Developing an instrument for the validation of competencies: the case of medical librarians.
We, the authors of this paper, planned to conduct a study of competencies required for medical librarians. We needed a validated and suitable instrument that could be confidently used in this research. An extensive search through various databases and the published research did not yield one which we could use. We knew that reliable and valid tests / instruments were the foundation of good research and that weak instruments would result in weak research. Our failure in finding a reliable instrument led us to decide to develop a new one. We also understood that the procedure for developing a new test / instrument was a long and a complicated one.
We went through that long and arduous process and developed an instrument which has already been published (Catalano, 2016, p. 109-113). The understanding of the process of designing an instrument is important as it helps in assessing its validity and reliability. This paper describes meticulously the process of developing the instrument that we used for the identification and validation of competencies required by medical librarians. It provides full details of the various steps that were undertaken to develop the instrument. The results of our research were published in 2012 (Ullah & Anwar, 2012). The present paper is being published with the intention of providing a roadmap for those who need to develop a new instrument for their research.
Previous work on competencies
Earlier work on competencies has been ably reviewed by Roper and Mayfield (1993a). The following paragraphs will briefly review some of the previous efforts made for the identification of competencies for medical librarians only.
Bowden, Bierschenk and Olivier (1989) conducted a survey in 1988 of the members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Library Directors (AAHSLD) in order to determine important professional skills and personal qualities desired by the employers of fresh graduates. The instrument used consisted of nine skills and 13 personal traits using "very important", "important "and "not important" as the choices. It is not known how these skills and traits were identified. Bowden and Olivier (1995) repeated the same survey in 1992. It was found that 'problem solving/analytical skills', 'microcomputer skills', 'bibliographic instruction skills', 'online searching skills', 'reference/information service skills', and 'MEDLINE searching skills' were rated as 'very important'. The following personal qualities were considered as 'very important': 'communication skills', 'enthusiasm', 'self-esteem', 'flexibility', 'service orientation', 'willingness to be a team player', and 'interpersonal skills'.
Roper and Mayfield (1993a) report the results of a survey of knowledge and skills in the health information sciences conducted by the Medical Library Association using a sample of 750 health sciences librarians out of which 375 (50%) returned the questionnaire. The survey instrument listed 63 knowledge-bases categorizing these in seven areas derived from the survey of literature and expert review. The respondents were asked to indicate the importance of each knowledge or skill for effective performance on a 5-point Likert-type scale from 'essential' to 'no importance'. The results are reported in five tables indicating the level of importance of various competencies. They conclude that "If health sciences librarians are not willing to take on the responsibilities which their clientele feel are appropriate, they will be replaced by other professionals who can and will" (p. 38). A fuller version of this report was published in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association (Roper & Mayfield, 1993b).
Giuse, et al. (1997), using a four-step needs assessment process, designed a survey instrument consisting of 96 competencies divided into 13 categories (the appendix actually lists 98 items). It was administered to 300 respondents (150 librarians and 150 library users) with 131 (77 librarians and 54 users) responding. The response rate was 43.7 per cent. Each skill was rated for its importance on a 1-7 point Likert-type scale. It was found that "all of the knowledge and skills in their categorical groupings were rated above the Likert mean and, in fact, often exceeded the mean considerably" (p. 62). These competencies are dated now.
A study on the role of the clinical librarian using content analysis of job advertisements, job titles, and duties, using a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of five practicing librarians, followed by an interview was conducted in the UK (Sargeant & Harrison, 2004; Harrison & Sargeant, 2004). It was discovered that there was "a moderate degree of congruence between recruitment specifications and working activities of clinical librarians" (Sargeant & Harrison, 2004, p. 180). This is an interesting study but limited by a small sample. Robinson et al (2005) analyzed the previous literature to identify a variety of competencies and prepared a model consisting of: Professional competency (Content knowledge and Technical knowledge), Teaching skills (Professionalism, Basis of training, Design, and Evaluation), and E-learning skills (Creation and Delivery).
The roles of academic medical librarians in Malaysia were studied by using face-to-face interviews of 18 respondents (Santra, 2007). The focus was placed on the respondents' current activities, awareness of the skills and knowledge of emerging roles, and their education and training.
The Medical Library Association (2007) in its educational policy statement listed seven areas under 'Professional Competencies for Health Sciences Librarians', each with several subareas, as follows (p. 4-5):
1. Understand the health sciences and health care environment and the policies, issues, and trends that impact that environment
2. Know and understand the application of leadership, finance, communication, and management theory and techniques
3. Understand the principles and practices related to providing information services to meet users' needs
4. Have the ability to manage health information resources in a broad range of formats
5. Understand and use technology and systems to manage all forms of information
6. Understand curricular design and instruction and have the ability to teach ways to access, organize, and use information
7. Understand scientific research methods and have the ability to critically examine and filter research literature from many related disciplines
These areas are followed by a set of recommendations for various agencies (p. 6), a list of personal attributes that contribute to success (p. 9), and then a long listing of 'health sciences information knowledge and skills' (p. 10-13). The last section could become the basis of developing competency statements.
The published literature indicated that a variety of competencies were dealt with in many publications. However, none of these sources provided a comprehensive and satisfactory listing of competencies that we could use. It was felt that there was an urgent need for the preparation of an up-to-date and comprehensive checklist of validated competencies for medical librarians.
