Development and evaluation of a new high yielding and better fibre quality mutant NIAB-824 of cotton through pollen irradiation.
The success of all conventional cotton breeding approaches is highly correlated with the genetic variability present within the existing germplasm. However, if the desired trait is not present or/and linked with other undesirable traits in the existing germplasm, then the cross breeding may not be worthwhile. In such cases recombination of genes is to be sought out to achieve the desired objectives. Recombination process plays a major role to induce genetic changes and the recombination of linked genes is brought about by crossing over. Generally in eukaryotic cells radiation treatments are known to enhance crossing over in proximal region adjacent to the centromere. Thus irradiation of [F.sub.1] plants especially during premeiotic stages is further known to enhance crossing over in proximal region adjacent to the centromere resulting in further enhancing the genetic variability in [F.sub.2] population. Increased variability in [F.sub.2][M.sub.2] for quantitative traits has been reported in rice (Jalil Miah and Yamaguchi, 1965). Moreover radiation as well as several chemicals are reported to increase somatic recombinations (Vig, 1973). Exposure of seed to ionizing radiation's has resulted in creating genetic variability in different crop species and many plant breeding programmes have shown the feasibility of radiation plus selection as a direct method of varietal improvement (Carnelius, 1973, Micke, et al., 1987, Iqbal et al., 1991, Iqbal et al., 1994). Irradiation of male parent pollen before cross- pollinations resulted in the induction of mutations in cotton (Pate and Duncan, 1963 and Krishnaswami and Kothandaraman, 1976). The studies carried out by Aslam and Stelly (1994), and Aslam et al., (1994) and Aslam (2002) have shown that treatment of pollen with low doses of gamma rays (5 Gy to 20 Gy) before cross-pollinations are suitable to induce useful genetic variability in cotton. The present research studies were aimed at to create genetic variability through crosses with irradiated male parent pollen, selecting the desirable recombinants from the segregating populations and their evaluation for high yield potential and wider adaptability in the cotton growing areas of Punjab for confirmation.
Materials and Methods
The well adapted and higher yielding local cotton variety NIAB-78 was crossed with an exotic line REBA -288 using irradiated male parent pollen at 10 Gy of gamma rays before cross-pollinations during the year, 1996-97. At maturity the seed cotton was collected from the bolls obtained from successful crosses and ginned to produce [M.sub.0] seed. [M.sub.1] population was grown from M0 seed at a spacing of 30 cm and 75 cm from plant to plant and row to row respectively. At maturity the seed cotton was collected from [M.sub.1] population and instead of pooling one locule per boll from all the [M.sub.1] plants together, we picked seed cotton one locule from each boll of each [M.sub.1] plant separately. The [M.sub.2] population comprising of about more than three hundred individual plants was studied and selection for the desirable mutants/recombinants was carried out. The selections from the [M.sub.2] was based upon, early maturity, better plant type, higher yield and better yield components etc., along with resistance to CLCuV disease. Of these, 12 promising mutants were grown in [M.sub.3] generation in replicated plant progeny test (RPT) with three replications. The size of the individual plot was 0.75 m x 10 m. The breeding behaviour of these progenies was studied in [M.sub.3] generation and one higher yielding progeny was selected. The same was studied in plant progeny rows in [M.sub.4] generation to confirm its higher yield potential and to see its breeding behavior/uniformity. Finally the progeny L-824 was selected from [M.sub.6] and bulked for evaluation under the name of NIAB-824. During the years i.e. 2005-2006, various trials (zonal yield trials, NCVT and DCR etc.) were conducted at NIAB, at farmer's fields etc. for confirmation of the high yield potential and wider adaptability. Moreover, various other related studies i.e. on earliness, heat tolerance, reaction towards insects and diseases particularly ClCuV disease were carried out.
