital for his internship that included a 2-month elective in pathology, where Colonel George Matt was the Chief. Col. Matt became Chief of Pathology at Brooke Army Hospital the following year. (Figure 10) He selected Kiel as one of his residents. (28) (Figure 11)


Robert Ranson, a 1947 graduate of the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, had his internship and 1st pathology residency at Wesley Hospital in Oklahoma City. He then switched to Charity Hospital in New Orleans as an Army-sponsored resident, earning $500 per month instead of the $25 that Charity paid to other residents. When the Korean War began, the Army transferred him to the Brooke pathology residency program. He went to Rodriguez General Hospital, Puerto Rico, after he finished the program, and resigned at the end of the year. (26)

Fifth Group--No Prior Wartime Service

With the World War II veterans group diminished, new applicants for pathology residency appeared, lacking prior wartime military service. One recruitment program was the Medical Reserve Officer Training Program. It involved a Saturday morning 1-hour class that was graded for credit. If enrolled for the 3rd year, the student received pay. Between the junior and senior years, there was a 6-week summer camp at Fort Bragg that involved 3 weeks of military training and 3 weeks of hospital clerkship (Figure 9). This incurred no military service obligation, but an edge in the Intern Matching Plan was possible if one chose an Army internship. (27)


Frank Kiel, a 1954 graduate of George Washington University School of Medicine, participated in this ROTC program for 4 years. He gained Tripler Army Hospital for his internship that included a two month elective in pathology, where COL George Matt (Figure 10) was the Chief. COL

Matt became Chief of Pathology at Brooke Army Hospital the following year (Figure 11). He selected Kiel as one of his residents (Figure 12).


LeRoy Hieger, a 1957 graduate of the University of Kansas School of Medicine, took a civilian straight pathology internship in Kansas City. He entered the Army expecting to continue in a pathology residency, but instead was assigned to Fort Gordon and then reassigned to Germany. The Germany orders were rescinded, however, when a second year position opened at Brooke, which he filled (Figure 13). (28)


Edward Keller, a 1955 graduate of McGill University, entered the Brooke pathology program in 1957, but resigned in 1958. He is the only resident, other than William Hurteau in 1946, who did not complete the program. LeRoy Hieger took his place.

Leonard "Lonnie" Starr, a 1958 graduate of New York University School of Medicine, interned at Walter Reed Army Hospital before coming to Brooke for his residency. After 17 years in the practice of pathology (military and civilian), he switched to family medicine practice in California (American Board of Family Practice 1978, recertification 1985). He used his background in pathology, e.g., to suspect oat cell carcinoma in certain unusual diagnostic situations.


The first 15 years of the pathology residency at Fort Sam Houston established a viable program, using a combination of career and short-term staff officers, civilian consultants, experts from around the country, and a group of residents with varying degrees of military experience.

Of the thirty-five residents in this study, twenty-five stayed in the Army as career officers until retirement. Of those who resigned, all entered the civilian practice of pathology, although one switched (after 17 years) to family medicine. Two did not complete the residency.

After 60 years of experience, recruitment to the residency is now based largely on excellence of the program, reputation of the staff, possibility for research, and the wide range of clinical material.


(1.) Austerman WR. Mustering Out the Medics: AMEDD Downsizing after WWII. AMEDDJ. 2003; PB 8-03-4/5/6: 15-20.

(2.) Colonel (Ret.) William S. Mullins, conversation with author, 2004. Wergeland also initiated the transfer of the Medical Field Service School from Carlisle Barracks in Pennsylvania to Fort Sam Houston in Texas in 1946

(3.) Colonel (Ret.) Raymond E. Duke (1905-1992), conversation with author, 1959.

(4.) Long ER. A History of American Pathology. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas; 1962. For later years, see Rosai J (ed.). Guiding the Surgeon's Hand: The History of American Surgical Pathology. Washington: American Registry of Pathology; 1997.

