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Developing a new paradigm for performance of educating city theory in advanced technology mega-cities, case: Tehran, Iran.

Introduction

An urban innovation engine is a system which can generate, foster and catalyze innovation in the city (Dvir, Pasher 2004). Cities are regarded as the place where the business of modern society gets done, including that of transnationalization (Holston 1999). Cities with population exceeding an arbitrary threshold of 8 million population, thereby qualifying as mega-cities (Fuchs et al. 1999; Urban Statistical Yearbook of China 2005, 2006; Liu, Diamond 2005; Shao et al. 2006). "People's awareness of the advantages and opportunities of any town or city, for business, leisure or retail activities, must be developed, especially by the promotion of these benefits and opportunities. Such opportunities take on various forms and it is possible for urban managers to consider what is promoted and to whom it is promoted. Promotion can be directed towards investors, tourists or local people, who can include people from all walks of life" (Woolley 2000; Okhovat et al. 2009).

With the beginning of the educating city theory in the first decade of the 21st century in this international convention it was proposed that the existing facilities in the city can be used to educate the citizens. "The purpose of this education is to collect, exchange and share experiences which will improve the lives of the inhabitants" (International Association of Educating Cities 2011). Although the educating city theory gives priority to children and youth, it does have a commitment to include persons of all ages in lifelong learning. Since people spend much time in the city, public spaces can be a place to promote higher awareness of culture and civil rights. Citizenship Education in Iran has political, social and cultural levels (Mahdavinejad et al. 2012b). The educated citizen has a main role in public participation (Mahdavinejad, Amini 2011); this participation is very important in the contemporary urbanization of Iran (Mahdavinejad, Moradchelleh 2011). Also, other studies show its importance in the socio-cultural aspects of architectural technology (Mahdavinejad et al. 2012a).

In this way, Tehran as a mega-city in order to have a developed city and knowledgeable and effective citizens, we need to teach them the necessary awareness. Citizenship education in Iran includes administrative, social and cultural levels. The administrative scope refers to the aspect of responsibility among the citizens. The social dimension refers to the strengthening of relations among members of the society. The cultural field includes awareness of culturally pervasive values that distinguish one ethnic group from others (Vaziri et al. 2006). Tehran as the capital city of Iran must be the blueprint for other provinces of the country; so, citizenship skills are a significant part of the basic skills for modern life in Tehran. One of the challenges facing the educating city theory in Tehran is to develop balance and harmony between the identity and diversity of all those living in this city. In this regard, Tehran municipality has launched in recent years cultural centers in the city's neighborhoods to advance culture in general.

Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to describe the social and cultural dimensions and features of educating city projects worldwide in order to determine the necessary criteria for advancing Tehran to the status of an educating city. This research was carried out on basis of the "content analysis" research method and is based on international experiences studied by descriptive--analytical techniques.

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Literature review

Social and cultural learning

Education is necessary to prepare children and adolescents for new experience. In the social learning, change in behaviors is useful for the advancement of understanding and use different things and to acquire certain ideas and values that are identified as learning goals. On the other words, new theories in urban development emphasize the momentous influence of social function on the awareness of residents regarding urban space. Social interest consists of a sense of belonging among others and the community, along with a sense of contributing to their well-being, expressed as empathy "to see with the eyes of another, to hear with the ears of another, to feel with the heart of another" (Oberst 2009; Akers et al. 1979). "The Health Belief Model, social learning theory (recently relabeled social cognitive theory), self-efficacy, and locus of control have all been applied with varying success to problems of explaining, predicting, and influencing behavior" (Rosenstock et al. 1988; Hall 1993). Thus learning would be extremely difficult, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to tell them what to do.

Bandura in social learning theory asserts that: people learn through observing others' behaviors, attitudes, and the outcomes of behavior patterns. Social learning theory explains human behaviors in terms of continuous, reciprocal interaction among cognitive, behavioral and environmental influences (Bandura 1997; Mischel 1973). These environmental models play a role of guide for most humans. Social learning is the main pretext for direct and indirect influence on residents' urban behavior. Thus it must be considered a basic dimension of urban development.