Results and Discussion
The [M.sub.1] generation results revealed that the plants were faster in growth and had hybrid vigour for various traits. The [M.sub.1] generation plants showed resistance to CLCuV disease under severe natural disease epidemiology. It was noted that the [M.sub.2] generation plant progenies were generally of varied nature and some of the individual plants possessed desirable combination of certain economic traits along with resistance against CLCuV disease under high disease infestation. The boll weight and yield of the promising mutants selected from [M.sub.2] population ranged from 3.5-5.0 gram and 211-396 grams respectively. Then the mutant was evaluated in the succeeding segregating generations, the results indicated that the mutant progeny, L-824 have high yield potential. The morphological studies carried out indicated that the plant of NIAB-824 is moderately hairy, semi-compact sympodial type with fruit bearing monopodia. It has desirable leaf foliage and medium plant stature. The length of the sympodial and monopodial and internodes of the main stem are shorter than those of the parents and prevalent commercial varieties. Compared with the tall plants forming a canopy at the top, this medium plant (4-5.5 feet) is better suited for better photosynthetic activity and better yields. This plant type makes the agricultural operations such as pesticides spray, picking, inter-culture, etc., also easier. The yield performance of NIAB-824 was compared with standard varieties during 2002-2003 to 2005-06. NIAB-824 gave 5996.1 Kg/ha yield during 2002-03, higher than the standard CIM-473, 4105 Kg/ha (31.5% higher) table 1. Similarly during 2003-04 NIAB-824 gave higher yield 4315.6 Kg/ha than the standard CIM-499, 2658 Kg/ha (38.4%higher) respectively table 1. During 2004-05 CIM-499 gave 3658 Kg/ha while NIAB-824 4515.6 Kg/ha yield respectively, which is significantly 18.9% higher than the CIM-499 table 1. While in the year 2005-06 NIAB-824 surpassed two standard varieties CIM-499 and CIM-506 with yield of 4992.8 Kg/ha, 3580 Kg/ha and 2880 Kg/ha (28.28 and 43.3% higher) respectively table 1. The mutant NIAB-824 has better fibre quality traits. The morphological characters of NIAB-824 make its growing period shorter with faster squaring quality, and it matures in 150-160 days with high fruiting load to give high yield. The seeds of NIAB-824 are bold dull white and fuzzy with greenish tinge.
The cotton mutant NIAB-824 was studied in DGR trials during 2004-05,which are held on Punjab province basis under Director Cotton. The mutant NIAB-824 out of 24 cotton varieties gave yield of 2554 Kg/ha and remained at position i, iii, iv, vii, at CRSS Khanewal, CRI, Fsd, CRSS Jhang, CRS Sahiwal and PSC Khanewal respectively (Table 2). Various trials were conducted at NIAB, and on Farmers Fields and coordinated vaietal trials organized by PCCC, Karachi, and Director Cotton Research Institute, Faisalabad. The results revealed that at NIAB, on the average the NIAB -824 gave 31.5 % higher yield than CIM-473 during 2002-03 and during 2003-2004 it gave 38.4% higher yield than CIM-499 and during 2005-06 28.28% higher yield than CIM-499 and 43.3% higher than CIM-506 respectively table 1. The candidate cotton variety NIAB824 was studied in DGR trials 2005-06. NIAB-824 out yielded other cotton varieties with yield of 2022 Kg/ha, FH-207, VH-156, BH-164, MJ-6, RH-51, NIAB-884 with yield of 1998, 2003, 1568,1751,1840 and 1979 Kg/ha respectively. (Table3). The results of National Coordinated Varietal Trial (NCVT) held under PCCC, on Pakistan basis, during the year 2005-06, the mutant NIAB-824 got yield of 2521 Kg/ha, which is more than TH-84/99, 2096 GH-99, 2154 and BH-162 with yield of 2454 Kg/ha respectively. When calculated on the basis of standard plant population basis the candidate variety depicts yield of 2913 Kg/ha. (Table 4). The field response of different cotton strains against CLCuV in DGR trial at NIAB Faisalabad during 2004-05 was analyzed. NIAB-824 was having 10.45 % disease index and moderately susceptible disease reaction as compared to FH-2006 28.37 % disease index and highly susceptible disease reaction, FH-115 20.48 % disease index and highly susceptible disease reaction, NIAB-884 12.86 % disease index and moderately susceptible disease reaction. CIM-534 28.06 % disease index and highly susceptible disease reaction table 5. It depicts the better performance of mutant NIAB-824 against present threat of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). The results revealed that NIAB-824 was resistance to CLCuV under high inoculation in the field. Twenty cotton varieties in NCVT (four replications) and twenty-four varieties in DGR trial (three replications) for the year 2005-06 were evaluated in field under natural inoculation of cotton leaf curl virus under normal plant protection measures. Normal agronomic practices and plant protection measures were followed to keep the crop in good conditions. Percent disease index was recorded using the rating scale.