The survey instrument used for this study was designed using an extensive review of published literature, expert scrutiny and a pilot study as detailed below.
The scanning of a large amount of literature resulted in a large number of raw competency statements. These statements were listed, edited, sorted, compared, and merged to form the first draft of potential competencies. This list of raw statements and the sources were carefully and critically reviewed by the researchers for refining of statements and selection of credible sources. This process resulted in a tentative list of 133 items which were derived from 24 sources.
The 133 tentative competencies were initially grouped into the following eight subject domains: Health sciences environment and concepts (14 statements), management theory and techniques (28 statements), health sciences reference and information services (14 statements), health sciences resource management (18 statements), information systems and technologies (15 statements), instruction and teaching (14 statements), research methods (10 statements), and general and personal competencies (20 statements). Each of these 133 raw statements, followed by the sources derived from, is listed in Appendix A. Full bibliographical details of the 24 sources with the number of times each was used are listed in Appendix B. These statements were used as a raw list for critical review and study by the researchers with a view to reduce their number.
The raw list was revised several times in order to merge closely related and similar statements to reduce their number. The statements were merged keeping in mind that these should appear to be bona fide and natural units. This intensive exercise resulted in a draft instrument containing 87 competency statements which was submitted to the experts. Each statement was provided with a 5-point Likert scale and a column for comments by the panel of experts. Several rows were left blank at the end of each subject area if any of the experts might like to add another competency.
The draft instrument was submitted to the panel of six experts along with a covering letter. The panel consisted of two LIS faculty members (having a qualification of PhD and research contribution in the field of LIS competencies), two ex-library coordinators (medical faculty members having a research degree and contribution to the medical literature), and two retired medical librarians for content validity. The list was revised in response to feedback received from this panel. Keeping in view the comments of the panel of experts, some competencies were added and some were removed. The language of competency statements was also improved in light of changes suggested by the panel. The resulting list was submitted to them again for final examination.
The Scale Used
The respondents were asked to rate the importance of each competency statement on a 5point Likert scale from 5 to 1, considering: 5 = Highly Important; 4 = Very Important; 3 = Important; 2 = Somewhat Important; 1 = Not Important. For validation purpose the scale value of 3 was fixed as the cut-off point. A competency was considered "important" if it received an average mean score of greater than 3.00.
The revised instrument approved by the panel of experts was tested in a pilot study using four medical librarians and four library coordinators, who were not part of the respondents of the study. A covering letter was also sent along with the pilot instrument requesting the participants to make comments if necessary.
The pilot instrument was amended in response to ambiguities identified by the participants of the pilot study. They also identified some technical and professional terms used in the instrument which were explained in common language. The pilot study resulted in the final instrument consisting of 84 competency statements which were categorized into the following eight subject domains: (1) Health sciences environment (9 statements); (2) Management theory and techniques (19 statements); (3) Health sciences reference and information services (10 statements); (4) Management of health information resources (10 statements); (5) Information systems and technologies (11 statements); (6) User education (7 statements); (7) Research methods (7 statements); and (8) General and personal competencies (11 statements).
An investigation to identify and validate competencies for medical librarians was carried out by Ullah and Anwar (2012). An instrument consisting of 84 competency statements divided into eight subject domains (Table 1) prepared after an extensive review of literature published during past 25 years, expert scrutiny, and pilot testing was used on 67 medical librarians and 63 medical supervisors of libraries in Pakistan. A 5-point Likert scale (5 'highly important' to 1 'not important') was used to obtain the opinions of the respondents on each competency. Of the 84 competencies, 83 were validated by the medical librarians and 80 by the medical library supervisors. All 84 competencies are listed in Appendix C arranged in order of decreasing mean value scored by the head librarians. Each statement provides the mean value, standard deviation and rank of head librarians followed by the same information for library coordinators. The values of the four statements that were not validated are not listed.
These 84 statements can be grouped into subject domains (Table 1) by using the code following each statement. These statements should be shuffled before using this instrument for research. Full details of the study are given in Ullah and Anwar (2012). The full instrument has been published in Catalano (2016).
Reliability of the Instrument
After collection of data the internal consistency of the 84 statements was tested using Cronbach's alpha (CA). The CA value of 84 statements was .964 for head librarians, .950 for library coordinators, and .960 for both combined. The CA values for the eight subject categories of statements varied from .887 to .786 for head librarians, from .889 to .677 for library coordinators, and .895 to .760 for both combined. The CA values for the 80 validated statements were .964 for head librarians, .949 for library coordinators, and .959 for both combined. The CA values reported above indicate a very high level of internal consistency of the instrument.
To assess the degree of internal consistency among competency statements Cronbach's alpha were calculated using SPSS. Table 1 presents the Cronbach's alpha of head librarians, library coordinators as well overall for the eight subject categories separately. It shows that responses of head librarians were internally consistent. The responses of library coordinators were also internally consistent for all categories except health sciences environment category (Cronbach's Alpha = .677) which was not. This table also presents the Crobach's alpha value for all 84 statements (Cronbach's Alpha = .960) and 80 statements (Cronbach's Alpha = .959) validated by both groups of respondents. It shows that these were highly internally consistent.
