Printer Friendly

Detection of Chlamydia psittaci Genotypes Among Birds in Northeast Iran.

Abstract: We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n= 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.

Key words: Chlamydia psittaci, chlamydiosis, avian, Psittaciformes, Columbiformes, ompA gene, nested-PCR

Introduction

Chlamydiosis, or psittacosis/ornithosis in people, is caused by infection with Chlamydia psittaci, an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium. (1) According to the most recent classification, the Chlamydiaceae family with a single genus Chlamydia consists of 12 species including C pneumoniae, C abortus, C caviae, C felis, C psittaci, C muridarum, C pecorum, C suis, C trachomatis, C avium, C gallinacea, and C ibidis. (2,3) Recently, two new Chlamydia species (C avium in pigeons and C gallinacea in poultry) have been detected. C psittaci is considered to be the main agent of chlamydiosis in birds. (4)

C psittaci is transmitted primarily from infected birds to other susceptible birds in close proximity, and it has been detected in at least 467 species of birds belonging to 30 various bird orders. (5) The order Psittaciformes contains 153 Chlamydia-positive bird species. (6) Parrots (Psittaciformes) and pigeons (Columbiformes) have the highest infection rates. (6) Clinical disease depends on the chlamydial strain, avian host, age of the bird, degree of exposure, and stress and environmental factors. (7,8) Clinical signs and lesions can include pericarditis, hepatitis, splenitis, peritonitis, conjunctivitis, air sacculitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, anorexia, weight loss, and urate discoloration. (9,10) The main reservoirs of C psittaci are captive and wild birds. (11) All C psittaci genotypes are transmissible to people. (1) Infection is transmitted through inhaling the urine, dried feces, or respiratory secretions of an infected bird; a bite from or mouth-to-beak contact with an infected bird; or handling the plumage and tissues of an infected bird. (10,12) The symptoms of the disease in people are mainly nonspecific, similar to influenza. Severe pneumonia, endocarditis, and encephalitis are uncommon symptoms of ornithosis in humans, which can progress and sometimes cause death. (13) Unfortunately, a licensed vaccine against chlamydial infection in humans has not yet been promoted. (14)

Different diagnostic methods are used to detect C psittaci infection. (15) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one specific and sensitive method. (16) Nested-PCR, developed by Kaltenbock et al., has higher sensitivity compared to other diagnostic protocols to detect C psittaci infection. (17,18) Previous studies on bird populations in Iran have shown C psittaci infection prevalence of 23.5% in pet birds, (9) 14.3% in pigeons, (19) 12.6% in pet and wild birds, (12) and 0% in turkey flocks. (20)

Our study was performed in Khorasan from September 2015 to June 2016. To our knowledge, no previous studies have reported the prevalence and genotyping of C psittaci infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic birds in northeastern provinces (formerly Great Khorasan) of Iran.

Materials and Methods

Sample collection

A total of 200 (70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds) samples from 2 avian orders and 12 avian species were collected between 2015 and 2016 (Table 1) in the northeast of Iran and evaluated for the presence of C psittaci. The collected samples were choanal cleft and/or cloacal swab samples or freshly voided feces in live birds and/or samples of visceral organs including liver, lungs, and spleen from dead birds. Symptoms related to chlamydiosis (anorexia, weight loss, ocular or nasal secretions, and diarrhea with yellow-green urates) were used to select symptomatic birds. Afterwards, swab samples were placed into 1.5-mL (sucrose phosphate glutamate [SPG]) (21) dilution.

Molecular identification

For DNA extraction, we used the High Pure PCR preparation kit (Denazist Asia, Mashhad, Iran) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Based on the primers described by Sachse and Hotzel (15) and under similar conditions, C psittaci was detected by nested PCR using 191CHOMP (5'-GCI YTI TGG GAR TGY GGI TGY GCI AC-3')-CHOMP371 (5'-TTA GAA IC [GT] GAA TTG IGC [AG] [TC] IA GTG IGC IGC TT-3') primers. These produced an amplicon of 576 to 597 base pairs (bp; genus specific) in the first round, which can detect all chlamydial organisms. Then 218PSITT(5'-GTA ATT TCI AGC CCA GCA CAA TTY GTG-3')-CHOMP336 (5'-CCR CAA GMT TTT CTR GAY TTC AWY TTG TTR AT -3') primers (species-specific) were used, which produced 389 to 404 bp amplicon in the second round with some modifications that can only detect C psittaci, C abortus, C felis, and C caviae. (15) The temperature-time profile steps were based on the study by Sachse and Hotzel. (15)