Final observations revealed the fact that all the entries were prone to CLCuV- B infection with varying degree of responses. H-151-F2, TH-35/99, MNH-786, NIAB-824, MNH-789 in NCVT and MNH-786 in DGR were least effected while GH-99, TH-84/99 in NCVT and BH-164, SLH-284, FH-115 and N-4 in DGR were highly susceptible (Table 7). Through grafting following results were observed, ten pots each for twenty varieties in NCVT 2005-06 and twenty-four in DGR 2005-06 were sown (4-5 delinted seeds per pot) in glass house. Plants were thinned to one plant per pot two weeks after germination. These plants were graft inoculated with CLCuV-B following the bottle shoot grafting method. Results indicated that the inoculated germplasm exhibited 100% disease within 9-15 days post grafting with 6E disease severity and were rated as highly susceptible (Table 7). This situation persisted till the end of the experiment as no recovery was observed even after 120-150 days of grafting.
The results on earliness and physiological attributes of NIAB-824, showed that the flowering started earlier in NIAB-824 and is better tolerant to high temperature as compared to other varieties. Moreover it is also apparent that NIAB-824 had shorter boll maturity period thereby confirming the earliness of NIAB-824. The results of studies carried out on relative development of sucking pests and bollworms complex on different cotton varieties indicated that NIAB-824 was comparable or some time better with respect to sucking pest's complex development than other varieties. Whereas it had relatively less infestation of bollworms and due to its early maturity it can escape the peak attack period of pink bollworm and fewer number larvae enter into diapause thus reducing the carry-over source for infestation for the next year. The fibre characteristics of NIAB-824 were tested at NIAB. The results indicated that the all value have been comparable and acceptable (Table 6). NIAB-824 has G.O.T. of 37.7%, staple length of 27.0-30.0mm, fineness of 4.0-4.6[micro]g/in, strength of 94 TPPSI, fibre maturity 83-90%(Table 6). The pollen irradiation approach seem to be better than seed irradiation, since in order to create genetic variability through seed irradiation, the whole genome is to be irradiated, which ultimately disturb the whole genetic makeup of the exposed individual. Consequently the most of the changes occurring in the population are the somatic/non-heritable changes. Therefore large [M.sub.2] population may be more than 12,000 individual plants is required, to select desirable mutants (Iqbal, et al. 1994). Since the irradiated pollen is a germ cell and after fertilization only half of the genome of the developing zygote/embryo, receives the irradiation, hence the occurrence of major changes is minimized as observed in case of seed irradiation. The results confirmed that the pollen irradiation is a valuable technique, which can be employed to improve crop plants most effectively. Moreover incase of seed irradiation usually from each [M.sub.1] plant the seed cotton from each locule per boll is collected and then pooled to have [M.sub.1] seed to grow [M.sub.2] population and consequently large population has to be screened for selecting the desired genotype. But through the use of pollen irradiation technique, each [M.sub.1] plant has to be grown separately as plant progeny rows to develop [M.sub.2] population, which facilitate to carryout selection. Since most of the progenies carried micromutations/point mutation due to optimal radiation dosages applied to pollen before fertilization and no major abnormalities were noticed which may help to achieve uniformity earlier as compared to seed irradiation.
Moreover the male gamete is to be irradiated at low doses of gamma rays before fertilization and therefore more recombinations are brought about due to enhanced chaismata formation/crossing over during meiotic stages of cell divisions. The results reported above have clearly illustrated that from a very small [M.sub.2] population even less than 1000 plants, higher rate of mutations/recombinations was achieved through pollen irradiation. Therefore the results obtained clearly confirmed the earlier findings (Jalil Miah and Yamaguchi, 1965, Vig, 1973, Wang, 1990). Moreover, the method of gamete treatment was found easier to apply than that of zygote/seed treatment. Irradiation of male parent pollen before cross-pollinations resulted in the induction of mutations in cotton (Pate and Duncan, 1963 and Krishnaswami and Kothandaraman, 1976). These results are in accordance with the earlier findings [Aslam and Stelly (1994), Aslam et al., (1994) and Aslam (2000)], that the treatment of pollen with of low doses of gamma rays (5 Gy to 20 Gy) before cross-pollinations are suitable to induce useful genetic variability in cotton, G. hirsutum L.