The instrument developed consists of 84 competency statements categorized into eight subject domains. Each statement has 5-point Likert scale for validation. The instrument was developed after extensive literature review, scrutiny by a panel of experts and pilot testing which provided high degree of construct and content validity. It was used on 67 medical librarians and 63 medical supervisors of libraries in Pakistan for validation (Ullah & Anwar, 2012). This instrument has acceptable level of reliability. It can be used in different areas to validate the identified competencies. The process described above can be used by researchers to design and validate competency instruments for various domains.
Bowden, V. M., Bierschenk, N. F., & Olivier, E. R. (1989). Medical library employer expectations. Journal of Library Administration, 11(3/4), 129-144.
Bowden, V. M. & Olivier, E. R. (1995). The first professional position: Expectations of academic health sciences library employers. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 83(2), 238-239.
Catalano, A.J. (2016). Streamlining LIS research: A compendium of tried and true tests, measurements, and other instruments. Snta Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
Giuse, N. B., Huber, J. T., Kafantaris, S. R., Giuse D. A., Miller, M. D., Giles, D. E., et al. (1997). Preparing librarians to meet the challenges of today's health care environment. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 4(1), 57-67.
Harrison, J., & Sargeant, S. J. E. (2004). Clinical librarianship in the UK: Temporary trend or permanent profession? Part II: Present challenges and future opportunities. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 21, 220-226.
Medical Library Association (MLA). (2007). Competencies for lifelong learning and professional success: The education policy statement of the Medical Library Association. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from http://www.mlanet.org/education/policy/
Robinson, L.; Hilger-Ellis, J.; Osborne, L., Rowlands, J., Smith, J. M., Weist, A. et al. (2005). Healthcare librarians and learner support: A review of competences and methods. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 22 (Supp.2), 42-50.
Roper, F. W. & Mayfield, M. K. (1993a). Shaping medical library education. Library Trends, 42(1), 25-44.
Roper, F. W. & Mayfield, M. K. (1993b). Surveying knowledge and skills in the health sciences: Results and implications. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 81(4), 396-407.
Santra, N. (2007). Academic medical librarians in Malaysia: What roles do they play? Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 12(1), 83-96.
Sargeant, S. J. E. & Harrison, J. (2004). Clinical librarianship in the UK: Temporary trend or permanent profession? Part I: A review of the role of the clinical librarian. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 21, 173-181.
Ullah, M. & Anwar, M. A. (2012). Developing competencies for medical librarians in Pakistan. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 30, 59-71.
Raw Competency Statements and the Sources Used for their Identification
1. Health Sciences Environment and Concepts Competency statement Sources derived from 1.1 Familiarity with various Medical Library Association, health and health related 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a associations and organization 1.2 Awareness of the Medical Library Association, institution's information 2007 policies 1.3 Knowledge of education and Medical Library Association, training patterns of medical 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a profession 1.4 Knowledge of organization of Giuse, et al, 1997; Roper & health sciences literature Mayfield, 1993a 1.5 Knowledge of health Medical Library Association, policies and programs 2007 1.6 Knowledge of accreditation Buttlar & Du Mont, 1996 standards and issues 1.7 Knowledge of health Giuse, et al, 1997; Medical sciences professions and Library Association, 2007; specialties Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 1.8 Knowledge of health care Medical Library Association, system, trends and structure 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 1.9 Knowledge of health care Homan, Foundation & McGowen, ethics and legal issues 2002; Medical Library Association, 2007 1.10 Knowledge of health care Homan, Foundation & McGowen, economics 2002; Medical Library Association, 2007 1.11 Knowledge of medical Homan, Foundation & McGowen, sociology 2002 1.12 Knowledge of meanings of Guise, et al, 1997; Harrison & medical terms Sargeant, 2004; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 1.13 Some knowledge of anatomy Harrison & Sargeant, 2004 and physiology 1.14 Basic knowledge of Harrison & Sargeant, 2004; epidemiology Scherrer & Jacobson, 2002 2. Management Theory and Techniques Competency statement Sources derived from 2.1 Preparing library budget and Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Griffiths their fiscal management & King, 1986; Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006; Mahmood, 2002; Medical Library Association, 2007; Rehman, 2000; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a, 1993b 2.2 Recruit, select, train, Guise, et al, 1997; Griffiths & supervise, and evaluate the staff King, 1986; Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006; Mahmood, 2002; Medical Library Association, 2007; Rehman, 2000; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.3 Understanding of project Harrison & Sargeant, 2004; Khoo, development and management 2005; Larsen, 