(5.) Baker MM. The History of Pathology in Texas. Austin: Texas Society of Pathologists: 1996.

(6.) Kiel FW. Wir waren unser 20 Mann gegan 150 (We were 20 men against 150): The Battle of Las Rucias-A Civil War Letter from a German-Texan Solider in the 1864 Union Invasion of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Southwestern Historical Quarterly 2002; 105: 465-478. A gunshot casualty from the 1864 Battle of Las Rucias in the Lower Rio Grande Campaign had primary excision of part of the humerus, and the analysis of the case included comparison with specimens at the Army Medical Museum.

(7.) Kiel FW. Some Medical Aspects of the History of Fort Sam Houston Military Medicine 1964; 129: 1044-1051. Also Handy MO. History of Fort Sam Houston. San Antonio: Naylor Co.; 1951 and Cagle E Jr. Fort Sam: The Story of Fort Sam Houston, Texas. San Antonio: Maverick Pub. Co.: 2003.

(8.) Hanigan WC and King SC. Cold Blood and Clinical Research during World War I Military Medicine 1996; 161: 392-400.

(9.) Colonel (Ret.) Harvey R. Livesay (1890-1982), conversation with author, 1959; George B. Livesay (son), conversation with author, 2003.

(10.) Colonel (Ret.) A.R. Thomas (1888-1970), conversation with author, 1959; Maj. (Ret.) Claude R. Lenn (1917-1985), letter to author, 1964. Lenn was Chief NCO of the hospital laboratory service 1941-1942.

(11.) Major General Elbert DeCoursey (1902-1994), conversation with author, 1959.

(12.) Stanley Anderson, Springfield, Missouri, letter to author, 2004. The 58th Field Hospital moved in August 1945 from Munich to Bad Wiessee on the Tegrensee, a resort area near Bad Tolz, occupying several hotels there. There were 170 German employees at the hospital. Anderson was Adjutant at the hospital.

(13.) Colonel (Ret.) Robert H. Holmes (1914-2001), conversation with author, 1996.

(14.) Obituary "Bayliss" San Antonio Express-News, 13 March 1997; COL George J. Matt, conversation with author, 1959; Combat History 44th Infantry Division 1944-1945 Atlanta: Albert Love Enterprises; ca. 1945; 242nd General Hospital, WW II available at http:// Accessed on Oct. 31, 2003; Chief Surgeons of Important U.S. Overseas Commands available at org_admin_wwii_appndxA.htm Accessed on 31 Oct 2003.

(15.) Alvin O. Severance (1902-1991), conversation with author, 1959; Domingo H. Useda, conversation with author, 2004; Merle W. Delmer, conversation with author, 2004

(16.) 1944--Arthur Purdy Stout (Columbia), 1945--Arthur Purdy Stout, 1946 --Emil Novak (Johns Hopkins), 1947--Colonel J. E. Ash (AFIP), 1948--Shields Warren (New England Deaconess, Boston), 1949--Rupert A. Willis (Royal Cancer Hospital, London, England), 1950--Arthur Purdy Stout, 1951--Mathew J. Stewart (Leeds Univ. Medical School, Leeds, England), 1952--Lauren V. Ackerman (Washington Univ., St. Louis), 1953--Frank W. Foote, Jr. (Memorial Hospital, New York), 1954--Elbert DeCoursey, Webb Haymaker, Lent Johnson, and Fathollah Mostofi (AFIP), 1955--Arthur Purdy Stout, 1956--Malcolm B. Dockerty (Mayo Clinic), 1957--Hugh G. Grady (Seton Hall College of Medicine, Jersey City, N.J.), 1958--William A. Meissner (New England Deaconess, Boston), 1959--Edward A. Gall, (College of Medicine, Cincinnati), 1960--Lauren V. Ackerman, 1961--Elson B. Helwig (AFIP), 1962--Rafaelle Lattes (Columbia).