CTU/CTL PCR for sequencing

Positive samples in nested-PCR were used for outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing with a 1050 bp DNA PCR product using oligonucleotide CTU(5'-ATG AAA AAA CTC TTG AAA TCG G-3')/CTL(5'-CAA GAT TTT CTA GAY TTC ATY TTG TT-3') primers. (22) The DNA extract of IR110SR isolate, which has been described previously, (23) was used as positive control, and sterile water was used as negative control for all PCR reactions. Amplification steps were based on the study by Sayada et al. (22)

Sequencing and genotyping

Manual editing of the sequenced samples was performed by ChromasPro (version 2.1.4; Technelysium Pty Ltd, South Brisbane, Australia) software, partial sequences were aligned with CLC software (CLC Main Workbench version 7; Qaigen, Aarhus, Denmark), and the phylogenetic tree was constructed using different genotype sequences deposited in Gen Bank. Reference sequences of C psittaci and C caviae ompA genes are available in GenBank. The accession numbers of the reference genotype sequences used for multiple alignment analysis are shown in Table 2. To test the association between the presence of clinical signs and the occurrence of C psittaci infection, a [chi square] test was used (IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0; available in the public domain at https://www.ibm.com/ products/spss-statistics). Results were considered significant at P [less than or equal to] .05.

Results

In this study, we detected 18.5% (37/200) of C. psittaci by nested PCR among asymptomatic and symptomatic birds (25.7% [18/70] and 14.6% [19/ 130], respectively). Only 14 PCR products of the 37 positive samples (8 symptomatic and 6 asymptomatic birds) were CTU/CTL PCR-positive and also were subjected to sequencing (Table 3). Positive samples in symptomatic birds included 9 cloacal, 7 choanal cleft, and 2 double swab samples (cloaca and choanal cleft swabs). All positive samples of asymptomatic birds were cloacal swab samples, except for 2 choanal swab samples. All asymptomatic bird samples were collected from Psittaciformes, whereas symptomatic bird specimens were collected from Psittaciformes and Columbiformes. In the Psittaciformes order, 26.2% and 14.6% were C psittaci-positive in symptomatic and asymptomatic birds, respectively. Moreover, 20% of symptomatic Columbiformes were positive for C psittaci. Most swab samples were collected from cockatiels (N hollandicus) with a high detection rate of chlamydiosis. In symptomatic birds, the highest prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was diagnosed in Alexandrine parakeets (P eupatria; 40%) in asymptomatic birds, highest prevalence rates were in ring-necked parakeets (P kramerr, 45.5%) and also in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica; 100%, 1 positive of 1 sample collection).

Of 14 positive samples by CTU/CTL PCR assay genotyped by ompA gene sequencing, 10 had 100% sequence identity with genotype A, comprising 5 cockatiels, 2 ring-necked parakeets (P krameri), and 3 Congo African grey parrots (P erithacus). Genotype B was detected in 2 ring-necked parakeets and 1 rock dove (C livia). Provisional genotype I was detected in 1 cockatiel. All positive samples of asymptomatic birds belonged to genotype A, whereas positive samples of symptomatic birds showed various genotypes, including A, B, and provisional genotype I. Accordingly, 100% of asymptomatic and 50% of symptomatic positive samples showed genotype A, whereas 37.5% and 12.5% of symptomatic positive samples showed genotype B and provisional genotype I, respectively (Table 3, Fig. 1). No significant association was observed between presence of clinical signs and occurrence of C psittaci infection in birds in this study.

Discussion

Chlamydia psittaci can cause symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in avian species with intermittent shedding of the organism from infected birds. We examined the prevalence of C psittaci in 200 samples from birds comprising 12 avian species using a sensitive, nested-PCR detection assay. Although various methods are available to identify C psittaci infection, such as cell culture, serology, embryonated chicken egg inoculation, and so forth, PCR is a more sensitive technique. (24,25) Based on results reported by Sachse and Hotzel, (15) sensitivity was higher with nested-PCR compared to cell culture. Conversely, there is risk of contamination and false-positive results with nested PCR. However, PCR and cell culture were nearly equivalent in specificity. (15) Historically, cell culture has been accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis; however, molecular techniques currently are much preferred. (25) Isolation by cell culture can only be performed in specialized biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratories (Iranian Universities have no access to such laboratories). Therefore, cell culture requires experienced laboratory personnel, is time consuming, some chlamydial strains simply do not grow in cell cultures or embryonated eggs, and finally, isolation depends on the presence of a sufficient number of viable infectious chlamydial elementary bodies. (8,15)