2006; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a, 1993b; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006; 2.4 Public relation and Mahmood, 2002; Roper & Mayfield, Interpersonal relations 1993a, 1993b 2.5 Marketing and promotion of Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Mahmood, library services and resources 2002; Roper & Mayfield, 1993b; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.6 Evaluating library Griffiths & King, 1986; Mahmood, performance qualitatively and 2002 quantitatively 2.7 Planning Khoo, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.8 Make decision and Griffiths & King, 1986; Khoo, recommendations based on 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a available information (Decision making) 2.9 Organizing extension Mahmood, 2002 activities for users like displays, exhibitions, talks, seminars, etc. 2.10 Time management and setting Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Griffiths priorities & King, 1986; Larsen, 2006; Rehman, 2000; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.11 Knowledge management in Khoo, 2005; Mahmood, 2002; libraries Reagon, 2005 2.12 Change management by Khoo, 2005; Mahmood, 2002; integrating library resources and Western Council of State services with environmental Libraries, 2006 change 2.13 Conduct effective meetings Griffiths & King, 1986; Larsen, 2006; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.14 Fund raising and proposal Guise, et al, 1997; Medical writing Library Association, 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 2.15 Facilities planning and Khoo, 2005; Medical Library space allocation Association, 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.16 Apply national and Medical Library Association, international library standards 2007; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.17 Able to do lobbying and Bryant & Poustie, 2001 advocacy and play organization politics 2.18 Environment scanning/ Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Khoo, Environment sensitivity 2005; Medical Library Association, 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 2.19 Coordinating Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 2.20 Facilitating Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 2.21 Goal orientation Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 2.22 Compose regular reports to Western Council of State the higher authorities regarding Libraries, 2006 the library progress 2.23 Develop & maintain Medical Library Association, partnerships with other 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; organizations/institutions Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 2.24 Provide input into the Western Council of State architectural planning of library Libraries, 2006 facilities 2.25 Negotiate contracts/ Griffiths & King, 1986; Khoo, agreements 2005; Larsen, 2006 2.26 Formulate and apply policies Mahmood, 2002; Rehman, 2000; and procedures effecting library Roper & Mayfield, 1993a and information services 2.27 Apply critical thinking Griffiths & King, 1986; Reagon, skills to library problems 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 2.28 Communicate effectively in Bank, Cogdill, Selden & Cahn, oral, written, and electronic 2005; Bryant & Poustie, 2001; form. Griffiths & King, 1986; Harris, Katherine, Parish & Smith, 2007; Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006; Medical Library Association, 2007; Reagon, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a, 1993b; Special Library Association, 2003; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 3. Health Sciences Reference and Information Services Competency statement Sources derived from 3.1 Developing a sound knowledge Mahmood, 2002 of ready reference source 3.2 Reference interview skill Buttlar & Du Mont, 1996; (conduct an appropriate reference Griffiths & King, 1986; Khoo, interview) 2005; Reagon, 2005; Rehman, 2000 3.3 Select the appropriate Western Council of State resource to match the use's need Libraries, 2006 3.4 Resource sharing/cooperation Mahmood, 2002; Medical Library with other libraries Association, 2007; Reagon, 2005; Rehman, 2000; Roper & Mayfield, 1993b; Santra, 2007 3.5 Information needs/ Khoo, 2005; Medical Library Information Seeking behaviour Association, 2007; Reagon, 2005; Rehman, 2000; Roper & Mayfield, 1993b; Special Library Association, 2003; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 3.6 Developing specialized Buttlar & Du Mont, 1996; information services like Griffiths & King, 1986; Mahmood, selective dissemination of 2002; Rehman, 2000; Special information (SDI), current Library Association, 2003 awareness/current content services, vertical file, bulletin boards, referral, etc . 3.7 Developing user education Buttlar & Du Mont, 1996; Mahmood, literature and products 2002 (brochures, handbooks, pathfinders, subject guide, videos, slide tape show, etc 3.8 Information manipulation and Mahmood, 2002; Reagon, 2005; repackaging Rehman, 2000 3.9 Providing library services to Mahmood, 2002 distance learners 3.10 Bibliometrics tools and Roper & Mayfield, 1993b; Special techniques for measurement and Library Association, 2003; evaluation of research outputs 3.11 Methods of information Roper & Mayfield, 1993a, 1993b; delivery and access Special Library Association, 2003 3.12 To work as information Special Library Association, 2003 intermediaries/conduct intermediary searches for complex difficult or multifoil searches 3.13 Strong information literacy Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006; Reagon, skills 2005; 3.14 Familiarity with medical Santra, 2007 databases like PubMed, Cochrane databases, American College of Physicians (ACP) Journals Club and Database of Abstracts and Review of Effectiveness (DARE) 4. Health Sciences Resource Management Competency statement Sources derived from 4.1 Acquire materials according Ameen, 2009; Mahmood, 2002 to academic and research programs of the parent organization and knowledge of acquisition tools/ selection aids 4.2 Knows "the best" textbooks, Special Library Association, 2003 journals and electronic resources of medical sciences 4.3 Knowledge of weeding and Griffiths & King, 1986; Mahmood, understand why weeding is 2002; Reagon, 2005 important 4.4 Understanding the processes Mahmood, 2002; Reagon, 2005; of printing, publishing and book Rehman, 2000 distribution 4.5 Knowledge of copyright, Medical Library Association, licensing, privacy and 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a intellectual property rights issues/laws 4.6 Resource maintenance, Buttlar & Du Mont, 1996; Medical conservation and preservation Library Association, 2007; techniques Reagon, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 4.7 Manage serial operation Reagon, 2005 (ordering, claiming, invoicing, renewal, holding reports, binding, union list etc) 4.8 Knowledge and application of Reagon, 2005; Rehman, 2000 classification schemes 4.9 Knowledge and application of Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Santra, National Library of Medicine 2007 (NLM) classification scheme 4.10 Analyzing content of Mahmood, 2002 documents to determine class numbers and subject terms (subject heading/key words) 4.11 Knowledge and application of Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Santra, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 2007 4.12 Knowledge and application of Griffiths & King, 1986; Mahmood, cataloguing principles, rules, 2002; Rehman, 2000 systems and tools 4.13 Bibliographic format (MARC, Mahmood, n. d. Z39.5, Metadata) 4.14 Data conversion utilities Mahmood, n. d. and copy cataloguing 4.15 Develop specialized thesauri Griffiths & King, 1986; Roper & and list of indexing terms for Mayfield, 1993a; Special Library databases Association, 2003 4.16 Operate the process of Western Council of State circulation (registration, issue, Libraries, 2006 return, reservation, overdue notices and fine management) 4.17 Ensure safety of resources Reagon, 2005 4.18 Indexing and abstracting of Griffiths & King, 1986; Mahmood, documents 2002; Reagon, 2005; Rehman, 2000 5. Information Systems and Technologies Competency statement Sources derived from 5.1 Retrieval techniques Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Griffiths & King, 1986; Khoo, 2005; Medical Library Association, 2007; Reagon, 2005; Rehman, 2000; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a,1993b 5.2 Knowledge of Roper & Mayfield, 1993a telecommunication and net working 5.3 Computer programming Roper & Mayfield, 1993a, 1993b 5.4 Knowledge and understanding Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Khoo, of Internet (email, discussion 2005; Mahmood, n.d.; Medical groups, search engines, www) Library Association, 2007; Reagon, 2005; 5.5 Library Management Systems/ Butler & Du Mont, 1996; Mahmood, Integrated Library Automation 2002; Rehman, 2000; Reagon, 2005; Systems Roper & Mayfield, 1993b 5.6 Managing automated systems Mahmood, 2002; Reagon, 2005 (input, file maintenance, back- up, security etc 5.7 Using MS Office (MS Word, MS Khoo, 2005; Mahmood, 2002 Excel, MS Power point) and Inpage 5.8 Digitization (scanner, Mahmood, 2002; Reagon, 2005; software, OCR)/Utilization digitization technology to create documents for online use. 5.9 Knowledge and application Web Maness, 2006. 2.0 in libraries (Library 2.0) 5.10 Ability to use Barcodes and Khoo, 2005 RFID technologies for libraries 5.11 System administration, Mahmood, n.d.; Reagon, 2005; hardware maintenance, trouble Roper & Mayfield, 1993a, 1993b shooting, networking, system migration etc 5.12 Basic knowledge of Roper, Mayfield, 1993a artificial intelligence and expert system 5.13 Web-page portal designing Reagon, 2005; Special Library and management skills Association, 2003, 5.14 Organize and maintain Butlar & Mont, 1996; Mahmood, n. computer assisted instruction d.; Medical Library Association, (CAI) services 2007 5.15 Inter Library Loan systems Mahmood, n. d. (document portable systems/ electronic document delivery) 6. Instruction and Teaching Competency statement Sources derived from 6.1 Make oral presentation to Buttlar & Du Mont, 1996 user groups, visitors etc 6.2 Ability to run user education Griffiths & King, 1986; Khoo, programs, deliver library 2005; Medical Library orientation lecture and teach Association, 2007; Reagon, 2005; information literacy courses Rehman, 2000; Western Council of State Libraries, 2006; 6.3 Select appropriate delivery Reagon, 2005 methods 6.4 Continuously evaluate Reagon, 2005 learning and revise programs as appropriate 6.5 Understand curriculum design Guise, et al, 1997; Medical and development Library Association, 2007 6.6 Educational needs assessment Guise, et al, 1997; Harris, and analysis/Identifies learners Katherine, Parish & Smith, 2007; needs Medical Library Association, 2007 6.7 Learning theory and cognitive Homan, Foundation & McGowen, 2002 psychology 6.8 Keep up to date with latest Special Library Association, 2003 training and instructional techniques 6.9 Knowledge of instructional Medical Library Association, methodologies and teaching 2007; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a techniques 6.10 Evaluation/assessment of Roper & Mayfield, 1993a learning outcomes 6.11 Enhances presentation with Bank, Cogdill, Selden & Cahn, effective audiovisual aids and 2005; Bryant & Poustie, 2001; handouts Harris, Katherine, Parish & Smith, 2007; Reagon, 2005 6.12 Develop and conduct in Larsen, 2006; Mahmood, 2002; service courses for library staff Special Library Association, 2003 especially regarding new trends. 6.13 Provide bibliographic Buttlar & Du Mont, 1996 instruction 6.14 Participate in health Lindberg & Humphreys, 2005 literacy programs 7. Research Methods Competency statement Sources derived from 7.1 Prepares research proposals Harris, Katherine, Parish & Smith, 2007 7.2 Basic understanding of Harrison & Sargeant, 2004; research methodologies (both Medical Library Association, quantitative and qualitative) 2007; Reagon, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 7.3 Knowledge and application of Roper & Mayfield, 1993a descriptive and inferential statistics 7.4 Conduct regular user's needs Reagon, 2005 assessments using research tools such as questionnaires, focus group, and interviews 7.5 Conduct research and publish Larsen, 2006; Medical Library findings in the professional Association, 2007 literature 7.6 Scholarly Communication/ Reagon, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, writing scientific report 1993a 7.7 Analysis, evaluation, and Griffiths & King, 1986; Roper & application of research results Mayfield, 1993a 7.8 Expertise in evidence-based Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Medical medicine (identify and retrieve Library Association, 2007 current relevant scientific evidence) 7.9 Data analysis (Research) Mahmood, n. d. software (SPSS, Instate etc) 7.10 Citation software/reference Mahmood, n. d. managers (endnote, Procite, etc) 8. General and Personal Competencies Competency statement Sources derived from 8.1 Capacity and desire to work Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Griffiths independently & King, 1986 8.2 Ability to work under Khoo,2005 pressure 8.3 Demonstrating a knowledge and Mahmood, 2002 commitment to the ethics and value of profession 8.4 Participating in professional Khoo, 2005; Mahmood, 2002; activities outside the library Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 8.5 Developing desk-top Khoo, 2005; Mahmood, 2002; publishing capacity 8.6 Understanding historical Mahmood, 2002; Reagon, 2005 background of library and information services in the world. 8.7 Editing library publications Mahmood, 2002 8.8 Knowledge of library and Giuse, et al, 1997; Roper & information legislation (national Mayfield, 1993a; Western Council & international) of State Libraries, 2006 8.9 Create an environment of Special Library Association, 2003 mutual respect and trust 8.10 Is committed to lifelong Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Special learning and personal career Library Association, 2003 planning 8.11 Adaptability to change Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006; Reagon, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a; Special Library Association, 2003 8.12 Intelligence, common sense, Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Griffiths creativity, decisiveness, and & King, 1986; Khoo, 2005; Larsen, patience 2006; Reagon, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 8.13 Initiative, innovativeness, Griffiths & King, 1986; Khoo, multitasking and vision 2005; Larsen, 2006; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 8.14 Self-supervision Reagon, 2005 8.15 Sense of humour Griffiths & King, 1986; Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006 8.16 Capacity to take risks Western Council of State Libraries, 2006 8.17 Willingness to ask questions Harrison & Sargeant, 2004; Reagon, 2005; Roper & Mayfield, 1993a 8.18 Ability to learn new skill Bryant & Poustie, 2001; Griffiths & King, 1986; Harrison & Sargeant, 2004; Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006; Reagon, 2005 8.19 Committed to service Khoo, 2005; Larsen, 2006; Roper & excellence/Service orientation Mayfield, 1993a; Special Library Association, 2003 8.20 Sees the big picture Special Library Association, 2003
List of Sources Used for Raw Competency Statements
(Times each source used)
Ameen, K. (2009). Needed competencies for collection managers and their development: Perception of university librarians. Library Management, 30(4/5), 266-275. (1 time)
Banks, M. A., Cogdill K. W., Selden, C. R, & Cahn M. A. (2005). Complementary competencies: Public health and health sciences librarianship. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 93(3), 33847. (1 time)
Bryant, J., & Poustie, K. (2001). Competencies Needed by Public Library Staff. Guterloh: Bertelsmann Foundation. p. 4. Retrieved Feb 20, 2009, from http.www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/INPL. (14 times)
Buttlar, L., & Du Mont, R. (1996). Library & information science competencies revised. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 37(1), 44-62. (9 times)
Giuse, N. B., Huber, J. T., Giuse D. A., Kafantaris, S. R., Miller, M. D., Giles, D. E., et al. (1997). Preparing librarians to meet the challenges of today's health care environment. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 4(1), 57-67. (8 times)
Griffiths, J. M., & King, D. W. (1986). New directions in library and information science. White Plains, New York: Knowledge Industry Publications. Retrieved Oct 15, 2009, from http://www.eric.edu.gov. (19 times)
Harris, D. L., Katherine, C. K., Parish, D. C., Smith, M. U. (2007). Academic competencies for medical faculty. Family Medicine, 39(5), 343-50. (3 times)
Harrison, J., & Sargeant, S. E. (2004). Clinical librarianship in the UK: Temporary trend or permanent profession? Part II: Present challenges and future opportunities. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 21, 220-226. (7 times)
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Composite List of Validated Competency Statements S. Competency Statement Head Librarians Library No (The numbers in brackets are Coordinators related to the Subject Domain) Mean Rank Mean Rank (SD) (SD) 1 Knowledge and understanding of 4.58 1 4.27 9 Internet for library use (e- (.700) (.884) mail, discussion groups, search engines, web resources, methods of information delivery) (5.6) 2 Eager to learn new skills 4.57 2 4.33 6 (8.10) (.701) (.783) 3 Knowledge of bibliographic 4.55 3 4.06 21 tools, selection aids, and (.610) (.896) acquisition of materials (4.1) 4 Communicating effectively in 4.54 4-5 4.29 7 oral, written and electronic (.682) (.750) form (2.19) 5 Using MS Office (MS Word, MS 4.54 4-5 4.17 12 Excel, MS Power point) and (.682) (.752) Inpage (5.8) 6 Commitment to service 4.54 6 4.41 4 excellence (8.1) (.703) (.775) 7 Knowledge of print and 4.52 7 4.37 5 electronic reference resources (.560) (.725) in health sciences (3.3) 8 Ability to make decisions 4.49 8 4.11 19 (2.3) (.637) (.863) 9 Expertise in information 4.43 9 4.43 3 retrieval and search strategy (.722) (.734) techniques (3.5) 10 Knowledge and application of 4.39 10 4.13 17 cataloguing rules, standards (.673) (.924) for bibliographic formats, data conversion and copy cataloguing (4.4) 11 Resource sharing and 4.39 11 4.14 14 coordination with other (.717) (.840) libraries in online environment (3.8) 12 Capability to work 4.39 12 4.21 11 independently and under (.816) (.699) pressure (8.2) 13 Knowledge of Integrated 4.37 13 4.11 18 Library Automation Systems (.648) (.785) (5.1) 14 Commitment to lifelong 4.36 14 4.52 1 learning and career planning (.732) (.692) (8.11) 15 Knowledge of formulating 4.34 15 4.13 16 policies and procedures (.708) (.833) relating to library services (2.6) 16 Capability of analytical 4.31 16 3.89 33 skills and problem solving (.763) (.882) (2.4) 17 Personnel management and staff 4.28 17 3.97 28 development (recruit, train, (.692) (.879) supervise, and evaluate staff) (2.17) 18 Ability to use medical 4.28 18 4.22 10 bibliographic databases (3.4) (.714) (.958) 19 Ability to develop specialized 4.27 19 3.78 39 information services such as (.665) (.870) selective dissemination of information (SDI), current awareness/current content services, bulletin boards, referral services, etc (3.7) 20 Capability of time management 4.27 20 4 26-27 and setting priorities (2.5) (.863) (.842) 21 Knowledge and commitment to 4.27 21 4.27 8 professional ethics and values (.898) (.700) (8.5) 22 Knowledge of serial management 4.25 22 3.62 52 and operation (ordering, (.704) (.958) claiming, invoicing, renewal, holding reports, binding, etc) (4.6) 23 Planning and goal setting 4.25 23 3.94 31 skills (2.2) (.785) (.821) 24 Interpersonal and public 4.22 24 3.68 46 relations skills (2.9) (.775) (.839) 25 Ability to develop and conduct 4.21 25 4.08 20 training courses for library (.708) (.829) staff especially pertaining to new trends (2.18) 26 Understanding of the 4.21 26 3.79 38 institution's information (.845) (1.109) policies (1.8) 27 Ability to evaluate library 4.19 27 4.02 24 performance qualitatively and (.701) (1.039) quantitatively (2.16) 28 Create an environment of 4.19 28 4.44 2 mutual respect and trust (8.6) (.839) (.778) 29 Ability to operate the process 4.19 29 3.7 45 of circulation (registration, (.875) (1.102) issue, return, reservation, overdue notices and fine management) (4.9) 30 Self-supervision (8.8) 4.15 30 4 25 (.803) (.803) 31 Knowledge of different 4.13 31 3.7 44 branches and specialties of (.716) (.796) health sciences (1.1) 32 Capacity to take initiatives 4.12 32 3.95 29 and risks (8.3) (.826) (.792) 33 Ability to make presentations 4.12 33 3.73 42 to user groups, visitors, etc (.844) (.700) (6.6) 34 Knowledge of accreditation 4.1 34 3.9 32 standards that affect medical (.741) (1.043) libraries (1.7) 35 Understanding of information 4.1 35 4.14 13 seeking behaviour and needs of (.800) (.820) users (3.1) 36 Ability to manage automated 4.09 36 3.75 41 systems (input, file (.773) (.897) maintenance, back-up, security, etc) (5.2) 37 Ability to conduct reference 4.07 37 3.94 30 interviews and select the (.681) (.716) appropriate resource to match the users' needs (3.2) 38 Ability to prepare and manage 4.07 38 3.57 54 budget and raise funds from (.858) (.797) external sources (2.7) 39 Understanding of medical 4.07 39 3.67 49 terminology and concepts (1.4) (.974) (1.032) 40 Ability to conduct meetings 4.04 40 3.67 48 effectively (2.11) (.747) (.718) 41 Expertise in evidence-based 4.04 41-42 4.03 23 medical information searching (.767) (.861) (identifying and retrieving latest medical evidence) (3.6) 42 Understanding of digitization 4.04 41-42 3.68 47 technology and management (.767) (.877) programmes to create digital resources (5.5) 43 Participation in professional 4 43 3.43 63 activities outside the library (.835) (.995) (8.9) 44 Adaptability to change (8.4) 4 44 4.13 15 (.853) (.729) 45 Capability of indexing and 3.97 45 3.89 34 abstracting of documents (4.5) (.696) (.986) 46 Knowledge of resource 3.97 46 3.56 55 maintenance, safety, (.834) (.838) conservation and preservation techniques (4.7) 47 Basic knowledge of building, 3.96 47 3.71 43 space and facility planning (.706) (.991) (to identify ways to use resources more