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(1) M. Aslam, (2) M. Ashfaq, (1) Tahir Saeed, (2) Sami Ul Allah and (2) Muhammad Sajjad
(1) Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology, P.O Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad Pakistan
(2) Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
M. Aslam, M. Ashfaq, Tahir Saeed, Sami Ul Allah and Muhammad Sajjad: Development and Evaluation of a New High Yielding and Better Fibre Quality Mutant NIAB-824 of Cotton Through Pollen Irradiation: Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 3(4): 715-720, 2009
Corresponding Author: M. Ashfaq, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Yield performance of NIAB-824 compared with standard varieties during 2002-2003 to 2005-06 Mut. /Var. CLCuV Boll Yield/ GOT % reaction weight ha (Kg) (g) 2002-2003 NIAB-824 R 4.5 5996.1 38.0 CIM-473 R 4.0 4105.0 38.5 2003-2004 NIAB-824 R 4.1 4315.6 38.2 CIM-499 R 3.5 2658.0 38.3 2004-05 NIAB-824TB 4.1 4515.6 38.4 CIM-499 TB 3.5 3658.0 38.2 2005-06 NIAB-824 TB 4.1 4992.8 37.5 CIM-499 TB 3.5 3580.0 38.0 CIM-506 TB 3.5 2880.0 38.0 Mut. /Var. Fibre length (mm) fineness strength [micro]g/in (TPPSI) 2002-2003 28.5 4.4 94.0 CIM-473 28.5 4.5 93.0 2003-2004 28.6 4.3 94.5 CIM-499 28.3 4.5 93.0 2004-05 28.6 4.2 93.0 CIM-499 283 4.5 92.0 2005-06 28.5 4.1 92.0 CIM-499 28.0 4.5 -- CIM-506 29.0 4.4 -- 2002-03 % Increase of NIAB-824 over CIM-473 = 31.5 2003-04 % Increase of NIAB-824 over CIM-499 = 38.4 2004-05 % Increase of NIAB-824 over CIM-499 = 18.9 2005-06 % Increase of NIAB-824 over CIM-499 = 28.28 CIM-506 = 43.3 Table 2: Yield performance of NIAB-824 in DGR trials (2004-2005) Code Variety Mean Code Variety Mean V1 FH-2006 2021 V13 CIM-534 2572 V2 FH-2000 2273 V14 CIM-496 3531-i V3 FH-1152 760-iv V15 RH-512 2307 V4 NIAB-824 2633-vii V16 NIAB-824 2554-xi V5 MNH-732 2417 V17 ALSEEMI H 2779-iii V6 MNH-700 2522 V18 CIM-476 2540 V7 MNH-768 2560 V19 FH-1000 2318 V8 RH-510 2393 V20 FH-2925 2360 V9 SLH-279 2671 V21 NIBGE-2 2425 V10 VH-148 2802-ii V22 PB-843 2609 V11 BH-162 2478 V23 PB-899 2745 V12 BH-163 2339 V24 MJ-7 2569 Remained: i, iii, iv, vii at CRSS Khanewal, CRI, Fsd, CRSS Jhang, CRS Sahiwal and PSC Khanewal, respectively. Table 3: Yield performance (Kg/ha of NIAB-824 in DGR trials (2005-2006) ode Variety Mean Code Variety Mean V4 FH-113 2358 V21 SLH-279 1988 V8 H-151 2336 V16 NIAB-884 1979 V11 MNH- 7862 210 V15 MNH-789 1969 V2 PB-899 21 29 V1 SLH-284 1967 V14 VH-148 21 26 V1 9N-4 1959 V6 SLH-317 2119 V3 NIAB-846 1951 V24 MJ-7 2045 V9 CIM-538 1859 V5 CIM-534 2041 V1 2BH-162 1846 V20 FH-901 2029 V10 FH-115 1845 V18 NIAB-824 2022 V23 RH-51 1840 V7 VH-156 2003 V22 MJ-6 1751 V13 FH-207 1998 V17 BH-164 1568 Table 4: Yield performance of NIAB-824 in NCVT trials (2005-2006) Variety Plant Yield Yield pop./ha Kg/ha Kg/ha Calculated CRIS-466 39374 2809 3070 PB-899 40573 2864 3037 H-151-F2 40486 2845 3024 MNH-786 40220 2771 2964 CRIS-461 39948 