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In the development of culture, the contradiction between life and form is expressed in the objectification of culture and its estrangement from the culture of the individual. The reification and naturalization of culture hides the kinds of questions about power and social change that are currently at the forefront of anthropological enquiry (British Association for Applied Linguistics 1993; Simmel 1980). To put it another way, intrinsic values disappear from culture, and instrumental values--items to which no intrinsic value can be ascribed--apparently take their place.

Researchers reject the idea that cities have either a singular urban culture or many different subcultures to argue that cultures are constantly negotiated in the city's central spaces, the streets, parks, shops, museums, and restaurants which are the great public spaces of modernity (Zukin 1995).The academic purpose of constructing the theory of culture in social sciences certainly implies its reification (Kwang-Kuo 2011), the main goal is to integrate the contents of objective culture into the realm of subjective culture in a novel fashion.

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Educating cities

Educating cities started as a movement in 1990 based on the 1st International Congress of Educating Cities, held in Barcelona, when a group of cities represented by their local governments set for themselves the common goal of working together on projects and activities for improving the quality of life of their inhabitants on the basis of their active involvement in the use and evolution of the city itself and according to the approved Educating Cities Charter. Some years later, in 1994, the movement was formalized as the International Association of Educating Cities at its 3rd Congress in Bologna (International Association of Educating Cities 2011).

The political philosopher Isidre Molas wrote that "the contemporary city constitutes a primary setting for social life and interrelation; and subsequently for solidarity". That this should be left to private enterprise or organized collectively by the city itself is an optional aspect, which is not to say irrelevant (City Council of Barcelona 1990). "The educating city is a city with its own personality, forming an integral part of its nation. The educating city singly is not self-contained; it has an active relationship with its environment, and the other urban centers in the nation, and with cities in other countries. The goal of this relationship is to learn exchange and share experiences and thus enrich the lives of the inhabitants" (International Association of Educating Cities 2011). Pilar Figueras believed that "For the educating city, the great challenge of the 21st century is to deepen the practice of democratic values through appropriate orientation and actions".

Educating Cities' Charter

The city incorporates the principles of the educating city into its projects:

I. The Right to an Educating City: the first principle of the educating city includes six sections that are:

1. The right to possess, in freedom and equality, for all its inhabitants.

2. The city will promote education in diversity as well as international solidarity and world peace.

3. An educating city will foster dialogue between generations.

4. The municipal policies shall always consist of social justice and democratic community spirit.

5. The municipalities shall undertake to exercise their powers effectively in matters of education.

6. The persons responsible for urban organization must obtain accurate information on the situation and the needs of the inhabitants.

II. The Commitment of the City: this principle is defined in the following cases:

1. The city must know how to discover, preserve and display its own complex identity.

2. The transformation and growth of a city must be governed by a harmony between its new requirements and the preservation of buildings and symbols of its past and its existence.

3. The educating city should encourage citizen participation from a critical, co-responsible point of view.

4. The municipal administration must equip the city with spaces, facilities and public services that are suitable for the personal, social, moral and cultural development of all its inhabitants.

5. The city must guarantee quality of life for all its inhabitants

6. The educational project that is explicit and suggests the city's structure and system, the values it promotes and the quality of life it offers.

III. Serving Its Inhabitants: the third principle pays attention to these subcategories:

1. The municipality will assess the impact of all cultural, recreational, informative, advertising-related and other types of activities offered.

2. The city will make an effort to provide parents with knowledge.

3. The city must present its inhabitants with the perspective of their occupying place in the society.

4. The city must be aware of the mechanisms of exclusion and marginalization.

5. Intervention that minimizes differences may take various forms.

6. The city will encourage the formation of associations as a form of participation and civic co-responsibility.

7. The municipality must guarantee sufficient, comprehensible information.

8. The educating city must offer its inhabitants educations, as necessary, flourishing apparatus for community. The educating city must undertake and develop this function while also undertaking its traditional functions (economic, social, political and being a purveyor of services) with its focus directly on the education, promotion and development of all its inhabitants (International Association of Educating Cities 2011).