efficiently and create healthy work spaces that increase productivity) (2.15) 48 Preparation of reports for 3.96 48 3.76 40 concerned authorities (2.12) (.912) (.856) 49 Change management, i. e., 3.93 49 3.84 35 having the ability to (.659) (.884) integrate library resources and services in response to environmental change (2.8) 50 Ability to enhance 3.9 50 3.59 53 presentation with effective a- (.819) (.796) v aids and handouts (6.7) 51 Knowledge of information 3.88 51 3.46 59 literacy standards (6.1) (.769) (.758) 52 Ability to conduct environment 3.88 52 3.4 64 scanning (a process of (.826) (.890) gathering, analyzing, and dispensing information for tactical or strategic purposes) (2.1) 53 Ability to use Barcodes and 3.87 53 3.32 69 RFID (Radio Frequency (.869) (.930) Identification) technologies for libraries (5.3) 54 Knowledge and application of 3.85 54 3.67 50 Web 2.0 technology in (.892) (1.047) libraries (Library 2.0) (5.4) 55 Knowledge and application of 3.84 55 4 26-27 the National Library of (1.067) (.842) Medicine system of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (4.3) 56 Basic understanding of 3.81 56 3.48 58 research methodologies (both (.723) (.877) quantitative and qualitative) (7.1) 57 Negotiating skills for 3.81 57-58 3.62 51 contracts/agreements (2.10) (.839) (.869) 58 Knowledge of weeding practice 3.81 57-58 3.4 65 (discarding and writing off (.839) (.925) unusable and obsolete materials) and its importance (4.83) 59 Marketing of library services 3.81 59 3.51 57 and resources (2.14) (.875) (.998) 60 Knowledge of information 3.79 60 3.22 79 literacy needs assessment (.749) (.832) (6.2) 61 Organizing activities such as 3.76 61 3.43 62 displays, exhibitions, talks, (.761) (.893) etc. (2.13) 62 Basic knowledge of database 3.73 62 3.24 78 management (5.11) (.898) (.995) 63 Knowledge and application of 3.7 63 4.05 22 National Library of Medicine (1.155) (.923) (NLM) classification scheme (4.2) 64 Knowledge of education and 3.69 64 3.3 71 training patterns of health (.743) (.891) related professions (1.2) 65 Knowledge and application of 3.69 65 3.79 37 citation styles and reference (1.033) (.676) managers (endnote, Procite, etc) (7.5) 66 Ability to select appropriate 3.67 66 3.37 67 delivery methods for (.927) (.725) information literacy programmes (6.5) 67 Knowledge of copyright, 3.64 67 3.81 36 licensing, privacy and (.829) (.981) intellectual property rights issues/laws (4.10) 68 Ability to develop and deliver 3.64 68 3.38 66 information literacy (.865) (.906) programmes and products (such as lectures, tutorials, brochures, pathfinders, subject guides, etc.) 6.4) 69 Ability to use research tools 3.64 69 3.3 70 such as questionnaires, focus (.883) (.754) groups and interviews to conduct user's studies (7.3) 70 Ability to write research 3.6 70 3.54 56 reports (7.7) (.889) (.737) 71 Knowledge of health sciences 3.55 71 3.27 73 scholarly communication (.724) (.902) patterns and information infrastructure (1.9) 72 Information manipulation and 3.55 72 3.25 74-75 repackaging (finding, (.764) (.879) evaluating, selecting, and rewriting information for immediate use by the client) (3.9) 73 Knowledge of objectives of 3.51 73 3.37 68 medical education at (1.064) (1.140) undergraduate as well as postgraduate level (1.3) 74 Web-page/portal designing and 3.48 74 -- -- maintenance skills (5.10) (1.020) 75 Basic knowledge of and ability 3.46 75 3.22 80 to use expert systems (.990) (.851) (software which find information like a human expert in the field to solve problems) (5.9) 76 Analysis, evaluation, and 3.42 76 3.43 61 application of research (.972) (.875) results (7.6) 77 Knowledge and application of 3.36 77 3.25 74-75 biomedical informatics (3.10) (.753) (.879) 78 Knowledge of instructional 3.34 78 3.43 60 methodologies and teaching (.863) (.837) techniques (6.3) 79 Familiarity with various 3.28 79 -- -- health and health related (.794) associations and organizations (1.5) 80 Knowledge and application of 3.25 80 3.24 77 data analysis software (SPSS, (.841) (.893) Instate etc) (7.4) 81 Some knowledge of 3.25 81 3.25 76 telecommunication and net (.910) (1.150) working (5.7) 82 Basic knowledge of descriptive 3.16 82 3.3 72 and inferential statistics (.881) (.978) (7.2) 83 Sense of humor (8.7) 3.06 83 -- -- (.936) 84 Knowledge of health care -- -- -- -- ethics and medico-legal issues (1.6)
Mumtaz Ali Anwar, Ph. D. *
Professor, Department of Information Management, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Midrar Ullah, Ph. D.
Librarian, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
* Corresponding author
Table 1: Statistical Results for Reliability analysis S. No Subject Domains Cronbach's alpha Head Library Overall Librarians Coordinators 1 Health Sciences .803 .677 .760 Environment (9 statements) 2 Management Theory & .887 .882 .895 Techniques (19 statements) 3 Health sciences .836 .853 .847 reference and information services (10 statements) 4 Management of health .786 .888 .847 information resources (10 statements) 5 Information systems and .864 .869 .875 technologies (11 statements) 6 User education (7 .863 .847 .861 statements) 7 Research methods (7 .879 .889 .881 statements) 8 General and personal .855 .781 .821 competencies (11 statements) All (84 statements) .964 .950 .960 Validated by both .964 .949 .959 groups of respondents (80 statements)
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|Author:||Anwar, Mumtaz Ali; Ullah, Midrar|
|Publication:||Library Philosophy and Practice|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2017|
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