(17.) 1949 "Miscellaneous Tumors" AP Stout and LV Ackerman, 1950 "Bone Tumors" PJ Hodes and LV Ackerman, 1951 "Thoracic Tumors" AP Stout and PJ Hodes and LH Garland, 1952 "Gastric Tumors" LV Ackerman and LG Rigler, 1953 "Tumors of the Small Intestine" PC Swenson and WA Meissner, 1954 "Tumors of the Large Bowel" R Golden and RC Horn Jr., 1955 "Tumors of the Urinary Tract" FJ Hodges and FK Mostofi, 1956 "Intracranial Tumors" EP Pendergrass and JW Kernohan, 1957 "Cancer in Children" EBD Neuhauser and BH Landing, 1958 "Bone Tumors" PJ Hodes and LV Ackerman, 1959 "Tumors of Soft Tissue" PJ Hodes and AP Stout, 1960 "Thoracic Tumors" B Felson and R Lattes, 1961 "Gastric Tumors" R Schatzki and WA Meissner, 1962 "Intracranial Tumors" JM Taveras and HM Zimmerman.

(18.) Ginn RVN. The History of the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps. Washington: Office of the Surgeon General and Center of Military History; 1997: 109-110. The 1962 Fort Sam Houston local membership list had ten pathologists: Milward Bayliss, James Hansen, Elbert DeCoursey, Charles Farinacci, George Lundberg, William Meriwether, Albert Richmond, Harry Sproat, Michael Sulak, and Alfred Thomas. The author (stationed in Washington in 1962) had joined in 1958. Others stationed elsewhere were members, but a comprehensive membership list is not identifiable.

(19.) Colonel (Ret.) Hugh B. Hoeffler, conversation with author, 2003.

(20.) Colonel (Ret.) Edward H. Johnston, conversation with author 2004.

(21.) Colonel (Ret.) John M. Lukeman, conversations with author, 2003 and 2004.

(22.) Laura E. Sulak (daughter), letter to author, 1996.

(23.) Colonel (Ret.) Robert I. Bosman and daughter Mary Shepherd Hughes, e-mail message to author, 2004

(24.) Lieutenant Colonel (Ret.) Elmer W. Ylitalo, conversation with author, 2004.

(25.) Colonel (Ret.) William Meriwether, letter to and conversation with author, 1996, 2003. Another clinical pathology resident was Herbert Kirshman, who had civilian anatomic pathology training at Ohio State University.

(26.) Robert F. Ranson, letter to author, 2003.

(27.) Colonel (Ret.) Lowell "Don" Larsen, letter to author, 2004, had 2-year drafted service in 1952-1954; Frank B. Kimball, letter to author, 2004, enrolled in the Army's 4th year medical student program for which there was a service obligation; Robert E. Brierty, letter to author, 2004; Col. (Ret.) John M. Hardman, e-mail message to author, 2003; George D. Lundberg, e-mail message to author, 2003.

(28.) Colonel (Ret.) LeRoy R. Hieger, conversation with author, 2004.

Colonel (Ret.) Kiel resides in Comfort, TX..
Brooke Army Hospital Residents, 1947-1962