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Inference mechanism and research questions

Global experiences

Representation the idea of educating cities is an evidence for, but the uncertain issue here is the determination of the method and the extent of the effect of this city on its resident (Mahdavinejad et al. 2012c). According to this study, identified prototypes are approximately 400 experiences in the department of urban design and educating environmental studies and 200 samples have been selected randomly. The selected samples are classified in four groups, according to their location: 1) the American continent; 2) the European continent; 3) the Asian-Pacific continent; 4) the African continent. Then samples are analyzed based on different criteria. In order to promote the educating city criteria, the eleven categories of these experiences must be enhanced.

1) Sport and Social Inclusion: these practical experiences consist of variety of sport activities that suit the needs of all ages and improve the quality of life of citizens through nutritional guidance and the fostering of physical activity and provide them with the information about their particular culture.

2) Educational Leisure: these experiences involve a process of learning how to use free time. The purpose of these educational projects is to reinforce success at school along with the integration and holistic development of all young people and to improve their quality of life in an environment which is rich in opportunities and is adapted to their needs.

3) Participatory Management of Public Spaces: through these projects, the city is scaled back to human size, values of socialization and mutual respect are generated, social action is fostered, covering space is provided and democratic values are fomented through the proper use of free time.

4) Space for Young People in Educating Cities: The goal of these experiences is that the young participate actively in the method of reducing the digital gap that affects society and also to teach young people that they can be useful and can play an efficient role in the city.

5) Educating Cities acting against the acceleration of climate change: the purpose of this project is to teach young people and children in rural areas to be aware of their natural environment, and to incorporate them in programs that will improve the environment and their quality of life.

6) Digital Inclusion: ICTs for Everyone: these programs are designed to adjust the background of age segregation in society; on the other hand, these exercises invite young people to participate in society.

7) Immigration, Opportunities and Challenges: these projects consist in developing strategies for the integration of recent immigrants.

8) Coexistence, Cooperation and Peace: the purpose of this criterion is to celebrate the spirit of democracy, to promote the peaceful unification of the city, and contribute to the progress of peace and human rights in society with the association of national and international NGOs and activist movements in favor of democracy and human rights.

9) Lifelong Learning: We need vocational training for the young with low income and at risk, in order to fight poverty, so that they can benefit from the opportunities of joining the labor market and being integrated into society.

10) Actions against Racism and Xenophobia: these programs aim at facilitating the integration of children who have recently emigrated from other countries and are in the local society.

11) Fostering Health: due to the distance of different community centers and neighborhoods from sport centers, which means people are not involved in sporting activities in their free time, there should be the possibility of their using their free time in a way that would impede sedentariness.

Based on studies in different countries around the world the results show 11 criteria that affect the lives of citizens. These criteria are: 1--Sport as an instrument of social inclusion, 2--Educational Leisure, 3--Participatory management of public spaces, 4--Space for young people in Educating Cities, 5--Educating cities act against the acceleration of climate changes, 6--Digital inclusion: ICTs for everyone, 7--Immigration: Opportunities and challenges, 8--Coexistence, Cooperation and Peace, 9--Lifelong learning, 10--Actions against Racism and Xenophobia, 11--Fostering health.

The scope of research

The great challenges of the 21st century are: 1) Investing in education to strengthen the individual's ability to develop his or her own human potential and position in society. 2) Promoting the conditions for full equality so that everyone can feel respected and can pay respectful to others. 3) Unifying all these factors so that we can create, city by city, a truly knowledgeable society that does not exclude anyone (Charter of Educating Cities: 2004). Therefore, the main goal of this study is the standard dimensions description and the features of the educating city projects around the world to offer the criteria to change Tehran into an educating city.

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The theoretical framework

Considering international experiences and the needs of Iranian citizens, eight criteria are presented for Iranian cities which are necessary to change Tehran to an educating city. These criteria are derived from global experiences and then glocalized with the conditions of Tehran. These criteria are: 1) Security, 2) Health and Safety, 3) Beauty (Attractiveness and Palatability), 4) Nature (preservation and biodiversity), 5) Access (transportation and shipping), 6) Neighborhood and community relations development, 7) Cultural and social participation, 8) Islamic and Iranian identity.

Research questions

1) What criteria need be reconsidered to change Tehran to an educating city?

2) How can the principles of educating cities be internalized by the citizens?

Test and analysis

With respect to the principles of the educating city's charter, the implications of these principles in the current status of the city of Tehran are discussed. In this regard, different residents of Tehran commented about these principles; comments are evaluated on basis of the Likert scale (with a range of five items) and the results are specified between one and five (Very much, Much, Medium, Low, Very low). Considering the variety of cultural elements in the capitol of Iran, Teheran, this city was chosen as the study case in order to evidence the fact that an educating urban area must have the capability of establishing social concord in cultural variety and answer all residential needs. The collected data relating to the research hypothesis was gathered through questionnaires. The questionnaires of over 40000 citizens show with which of the previously presented indicators Tehran is more compatible. The intended questionnaires have been distributed among Tehrani residents in public, cultural and social centers; the analysis of the responses to these questionnaires can evaluate the spatial features of Tehran's public areas. It is noteworthy to state that, the sum of the numbers that are presented in these tables are not equal to 100(%) or 5 because these items do not supplement each other.

With cooperation of social and cultural affairs department of Tehran municipality, these questionnaires have been distributed in 22 municipality districts in the summer of 2012. The statistical population includes Tehran citizens, both women and men with diploma and higher degrees. It is noteworthy to mention that these data have been at the author's disposal thanks to the social and cultural affairs department of Tehran's support of the author's dissertation. Finally, these 200 experiences were classified in eleven special groups in the field of educating the citizens. This categorization has been done according to the intended targets of the article.

Considering to the exploratory of the study results has been accepted with lower levels. The following information is provided to assess the impact of the educating city theory on the behavior of Tehran citizens, including all cultural and age groups between the ages of 18 and 65 years in both genders. There is the preferential view for the purpose of the study and the theoretical framework has been considered to the selected instances. The distribution of the questionnaires was carried out taking into consideration the literacy level, cultural background and occupational status of the individuals.

1) The Right to an Educating City: this concept and its six related principles and the enjoyment level of the citizens are analyzed in this paper. Based on analysis, young people have a higher tendency to be free and to have equality in education and enjoy recreation and in addition, have a lower tendency to promote dialogue between generations.

2) The Commitments of the City: according to the professors, women and the youth, the authorities pay much attention to the improvement of the citizen's quality of life, whereas according to other citizens and the elderly their attentions are toward the protection and promotion of the city's cultural identity.

3) Serving Its Inhabitants: based on studies, it seems that urban authorities do not care much about creative activities in Tehran. Therefore, planning in order to educate parents is necessary for the increase of social innovation.

Discussion

Research about the implementation mechanism of the educating city in the case of Tehran shows that mutual respect between generations is very poor particularly in the opinion of the young (18-35 years old) and the elderly (over 65 years old) in relation to "The Right to have an Educating City" and throughout the passage of time the youth have less and less contact with older generations. The elderly believe that social justice has not been implemented in the community, whereas, the young believe that social justice has been implemented very well. Meanwhile, young people are not satisfied by the quantity of up-to-date information in the city.

Based on the data in Table 3 (The Commitments of the City), we can decipher that urban authorities in Tehran have carried out much activity to promote and protect the city's cultural identity. The percentage of elderly satisfaction with respect to cultural diversity in urban spaces is a remarkably low being about 3(9%). The young are not encouraged to participate actively in the life of the city and do not participate in various community affair programs enthusiastically. Women also are not satisfied with social programs for different age groups in the community. The elderly, as well, believe that the transfer of values in the learning process is not valid and must be fulfilled by the addition of more projects.

Also, in case of the "Serving Its Inhabitants" principle, Tehran municipality activities are not sufficient in this field, and the levels of public education in society are very low. The highest calculated percentages in this table, are 0(99) or nearly 0(99), which show that authorities must act in this field much more. The highest percentage among participants in this survey is related to elderly opinion, about educating parents and authorities, which is about 58(99).

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Conclusions

Based on studies of the educating cities, citizens spend much of their life in the city and can learn many positive or negative cultural and social principles of society. Tehran as the capital of Iran is a city where people with different cultures and expectations live. Nowadays, educating cities are increasingly discussed in the framework of social and economic development in the community as well as emerging economies all over the world.

The analysis of the research data shows that Tehran has a limited performance in ten cases. Based on the data in Table 3, we need to pay more attention in the case of ten items to change Tehran to an educating city; these ten items are the top ten priorities. These weaknesses include: 1) Citizens education, 2) Creativity, 3) Dialogue between generations, 4) Up to date information on urban studies and surveys, 5) Education in contrast methods, 6)Transfer of values, 7) Social cohesion amongst its immigrants and refugees, 8) Democratic citizenship values 9) Social justice and democratic people, 10) Citizen participation. Since various groups of the community with different cultures and expectations participated in the survey, varying programs must be performed that are suited to all expectations of the people in Tehran. Considering the conditions of Tehran, completed projects must be implemented in the most critical fields. The gap between the proposed programs and the ideal conditions must be filled by innovative plans and projects. Hence the role of urban management is very valuable and authoritative decisions should be made wisely in relation to future projects.

Therefore, as mentioned below, the city authorities in Tehran must perform a variety of programs such as:

--Encouraging collaboration and task-specific actions among cities.

--Participating and actively cooperating on projects and exchanging of experiences with groups and institutions with common interests.

--Enriching the discourse of educating cities and promoting its direct manifestations.

--Maintaining contact and participation with different national establishments all over the world.

doi: 10.3846/20297955.2014.925629

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MASOOME AMINI

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: masoomeh.amini@modares.ac.ir

Masoome Amini is a PhD student in Tarbiat Modares University and teaching architecture in university. Her research interests focus on the interactive architecture and historical researches about Iranian buildings with specific emphasis on the interrelationships between culture, society, and architecture.

MOHAMMADJAVAD MAHDAVINEJAD

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: mahdavinejad@modares.ac.ir

Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad is assistant professor in the faculty of art and architecture at the Tarbiat Modares University, and is Representative of Faculty of Arts and Architecture at HSE (Health, Security and Environment) Council of Tarbiat Modares University. His research interests focus on the New Technologies for Architecture and Iranian contemporary architecture.

MOHAMMAD REZA BEMANIAN

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: bemanian@modares.ac.ir

Mohammad Reza Bemanian is professor in the faculty of art and architecture at Tarbiat Modares University and is the head of department of architecture in Tarbiat Modares University (2007 till now). His Research Interests are in the case of wisdom of art, Islamic architecture and urbanism, criticism and theory of architecture and urbanism, building tech and management, urban management and high-rise buildings.

ELHAM HATAMI VARZANEH

Faculty of Art and Architecture, Khorasgan Azad University, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: elhamhatami.de@gmail.com

Elham Hatami Varzaneh is M.A in architecture. She is teaching in this field for 7 years, and her research interests focus on the sustainable design and traditional architecture.

Masoome Amini (a), Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad (b), Mohammad Reza Bemanian (c), Elham Hatami Varzaneh (d)

(a, b, c) Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

(d) Faculty of Art and Architecture, Khorasgan Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

E-mails: (a) masoomeh.amini@modares.ac.ir; (b) mahdavinejad@modares.ac.ir (corresponding; author); (c) bemanian@modares.ac.ir; (d) elhamhatami.de@gmail.com

Received 04 February 2014; aaccepted 15 May 2014
Table 1. Goals of analyzing experiences in the world

Issue                Goals and objectives     Experiences

1--Sport             1) Improving the         1) Family Bicycle Day
                     quality of public        (Mexico: 2007);
                     health.
                                              2) Sport for Seniors
                     2) Generate healthy      (Portugal: 2001);
                     values, respect
                     others, Foster           3) Equestrian Therapy:
                     integration between      Horses Educate (Spain:
                     people                   2009);

                     3) Promoting the
                     appropriate use of
                     leisure time.

2--Leisure Time      1) Promoting citizen     1) Friends of Zippy at
                     awareness based on the   home (Brazil: 2008);
                     free time.
                                              2) Paper Moon Festival
                     2) Increasing            (Spain: 2004);
                     students' self-
                     esteem, promoting        3) Conversations
                     life-long learning for   amongst Seniors
                     cultural development.    (Portugal: 2008);

                     3) Equal access to       4) Heritage Guardians
                     information.             (Argentina: 2003);

                                              5) Camp Punta
                                              Espinillo (Uruguay:
                                              2007);

3--Participation     1) Creating a sense of   1) Participating
                     belonging to the city.   Budgeting
                                              (participatory
                     2) Raising public        budgeting) in the
                     consciousness on         Schools (Switzerland:
                     people's rights and      2001);
                     responsibilities of
                     citizens.                2) Participation in
                                              community urban
                     3) Encouraging active    transformations
                     participation among      (Italy: 2000);
                     the citizens.
                                              3) Public Spaces for
                                              an Educating City
                                              (Argentina: 2004);

4--Space for         1) Fostering personal    1) Youth Cultural
young people         and social skills of     Centre (Brazil: 2005);
                     youth.
                                              2) Youth Space (Spain:
                     2) Making young          2005);
                     capable to play an
                     active role in social.
                                              3) Young Protagonists
                                              --Mural, Music and
                                              Peace School (Italy:
                                              2005);

                                              4) Children and Youth
                                              Council (Brazil:
                                              2005);

5--Climate changes   1) Respecting            1) Green and Healthy
                     environment,             Environmental Projects
                     sustainable              (Brazil: 2007);
                     socioeconomic
                     development.             2) EcoPoint:
                                              Environmental
                     2) The environment       information services
                     protection and           (Italy: 2007);
                     resource recovery.
                                              3) Facing Climate
                     3) Management of         Change (Poland: 2007);
                     natural resource.

6--ICTs              1) Equal access to the   1) The Bus-Internet
                     information              (Finland: 2000);
                     technology.
                                              2) Digital BH--IT for
                     2) Generating new        Everyone (Brazil:
                     business                 2005);
                     opportunities.
                                              3) Digital Literacy
                     3) Producing the         for Young People
                     electronic management    (Brazil: 2006);
                     system in different
                     sectors of society.

7--Immigration       1) Integration of        1) Coexistence in
                     immigrants into the      Neighborhood
                     local population.        Communities (Spain:
                                              2009);
                     2) Promoting social
                     and cultural awareness   2) Educational Welcome
                     of immigrants.           Centers; (Spain: 2008)

                     3) Cross-cultural co-    3) International
                     existence.               Cooking Workshop
                                              (Spain: 2008);

                                              4) Immigration Legal
                                              Services (Spain:
                                              2008);

8--Peaceful          1) Making people aware   1) Getafe Municipal
coexistence          of human rights.         Mediation Service
                                              (Spain: 2008);
                     2) Development of
                     social and democratic    2) The primary School
                     skill.                   English Teacher
                                              Training Program
                     3) Development of        (Brazil: 2008);
                     national integration
                     and participation        3) Becoming Sister
                     policies.                Cities with Montereau-
                                              Fault-Yonne
                     4) Construction of a     (Portugal: 2001);
                     sense of belonging.

9--Lifelong          1) Providing the         1) Rediscovering
learning             technical and            Seniors Cognitive
                     vocational training      Functions (Brazil:
                     for workers.             2008);

                     2) Promoting quality     2) The permanent
                     of young free time.      University
                                              (France: 2007);

                     3) Generation of         3) Popular University
                     employment and income    of San Pedro del
                     and regional             Pinatar (Spain: 2008);
                     development.

10--Taking           1) Fostering the         1) Neighborhoods of
action against       values of social         the World in Barcelona
                     justice, democracy and   (Spain: 2003);
                     peaceful coexistence.

Racism               2) Enriching the         2) Black Indigenous
                     multicultural society.   Tracks (Brazil: 2005);

                     3) Integrating           3) Integer-actions
                     different groups of      (Italy: 2004); 4)
                     the population with      Reconciliation
                     special needs into       Committee (Australia:
                     society.                 2001);

11--Health           1) Improving the level   1) The walk to school,
                     of social and mental     the safe walk (Spain:
                     health of society.       2009);

                     2) Promotion of          2) Healthy Living for
                     community Safety.        Esquel (Australia:
                                              2010);

                                              3) 1.000 Women
                                              (Argentina: 2009);

                     3) Reinforcing the       4) Where You Walk
                     acquisition of healthy   (Portugal: 2008).
                     living habits.

Table 2. Analyzing the right to have an educating city principles in
Tehran

Legal criteria             Professors       Citizens

                         X0.001    (%)    X0.001   (%)

Liberty and equality      2385    24.75    2577     25
in education
and recreation

Promoting education       1506    8.25     1012    5.5
in contrast methods

Fostering dialogue        1308    8.15     1934     16
between generations

The municipal             3951    49.5     4760     66
principles on social
justice and
democratic people

The municipal policies    2105    24.5     1713     11
in the matters
of education

Up to date information    3612    41.25    1154    2.75
on urban studies

Result                     14             22013

Legal criteria               Women       Youth 18-35        Elderly
                                                            over 65

                         X0.001   (%)    X0.001   (%)   X0.001   (%)

Liberty and equality      3916    49.5    3724    44     2149    25
in education
and recreation

Promoting education       1312    5.5     1574     9     1189    15
in contrast methods

Fostering dialogue        1565    10.5    0836     0     0922     0
between generations

The municipal             4893     56     3166    35     5832    82
principles on social
justice and
democratic people

The municipal policies    1954     16     1837    15     1809    15
in the matters
of education

Up to date information    0934     0      0541     0     0876     0
on urban studies

Result                    7536            9802           2318

Table 3. Analyzing the commitments of the city principles

Legal Criteria             Professors        Citizens

                         X0.001    (%)    X0.001   (%)

Promoting the city's      3674    41.25    4539    55
cultural identity

Respecting cultural       2103    24.5     1978    16
diversity in the city

Encouraging citizens'     1136     2.7     2569    25
participation

Encouraging the
moralization between      2099     17      2166    18
different age groups

Promoting the level       3874     42      4369    56
of citizens' living

Indirect transfer         1203     12      1359     6
of values in the
learning process

Result                         14               22013

Legal Criteria                Women        Youth 18-35   Elderly over 65

                         X0.001   (%)    X0.001   (%)    X0.001 (%)

Promoting the city's      3712     44     2896    31.5    4377 56
cultural identity

Respecting cultural       2367     22     2733    28.5     1194 3
diversity in the city

Encouraging citizens'     2349     21     0946     0      1780 13
participation

Encouraging the
moralization between      1157    2/75    1694    8.5     1309 5.5
different age groups

Promoting the level       4617     59     3392    38.5    3172 35
of citizens' living

Indirect transfer         1486     8      1371     6       1084 1
of values in the
learning process

Result                         7536            9802         2318

Table 4. Analyzing the Serving Its Inhabitants principles

Legal criteria            Professors     Citizens        Women

                        X0.001   (%)   X0.001   (%)    X0.001   (%)

Creative workshops       0638     0     0726     0      0944     0

Educating parents        2721    28     2291    21.5    3125    34.5
and authorities

Offering the prospect    0364     0     0791     0      0964     0
of resident education

Fostering social         1139    2.8    1795    13.5    1623    12.5
cohesion amongst
immigrants

Non-governmental         2513    25     2266     23     1877     14
organizations'
activities

Formatting the           1694     9     2310     22     3156     34
educational voluntary
association

Guaranteeing             2019    34     2077     34     2639     25
sufficient and
understandable
information for
people

Educating the            1176    3.3    1374    5.5     1490    5.5
democratic
citizenship values

Result                    14           22013            7536

Legal criteria           Youth 18-35   Elderly over 65

                        X0.001   (%)    X0.001   (%)

Creative workshops       0429     0      1377    5.5

Educating parents        2086     17     4406     58
and authorities

Offering the prospect    0513     0      1187     3
of resident education

Fostering social         1155     3      1376    5.5
cohesion amongst
immigrants

Non-governmental         2935    32.5    2411    24.5
organizations'
activities

Formatting the           1132    2.5     3741     40
educational voluntary
association

Guaranteeing             2418     24     1163     3
sufficient and
understandable
information for
people

Educating the            1668     6      1315     5
democratic
citizenship values

Result                   9802            2318

Table 5. The proposed programs to change Tehran into the educating city

1     Priority                     Strategy

1     Offering the prospect        1. Generation of employment and
      of public education            income and community
                                     development.

                                   2. Providing the technical and
                                     vocational training for
                                     workers.

2     Creative workshops           1. Promoting youth employment
                                     skills in their free time.

                                   2.  Generating new jobs and new
                                     business opportunities.

                                   3. Fostering personal and social
                                     skills, amongs the young
                                     population.

3     Fostering dialogue           1.  Encouraging active
      between generations            participation among the
                                     citizens especially children
                                     and adolescents.

                                   2. Sharing the experiences and
                                     knowledge between the past
                                     and current generation.

                                   3. Promoting interpersonal and
                                     social relations between the
                                     various generations.

4     Up to date information       1. Equal access to the
        on urban studies and         information technology for
        surveys                      all citizens.

                                   2. Creating the digital
                                     program.

5     Promoting education          1. Generating the electronic
      in different methods           management system

                                   2. Fostering the appropriate use
                                     of free time and healthy life.

                                   3. Fostering the environmental
                                     educations.

6     Indirect transfer of         1.  Building relationships and
      values in the learning         strengthen the community
      process                        spirit.

                                   2. Recognition, analysis and
                                     dissemination of  the cultural
                                     heritage of the city.

                                   3.  Generating capacity
                                     appreciating the cultur
                                     heritage of all people.

7     Fostering social cohesion    1. Increasing relationship
      amongst its immigrants         between aboriginal people and
      and refugees                   immigrations.

                                   2. Fostering integration amongst
                                     people and  respecting the
                                     diversity of cultures.

8     Educating the democratic     1. Fostering the equality of
      citizenship values             men and women.

                                   2. Development of social,
                                     democratic awareness.

9     The municipal principles     1. Recognition, analysis and
      on social justice and          dissemination of  the cultural
      democratic people              heritage of the city.

                                   2.  Sustainable economic
                                     development.

                                   3. Fostering equality of
                                     educational  opportunities,
                                     communication and classroom
                                     integration.

10    Encouraging citizen          1. Development of national
        participation                integration and participation
                                     policies.

                                   2. Creating a sense of belonging
                                     to the city.

                                   3. Peaceful coexistence, and
                                     respect for cultura diversity.

1     Tactics

1     1. Adult education and training
        program in the city council.

      2. Providing vocational training to the
        youth population with low incomes.

2     1. Creating an IT workshop for seniors.

      2. Theatre and illustration class for
        educational program

3     1. Teaching computer to grandparents
        by youth.

      2. Youth and elderly cultural center.

4     1.  Youth information centers.

      2.  Municipal online newsletter.

5     1. Park, an area for education projects.

      2. Held educational exhibitions, and
        street theaters, in the city.

6     1. Internet and library in bus project.

      2. Defending our environmental
        groups.

7     1. International cooking workshops.

      2. Meeting of legal immigrants,
        in the city.

8     1. national programs on human rights.

      2. Peoples' house in city council.

9     1. Social community network in
        pursuit of justice.

      2. Voice of community radio project

10    1.  Making new city program.

      2. Initiative groups for integration
        in the city.
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Article Details
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Author:Amini, Masoome; Mahdavinejad, Mohammadjavad; Bemanian, Mohammad Reza; Varzaneh, Elham Hatami
Publication:Journal of Architecture and Urbanism
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2014
Words:6386
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