2736 2947 TH-35/99 40721 2787 2945 NIAB-824 37233 2521 2913 CIM-534 40137 2689 2883 NIBGE-4 38235 2550 2870 MNH-789 39616 2634 2861 Variety Plant Yield Yield pop./ha Kg/ha Kg/ha Calculated FH-207 40394 2676 2850 BH-162 37483 2454 2817 CIM-538 39448 2553 2785 N-78/499 38807 2509 2782 NIAB-884 40205 2576 2757 GH-99 33737 2154 2747 MJ-7 40300 2542 2720 FH-115 38850 2435 2697 TH-84/99 38828 2096 2323 Calculated on standard plant population i.e. 43000/ha Table 5: Field Response of Different Cotton Strains Against CLCuV in DGR at NIAB, Faisalabad (2004-2005) Strain % Disease index Disease Reaction FH-2006 28.37 Highly Susceptible FH-2000 10.07 Moderately susceptible FH-115 20.48 Highly Susceptible NIAB-884 12.86 Moderately susceptible MNH-732 8.89 Moderately resistant MNH-700 11.81 Moderately susceptible MNH-768 11.21 Moderately susceptible RH-510 3.92 Resistant SLH-279 4.80 Resistant VH-148 9.73 Moderately resistant BH-162 12.31 Moderately susceptible BH-163 16.28 Susceptible CIM-534 28.06 Highly Susceptible CIM-496 6.61 Moderately resistant RH-512 8.76 Moderately resistant NIAB-824 10.45 Moderately susceptible ALSEEMI H 4.45 Resistant CIM-476 8.66 Moderately resistant FH-1000 20.67 Highly Susceptible FH-2925 8.85 Moderately resistant NIBGE-2 5.93 Moderately resistant PB-843 5.0 Resistant PB-899 15.33 Susceptible MJ-7 8.70 Moderately resistant Source: BSCV Project Rport Table 6: Fiber quality characteristics of candidate variety NIAB-884, NIAB-824 and NIAB-846 Variety Length Strength Fineness Maturity (mm) (TPPSI) (mg/inch) (%) NIAB-884 28.9 90.0 4.1 82.7 NIAB-824 27.0-30.0 94.0 4.0-4.6 83-90 NIAB-846 28.0-30.0 92.4 4.2-4.6 80.0-87.6 Table 7: Screening of candidate cotton varieties against CLCuV through grafting and under natural condition's in NCVT-DGR-2005-06. Varieties Through grafting Under field conditions * Disease response % Disease index BT H.S 2.85 BH-162 H.S 7.49 NIAB-884 H.S 5.42 MJ-7 H.S 5.21 TH-84/99 H.S 21.87 FH-115 H.S 14.67 NIAB-824 H.S 4.01 MNH-789 H.S 4.28 CIM-534 H.S 12.42 FH-207 H.S 8.04 CRIS-466 H.S 10.65 MNH-786 H.S 2.41 PB-899 H.S 9.06 H-151-F2 H.S 1.88 CRIS-461 H.S 6.06 TH-35/99 H.S 2.40 NIBGE-4 H.S 7.25 CIM-499 H.S 9.34 GH-99 H.S 23.03 CIM-538 H.S 16.93 SLH284 H.S 26.70 PB-899 H.S 11.60 NIAB846 H.S 16.38 FH-113 H.S 14.83 CIM-534 H.S 13.74 SLH-317 H.S 13.38 BH-156 H.S 6.61 H-151 H.S 19.92 CIM-538 H.S 21.60 FH-115 H.S 24.62 MNH-786 H.S 3.41 BH-162 H.S 18.14 FH-207 H.S 8.72 VH-148 H.S 18.82 MNH-789 H.S 11.11 NIAB-884 H.S 18.89 BH-164 H.S 32.77 NIAB-824 H.S 16.14 N-4 H.S 19.67 FH-901 H.S 9.38 SLH-279 H.S 15.98 MJ-6 H.S 13.43 RH-511 H.S 13.69 MJ-7 H.S 7.64
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|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Aslam, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Saeed, Tahir; Allah, Sami Ul; Sajjad, Muhammad|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2009|
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