Name Birth School Resident

Bayliss, Milward W. 1908 Chicago '41 47-49
Bosman, Robert I. 1914 Duke '50 51-55
Brierty, Robert E. 1930 Creighton '57 58-62
Conant, Charles N. 1932 Case West. Res. '58 60-64
Graham, Harvey P. 1917 Duke '52 57-61
Hardman, John M. 1933 Colorado '58 59-63
Hayes, James C. 1923 Hahnemann '46 53-57
Hieger, LeRoy R. 1931 Kansas '57 59-61
Hoeffler, Hugh B. 1912 Buffalo '44 49-52
Holmes, Robert H. 1914 Tulane '40 45-48
Hurteau, William W. 1912 Iowa '37 47-47
Johnston, Edward H. 1923 Pittsburgh '48 50-52
Kellenberger, Robert E. 1924 St. Louis '50 51-55
Keller, Edward S. 1924 McGill '55 57-58
Kiel, Frank W. 1930 Geo. Washington '54 55-60
Kimball, Frank B. 1934 Johns Hopkins '60 61-65
Kirshman, Herbert S. 1932 Montpelier '59 62-64
Lardinois, Clifford C. 1919 Wisconsin '51 52-55
Larsen, Lowell D. 1929 Utah '59 60-64
Lukeman, John M. 1914 Med. Coll. Va. '45 53-55
Lundberg, George D. 1933 Alabama '57 58-62
Matt, George J. 1907 Minnesota '36 47-50
McCarty, James E. 1924 Vanderbilt '52 55-58
Macomber, Peter B. 1923 Harvard '50 54-58
Meriwether, William A. 1923 Tennessee '46 60-62
Ranson, Robert F. 1921 Oklahoma '47 50-53
Redner, Wallace J. Jr. 1922 Cornell '46 49-52
Richmond, Albert M. 1906 Washington U. '32 47-50
Snyder, Dale R. 1927 Pennsylvania '54 56-59
Sproat, Harry F. 1922 New York '46 50-53
Stansell, Gilbert B. 1917 Northwestern '44 47-48
Starr, Leonard B. 1931 NYU '58 59-63
Sulak, Michael H. 1924 Tulane '50 52-56
Van Auken, Howard A. 1904 Michigan '31 48-51
Ylitalo, Elmer W. 1924 Minnesota '59 61-65

Name Death Location *

Bayliss, Milward W. 03/08/97 San Antonio, TX
Bosman, Robert I. Farmville, NC
Brierty, Robert E. Warner Robins, GA
Conant, Charles N. Houston, TX
Graham, Harvey P. 12/17/98 Suwanee, GA
Hardman, John M. Honolulu, HI
Hayes, James C. 08/08/02 Augusta, ME
Hieger, LeRoy R. Tyler, TX
Hoeffler, Hugh B. San Antonio, TX
Holmes, Robert H. 07/21/01 Dunwoody, GA
Hurteau, William W. 05/20/96 Mesa, AZ
Johnston, Edward H. Orlando, FL
Kellenberger, Robert E. 09/10/00 Kalispell, MT
Keller, Edward S. 11/26/90 Everett, WA
Kiel, Frank W. Comfort, TX
Kimball, Frank B. Spokane, WA
Kirshman, Herbert S. White Plains, NY
Lardinois, Clifford C. 10/13/94 Huron, SD
Larsen, Lowell D. Salt Lake City, UT
Lukeman, John M. Houston, TX
Lundberg, George D. New York, NY
Matt, George J. 03/20/65 San Diego, CA
McCarty, James E. 01/02/99 Dallas, TX
Macomber, Peter B. 02/16/91 St. Petersburg, FL
Meriwether, William A. San Antonio, TX
Ranson, Robert F. Lafayette, LA
Redner, Wallace J. Jr. 04/28/00 Highland Falls, NY
Richmond, Albert M. 06/03/93 San Antonio, TX
Snyder, Dale R. 10/27/02 McLean, VA
Sproat, Harry F. 09/13/94 Collinsville, TX
Stansell, Gilbert B. 05/20/79 Rockford, IL
Starr, Leonard B. Thousand Ranch, CA
Sulak, Michael H. 05/21/93 San Antonio, TX
Van Auken, Howard A. 10/18/83 San Antonio, TX
Ylitalo, Elmer W. Paducah, KY

* Location may be practice
COPYRIGHT 2005 U.S. Army Medical Department Center & School
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Kiel, Frank W.
Publication:U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Date:Oct 1, 2005
Previous Article:The balanced scorecard in military medicine: what the clinical leader needs to know.
Next Article:Transforming the Army Medical Department at War.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters