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Developing cultural intelligence in preservice speech-language pathologists and educators.

Postsecondary educators preparing future clinicians and teachers have an important responsibility to develop cultural competence of their students in order to meet the increasing and ever-changing demands of today's global workforce and diverse workplace. In this article, the authors discuss key components to developing cultural intelligence. These include an awareness of multiperspective identity, an understanding of the concepts of privilege and difference, the development of one's diversity consciousness, and an understanding of and respect for the guiding principles of cultural competence that lead to an understanding of others. Application to practice is presented through multiperspective identity and role-play activities and a case study with questions for facilitating discussion.

Keywords: cultural intelligence; multiperspective identity development; cultural diversity training; preservice SLPs and educators

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One of the biggest challenges in the 21st-century workplace is the increasingly global complexity that requires employees at all levels of an organization to function effectively in ever-changing multicultural settings and diverse situations. Postsecondary education faculty members responsible for preparing preservice clinicians and teachers need to provide adequate instructional time to develop the cultural competence of their students. Battle (2000) defines cultural competence as "a process through which one develops an understanding of self, while developing the ability to develop responsive, reciprocal, and respectful relationships with others" (p. 20). To develop cultural competence, one might expect that individuals need inherent skills or predispositions to be sensitive to the needs and worldview of others. However, as postsecondary educators of future speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and teachers, the authors believe that cultural intelligence does not necessarily preclude the innate ability in our students but that it can be developed through thoughtful activities that promote awareness of one's own culture and the ability to discern the cultural reality of others. Throughout this article, the authors use the term preservice clinicians and teachers to mean postsecondary students.

Cultural Intelligence

Definition of Cultural Intelligence

Cultural intelligence (CQ), one component of cultural competence, is defined as "a person's capability to adapt effectively to new cultural contexts" (Earley & Ang, 2003, p. 59). More specifically, cultural intelligence is "an outsider's seemingly natural ability to interpret someone's unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures the way that person's compatriots would" (Earley & Mosakowaski, 2004, p. 140).

Components of Cultural Intelligence

Ang, van Dyne, and Koh (2006); Earley and Ang (2003); and van Dyne (2005-2006) discussed four aspects of cultural intelligence. These include the following:

1. CQ-Strategy, which involves making sense of one's culturally diverse experiences. Individuals employ their metacognitive and cognitive processes and capabilities to acquire cultural information and to form judgments and make decisions about themselves and others. An example of this is when an individual modifies his or her mental concepts and/or images because the reality of an actual experience did not match his or her expectations.

2. CQ-Knowledge, which involves learning about the similarities and differences between cultures with regard to cultural parameters that define a specific cultural group (e.g., values and beliefs about work, health, time, family relationships, rituals, language, and spiritual or religious orientation).

3. CQ-Motivation, which involves an individual's interest and energy in learning about different cultures and functioning in culturally diverse situations. This includes a person's confidence and openness to experience with regard to interacting with individuals from other cultures.

4. CQ-Behavior, which involves an individual's capacity to develop a flexible repertoire of responses that are used appropriately in various situations. This includes the ability to adapt or modify both verbal and nonverbal behaviors so that they are appropriate to the specific set of circumstances when interacting with individuals from diverse cultures.

Development of Cultural Intelligence

The development of cultural intelligence begins with a study of self and the awareness that everyone has a multiperspective identity. Many people look into a mirror and describe themselves on the basis of what they see and subsequently describe others in the same way. Looking into that mirror, we see characteristics that can be easily described as race, and therefore many students perceive cultural identity as a racial identity. This common misperception is where we as faculty begin to educate preservice clinicians and teachers. Our first task is to introduce students to the complex notion of a multiperspective identity. Multiperspective identity is defined as "characteristics of our identity that enable each individual to view reality through specific perspectives based upon ability, age, ethnicity, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic class" (Perlis, 2001, p. 11). This concept can certainly incorporate other forms of difference that comprise one's identity; however, the definition for our work addressing the development of our students' cultural intelligence will focus on these basic cultural characteristics. As preservice clinicians and teachers begin to see themselves as multiperspective individuals and understand the interrelationships between these forms of their identity, they will develop cultural intelligence.

Multiperspective Identity: Understanding "Self"

Concepts of Difference

The concept that everyone is different and yet in some ways shares characteristics of similarity is the basis for understanding concepts of difference.

Multiperspective Identity Theory is the study of how groups perceive the cultural differences between individual members of the group and how those differences may or may not become interconnected to each other. Thus concepts of difference and the interconnectedness of difference shapes the culture of a group or subgroup of people. (Perlis, 2001, p. 40)

Rhoads (1994) indicated that within cultures exist subcultures and contracultures. These subcultures and contracultures are developed when individual identities overlap or merge at the margins or borders of the dominant group in a culture. For example, a subculture based on race and socioeconomic class can be composed of individuals that see and identify themselves as Mexican American and poor. This subgroup forms a subculture based on a worldview that is different from those who identify themselves as Mexican American and middle class or those who identify themselves as Caucasian and poor. According to Rhoads, a contraculture is a group whose values can often be perceived as oppositional to the dominant culture. This group experiences the most cultural misunderstanding and stereotyping. An example of a contraculture is those individuals who identify themselves as Mexican American and poor but are also undocumented immigrants. As preservice clinicians and teachers explore their own identity boundaries, they can begin to understand the boundaries of others and how easily those boundaries can overlap not only between clients or students but also between clients and clinicians and between teachers and students. Preservice clinicians and teachers need to learn that these identity boundaries are not degrees of acceptability but are instead constructions of reality that can be acknowledged and accepted for meaningful interaction to occur in the therapeutic relationship and also between teachers and their students during everyday classroom situations.

One way to develop multiperspective identity is to encourage dialogue regarding forms of difference. Postsecondary educators need to provide experiences for students to name their multiperspective identity as well as recognize the identities of others. This is best handled through experiences where students are challenged to see beyond the mirror and look deep inside themselves and others. In doing so, some preservice clinicians and teachers may experience some discomfort with what others may perceive as a privileged identity. McIntosh (1989) encouraged us to unpack our invisible knapsacks and look at those characteristics of our identity that enable us to be privileged or oppressed. McIntosh's now-classic work on understanding privilege and oppression related to forms of identity difference asks students to accept their privilege and/or oppression and to acknowledge it when they serve others. An example of privilege is being White in a society composed of many shades of brown, red, yellow, and black. McIntosh used the example of finding a simple bandage to match your skin tone. A class activity based on this concept often brings immediate realization to the identity of self and other. Generic bandages in flesh tone were designed to blend into what was considered flesh tone for the White majority population. The flesh tone bandages look best on those who identify themselves as White or Caucasian. Individuals with darker skin tones have great difficulty in finding their "flesh tone" bandage represented within a majority White world.

McIntosh (1989) asked us to accept this privilege of having the possibility that the bandage we pick up at the local supermarket will represent our skin tone and the perception that this is the accepted skin tone for all people. Students struggle with the concept of privilege, but it is essential for them to grapple with it. Many of the individuals they serve will be from subcultures and, in some cases, contracultures. These individuals may perceive the speech-language pathologist or classroom teacher as one who cannot understand their worldview and therefore cannot help them. Our preservice clinicians and teachers must grapple with this early on in their studies to better create the bridges that will enable trustful client--clinician and teacher-student relationships to occur early on in their chosen careers.

In addition to the obvious issue of race and skin tone, the invisible forms of difference help create the multiperspective identity. Examples of invisible forms of difference are religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic class, ethnicity, and ability. For the purpose of this article, ethnicity is defined as one's ancestral heritage. Preservice clinicians and teachers need to understand that these invisible forms of difference are often the heart and soul of the individual and are most at risk for offense in both the therapeutic and the educational process. A simple declarative of "Merry Christmas" during the winter holidays may offend those individuals who practice religions other than Christianity. A remark that is overheard about the abilities of a specific ancestral group may indeed hamper the success of the client or student while working with the speech-language pathologist or teacher who has made that remark. For example, as youngsters, the authors often heard about those "dumb Poles" and those "cheap Jews." It was hard to trust an adult that had an unfair perception about our abilities and/or socioeconomic status based on some stereotypes unfairly cast upon our ancestors.

Hicks (1998) stated that to deny any form of difference, whether we agree with the characteristics and values associated with it, is to deny the basic identity of an individual and their contributions to the community. Others have indicated that students should be educated on the interconnected nature of difference to fully understand the worldview of their clients (Shapiro, Sewell, & DuCette, 1995). As postsecondary educators, our role is to ensure that preservice clinicians and teachers affirm the identities of the groups they serve in professional practice. They need to understand that some individuals will experience privilege as a result of their multiperspective identity and that others may suffer from oppression. Regardless of the multiperspective identity of their clients or students, speech-language pathologists and teachers must affirm the identity of those they serve.

Using a Self-Reflective Process to Understand "Self"

It is insufficient for preservice clinicians or teachers to merely name the components of their multiperspective identity. Perlis (2001) expanded the concept of autobiography as developed by Shapiro et al. (1995) by developing an exercise in which students reflect on the characteristics of their identity and how these aspects have been shaped and developed throughout their lives (see Appendix A for a complete description of this exercise).

Shapiro et al. (1995) suggested that actual critical incidents from our lives shape who we become. They felt that telling one's story of critical incidents in the form of an autobiography affirms the identity of the storyteller. Because everyone is encouraged to share stories with each other, storytelling becomes a common ground for sharing of one's multiperspective identity.

Griffer and Perlis use the exercise depicted in Appendix A with their preservice clinicians and teachers. They begin the activity by describing their multiperspective identity and how it shapes their worldview. Students are then asked to provide details regarding the eight components of multiperspective identity, which include ability, age, ethnicity, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic class. By using adjectives or short sentences to describe themselves according to these identity components, students begin to see themselves emerge as cultural beings. Next, students choose what they see as the three major aspects that shape their worldview lens from among the standard eight. Students are then asked to think about critical incidents from their lives as related to the three major aspects that characterize their multiperspective identity. To complete the exercise, preservice clinicians and teachers share their multiperspective identity and critical incident stories with each other. It is imperative that faculty fully participate in this exercise with their students to model all of the activities and to demonstrate the importance of being aware of one's multiperspective identity.

The self-reflective nature of writing an autobiography of critical incidents permits preservice clinicians and teachers to understand the borders of their lives and the times they too might have felt marginalized or oppressed and therefore to open themselves to the worldview of others. As preservice clinicians and teachers become more comfortable and proficient with this process, it serves as a means for helping to develop the voices of their clients and students, which in turn helps the client-SLP and student-teacher relationship develop such that each has a better understanding of the cultural perspective and worldview of the other.

Developing Our Diversity Consciousness

Bucher (2004) described diversity consciousness as the intersection of three circles: diversity skills, diversity awareness, and understanding of diversity. As postsecondary educators of preservice clinicians and teachers, we are responsible for providing opportunities in each of these areas for our students. Bucher further described the diversity consciousness development process as one that includes the following: (a) examining ourselves and our worlds, (b) expanding our knowledge of others and their worlds, (c) stepping outside of ourselves, (d) gauging the level playing field, (e) checking up on ourselves, and (f) following through. Through the sequence of the multiperspective identity development exercise Perlis (2001) developed (see Appendix A) and the consciousness-raising case study and role-play clinical scenarios Griffer (2002a, 2002b) developed (see Appendices B and C), the authors believe that we empower our students to complete the Bucher process and as a result develop their diversity consciousness.

Cultural Proficiency

Understanding Others

Lindsey, Robins, and Terrell (1999, 2003) discussed the concepts of cultural proficiency and cultural competency with regard to how individuals understand and respond to people who are different from them. Cultural proficiency is an approach to thinking and living that empowers individuals and organizations to interact effectively with people from culturally diverse backgrounds. Cultural competence is standards of behavior that moves an individual or organization toward cultural proficiency. They suggested five guiding principles and five essential elements that compose this approach.

Guiding principles. These are the core values that serve as the foundation for cultural proficiency. They include the following:

1. Culture is an ever-present, predominant force influencing the beliefs, behaviors, values, and norms of individuals, organizations, and communities.

2. "People are served in varying degrees by the dominant culture" (Lindsey et al., 1999, p. 44; Lindsey et al., 2003, p. 7). Failure to acknowledge that what works well in organizations or communities for one individual or group may not work well for members of other cultural groups puts an unjust burden for change solely on one individual or group.

3. People have group as well as personal identities. Awareness must be developed and appropriate actions taken to ensure that people are treated as individuals. However, it is important to know that the dignity of a person is not guaranteed until the dignity of his or her people is preserved, valued, respected, and appreciated.

4. "Diversity within cultures is important" (Lindsey et al., 1999, p. 44; Lindsey et al., 2003, p. 7). It is important to learn about the complexity and diversity of cultural groups rather than to see each cultural group as homogenous or monolithic.

5. Each group has its own unique cultural needs, which cannot be met by the dominant culture. One group's expression about its identity or perspectives does not mean disrespect or devaluing of the cultural identity or perspective of another group.

Essential elements. These five standards serve as a measurement for planning growth toward cultural proficiency on the part of individuals, organizations, and communities. The culturally proficient individual

1. assesses his or her culture and that of the organization and his or her coworkers and clients to learn how these cultures influence each other,

2. values diversity and appreciates the richness and challenge that diverse individuals bring to the workplace,

3. learns positive and effective conflict resolution strategies to manage issues and challenges that may arise as a result of differences that surface because of preconceived expectations and/or the influence of historic mistrust of day-to-day interactions,

4. commits to a life-long learning process and develops cross-cultural communication skills that are necessary to adapt the challenges created by differences, and

5. integrates and synthesizes cultural knowledge into organizational policies and practices by creating learning communities where individuals from diverse backgrounds can interact and learn more about each other, resulting in enhanced effective cross-cultural interactions.

Based on these guiding principles and essential elements, it is important for preservice clinicians and teachers to interact with individuals who have a different multiperspective identity from themselves. If department faculty have multiperspective identities that represent majority groups, every effort must be made to have their students interact with diverse persons in a variety of capacities. To accomplish this, it is recommended that faculty advise students to take courses with diverse faculty from other departments (e.g., courses that fulfill general education requirements or electives). Opportunities for students to interact with diverse persons in clinical practicum experiences and field placements are also important to provide. Other suggestions include inviting diverse persons (e.g., those who hold other positions within the university and/or professionals in the field) to offer guest lectures on their worldview. Also look for opportunities to combine classes to facilitate discussion among broader perspectives. For example, Perlis, education faculty, and Ramchandra, SLP faculty, join undergraduate and graduate students from their respective disciplines to explore cultural identity.

Application to Practice

As described earlier, each preservice clinician and teacher completes the Multiperspective Identity Activity (Perlis, 2001; see Appendix A). This exercise was designed to facilitate the movement of postsecondary students from seeing themselves as not really having culture to understanding that they have a worldview based on their multiperspective identity and that identity is a composite of many significant incidents in their lives. Griffer and Perlis ask their students to focus on three critical incidents when they construct their autobiography as purported by Shapiro et al. (1995) to help students focus their attention on those areas that help them to really see their borders, subcultures, and potential contracultures.

Griffer (2002a) designed a case study with specific facilitative discussion questions (see Appendix B) and a series of role-play clinical scenarios (see Appendix C) for her preservice student clinicians so that they have ample opportunity to apply their understanding of cultural intelligence and overall knowledge of cultural diversity to the clinical process. Students complete these assignments after participating in the Multiperspective Identity Activity (Perils, 2001) in partial fulfillment of requirements for a required course titled Family Systems and Counseling: Multicultural Perspectives in Speech-Language Pathology.

The authors feel that these activities help preservice clinicians and teachers to gain greater insight into the worldview of others and treat them with greater empathy and compassion, thereby empowering them throughout the clinical and the educational process. Another suggestion is to incorporate these activities into service-learning and/or clinical practicum experiences and field placements. Students can use the Multiperspective Identity Activity as a starting point for the exploration of their worldview and how it affects professional practice. Preservice clinicians and teachers can keep a reflective journal about their interactions with diverse persons (e.g., clients or students and their family members and other professionals) to monitor their own personal growth with regard to cultural awareness and sensitivity. Comments from two of Griffer's students follow:

1. "I learned to identify and recognize my own cultural perspective. I am more sensitive and knowledgeable of other cultures that I will undoubtedly come in contact with at some point in my professional career" (Jeanne, personal communication, April 19, 2007).

2. "Having respect and sensitivity toward different cultural beliefs/values will help me build rapport with clients and their families and make me a better clinician" (Beth, personal communication, April 19, 2007).

The authors also believe that professional SLPs and classroom teachers can use these activities to develop their own cultural perspectives and enhance their worldview.

Appendix A

Multiperspective Identity Activity

What are your cultural perspectives?

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Developing YOUR Perspectives

* Using adjectives or short sentences describe yourself in each of the categories listed above (Skip any which make you feel uncomfortable)

* Select and list separately the top three--or most dominant perspectives in your life (these are fluid and can change with different time periods or stages of our lives)

* Think about critical incidents (or stories) in your life that have shaped your dominant perspectives

* Share your perspectives and stories with the members of your group

Source: Perlis (2001).

Appendix B

Multicultural Case Study: Speech-Language Delay With Oral-Motor/Feeding Deficits

Miguel Ruiz is a 20 month old male, from a Puerto Rican family background, who is diagnosed with Down Syndrome. He was referred for a comprehensive speech-language evaluation due to parental concerns about communication development and feeding difficulties.

Mr. and Mrs. Ruiz are both employed outside the home and need to find suitable daycare for their son. Mrs. Gonzalez, the maternal grandmother who lives in the Ruiz's home, was the previous caregiver. However, she recently suffered a heart attack and is no longer able to assume that role.

Both parents reported that although they are bilingual and that Miguel is exposed to both English and Spanish, they primarily speak to him in English at home. However, other members of the Ruiz and Gonzalez families speak to him in Spanish.

Miguel is the product of a full-term, unremarkable pregnancy and delivery, weighing 7 lbs. 8 oz. at birth. Medical history is significant for recurrent middle ear and upper respiratory infections and a heart murmur. Developmental milestones for motor and speech-language skills were reportedly delayed.

Miguel communicates using a limited repertoire of nonverbal behaviors (e.g., pointing, gestures for hi and bye, approach behaviors) paired with phonetically consistent CV combinations for mama (mommy), dada (daddy), gama (grandmother), kuki (cookie), babi (baby), ba (ball), dugu (doggie). He is also beginning to imitate signs for more, go, eat, open, and play. Content categories included existence, action, rejection, locative action/locative state, and recurrence. Communicative functions included comment, protest, request, and regulate. Receptively, he inconsistently identifies various common objects/pictures, follows simple action commands, and responds to basic "where" and "what's this" questions.

Upon visual inspection of the oral peripheral speech mechanism, low oral facial tone, an open mouth posture at rest, andmild drooling were noted. Generalized low muscle tone was also noted. Miguel is generally fed in a supported sitting position in a child's chair and table. He eats a variety of soft and semi-soft solids and is beginning to take some chopped hard solid and mixed textured table foods. He is beginning to self-feed. Tongue movements in chewing were characterized by extension-retraction and difficulty with tongue lateralization to transfer bolus from side-to-side in mouth while crossing midline was observed. Jaw movements during biting were characterized by a weak, unsustained bite on a soft solid. He reverted to a sucking pattern when given hard solids. Miguel tended to chew with his lips open, and at times, food loss and drooling were evidenced. He intermittently was able to clear food off the bowl of a child's teaspoon with his upper lip.

When given thin liquids, Miguel was observed to push the rim of the child's tumbler cup far back on his lower lip/jaw for stability. A weak seal with tongue protrusion was noted. When sucking liquids from a cup, extension-retraction tongue movements and up-down or backward-forward jaw excursions were exhibited. A single suck-swallow pattern of drinking was observed. He had difficulty grading the flow of liquid. Coughing and liquid loss were frequently evidenced. Difficulty coordinating sucking, swallowing, and breathing was also exhibited.

Discussion Questions for Multicultural Case Study

1. According to the following, discuss the cultural parameters/characteristics of the cultural group to which this family belongs:

I. Definition of the Cultural Group

A. Preferred term for cultural/ethnic identity

B. History of migration

C. Current demographics

II. Characteristics that Define the Cultural Group

A. Values

B. View of Work

C. Language

1. verbal & nonverbal communications

2. literacy

3. use of interpreters

D. Family Relationships

1. composition/structure

2. roles of men and women

3. spokesperson

4. caregiving role

5. expectations of and for

a) children

b) elders

c) visitors

6. degree to which the individual or group makes decisions

E. Views of time

F. Importance of Class Distinctions

G. Beliefs about Health

1. concept of health

2. causes of physical & mental illnesses, disabilities, and genetic defects

3. role of a sick individual

4. home and folk remedies

5. health promotion & prevention (e.g., care seeking, multicultural factors that influence the 3 levels of prevention, appropriate counseling techniques/strategies aimed at targeting the 3 levels of prevention with regard to communication disorders)

H. Rituals

1. birth and death

2. food practices, diet

3. activities of daily living (e.g., self-care)

4. special clothing or amulets

I. Spiritual/Religious Orientation

1. primary affiliation

2. typical practices

3. use of spiritual healing/healers

K. The impact of multicultural influences of health, social, and educational behaviors/practices

2. What would be the most important cultural characteristics for the SLP to know when interacting with this family and their son? Why?

3. Describe the resources you would access to learn more about this family's culture? Provide a rationale as to why these resources would be helpful.

4. Why do practitioners need to understand family culture before making recommendations for therapeutic services or educational placement?

Source: Griffer (2002a).

Appendix C

Role-Play Clinical Scenarios

Preservice clinicians are assigned to a cooperative learning team (CLT). Each team selects a cultural group of interest and researches the cultural parameters or characteristics of that group (see Appendix B, Multicultural Case Study, Question 1, Items I and II). CLTs must select a cultural group that does not represent any member of the team. Each CLT must select a different cultural group to research. CLTs will then develop two role-play scenarios that demonstrate how they would handle the situation if it arose with a specific family with whom they were working. CLTs must be sure to emphasize how the various cultural factors influence their clinical interactions and the therapeutic relationship during the role-plays. One member of the CLT is designated as the speech-language pathologist, two as family members (e.g., parent, spouse, sibling, adult child, guardian, etc.), and one as the client. For the second role-play, CLT members switch roles. Role-plays are demonstrated in class. As peers watch the presentations, they are asked to identify and discuss the various cultural characteristics evidenced in the CLTs' role-plays.

Role Play 1: Initiating the therapy session, establishing roles and ground rules, translating professional terminology/ jargon into everyday functional language, planning therapy.

Role Play 2: Defining the problem and terminating the therapy session with directions for a follow-up assignment to be done by the client or parent, spouse, caregiver, significant other.

Role Play 3: Responding to the client's or parent's/caregiver's hidden message.

Role Play 4: Utilizing counseling techniques to handle the client's or family member's emotions.

Role Play 5: Recognizing and identifying a family member's stage in the grieving process and demonstrating appropriate family-centered counseling techniques to support them during this time.

Role Play 6: Value-based treatment--getting the client/family to "buy into" a particular treatment approach, philosophy, or technique.

Role Play 7: Discharging a client--no further progress; clinician feels that he/she has done everything possible, but client/ family want to continue.

Source: Griffer (2002b).

References

Ang, S., van Dyne, L., & Koh, C. (2006). Personality correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. Group Organization and Management, 31(1), 100-123.

Battle, D. E. (2000). Becoming a culturally competent clinician. Special Interest Division 1: Language, Learning and Education, 7(1), 20-23.

Bucher, R. D. (2004). Diversity consciousness: Opening our minds to people, cultures, and opportunities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Earley, P. C., & Mosakowski, E. (2004, October). Cultural intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 139-146.

Griffer, M. R. (2002a). Multicultural case study: Speech-language delay with oral-motor/feeding deficits. Developed for course in master's program in speech-language pathology titled Family Systems and Counseling: Multicultural Perspectives in Speech-Language Pathology, Marywood University, Scranton, PA.

Griffer, M. R., (2002b). Role-play clinical scenarios. Developed for a course in the master's program in speech-language pathology titled Family Systems and Counseling: Multicultural Perspectives in Speech-Language Pathology, Marywood University, Scranton, PA.

Hicks, M. A. (1998). The stranger at home: Toward a philosophy of a multicultural self. Doctoral dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York.

Lindsey, R. B., Robins, K. N., & Terrell, R. D. (1999). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Lindsey, R. B., Robins, K. N., & Terrell, R. D. (2003). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

McIntosh, P. (1989, July/August). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Peace and Freedom, 10-12.

Perlis, S. M. (2001). Sexual orientation and multiperspective identity on a small, Catholic campus: An analysis of the cultural climate and multicultural organizational change. Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, Philadelphia.

Rhoads, R. A. (1994). Coming out in college: The struggle for queer identity. Westport, CT: Bergen & Garvey.

Shapiro, J. P., Sewell, T. E., & DuCette, J. P. (1995). Refraining diversity in education. Lancaster, PA: Technomic.

van Dyne, L. (2005-2006). Cultural intelligence (CQ). East Lansing: Michigan State University. Available from http://www.linnvandyne.com/cq.html

Mona R. Griffer

Susan M. Perlis

Marywood University

Mona R. Griffer, EdD, CCC-SLP, BRCLS, is an associate professor and director of the master's program in speech-language pathology at Marywood University. Her interests include child language, early intervention, and multicultural issues.

Susan M. Perils, EdD, is an associate professor and director of the master's program in higher education administration at Marywood University. Her interests include teaching pedagogy, multicultural development, and preparation of administrators and teachers in K-12 and postsecondary education.
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Author:Griffer, Mona R.; Perlis, Susan M.
Publication:Communication Disorders Quarterly
Date:Sep 22, 2007
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