We examined the prevalence of C psittaci infection in 11 species of psittacine and one species of nonpsittacine birds (pigeons). Choanal and cloacal samples were taken from asymptomatic (n = 130) and symptomatic (n = 70) birds. Of 200 double samples, C psittaci was detected in 37 birds; 25.7% and 14.6% in symptomatic and asymptomatic birds, respectively. Few studies regarding chlamydial prevalence among avian species in Iran, especially in asymptomatic birds, have been published. In 2013, Madani and Peighambari (12) reported that in the Tehran province, 12.6% of 253 samples from 27 avian species belonging to 7 orders were positive; however, they did not report the number of samples obtained from symptomatic or asymptomatic birds. Cell culture isolation of 4 of these samples was reported. (9)

Detecting Chlamydia species from >45% of parrot species sampled confirmed that psittacine birds could be considered as the predominant reservoir of this bacterium among birds. (26) We only tested 5 samples taken from different pigeon squabs with 1 (20%) positive sample; however, some studies have suggested pigeons as the natural reservoir of C psittaci, with a high prevalence. (26-29) Madani and Peighambari (12) also reported that 5 of 28 (17.8%) rock doves tested in Tehran province were positive, which is in agreement with our findings (20%), although we had fewer samples. Similarly, Sariya et al (1) found that 10.8% of the asymptomatic feral pigeons in central Thailand were positive.

An important finding of this study is that the samples from asymptomatic household parrots had the same positive rate (51%; 19/37) as symptomatic parrots (49%; 18/37). This shows almost equal frequency of C psittaci infection among symptomatic and asymptomatic pet birds and could be regarded as a potential infection risk for owners and veterinary staff.

Only 14 of 37 positive samples were CTU/CTL PCR-positive, and this could be due to a lower sensitivity of CTU/CTL PCR compared to the diagnostic nested PCR, as noted by other researchers especially in clinical samples. (12,30)

Phylogenetic tree construction based on neucleotide sequences from this study and published reference sequences deposited in the GenBank revealed that our sequenced strains fall into 3 distinguished clusters mainly with 100% identity with genotype A and in second place with reference genotype B (Fig 1).

Genotype A is endemic among Psittaciformes (African grey parrots, cockatoos, lories, and parakeets) and is considered a major source of human infection. This genotype also has been identified in chickens, turkeys, and wild birds. (30) Genotype B is endemic among pigeons and it also has been reported in psittacine birds, turkeys, and chickens, (31,32) while provisional genotype I was detected in 6 African grey parrots. (12) Madani and Peighambari (12) reported that the provisional genotype I is related to African grey parrots; however, our study has suggested a wider range of hosts for this genotype, because we have detected provisional genotype I in a cockatiel, which is the first report of this genotype in this species.

To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of C psittaci in a superb parrot (Polytelis swainsonii), a green-cheeked parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae), and an orange-winged Amazon parrot in Iran.

All C psittaci genotypes are transmissible to people, and all genotypes are considered a serious threat to those who are in close contact with infected birds. (5) The high virulence of genotype A in people could possibly be related to: (1) high virulence of this genotype for psittacine species, which excrete the bacterium in large amounts for long periods of time, and (2) intensive exposure to Psittaciformes, as the main bird source of these genotypes, which are kept frequently as pets inside the home. (6)

The high infection rate found in our study is a potential threat to public health, especially in Mashhad as the second biggest pilgrimage city in the Middle East and as one of the trade centers for psittacine and passerine birds. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence of C psittaci in pigeons, captive passerine birds, and specific species of popular parrots in Iran and also to establish the genotypes circulating in these birds.

In conclusion, we recommend that health administrators and local veterinary organizations implement control programs, such as regular sampling from all imported birds to prevent smuggling and regular monitoring, international quarantine protocols, and educational programs for owners and domestic breeders to prevent possible transimission of C psittaci.

Acknowledgments: Supported by Grants 40447 and 41920 from the Research Council of the University of Mashhad. We thank Ali Kargar for his assistance in laboratory work.

Abbasi Mina, DVM, Akbarzadeh Fatemeh, DVM, and Razmyar Jamshid, DVM, DVSc

From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Mashhad. Iran (Mina. Fatemeh. Jamshid); the Department of Avian Diseases (Jamshid), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. University of Tehran. Tehran. Iran (Jamshid).

References

(1.) Sariya L, Prompiram P. Tangsudjai S, et al. Detection and characterization of Chlamydophila psittaci in asymptomatic feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in central Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2015;8(2):94-97.

(2.) Vorimore F, Hsia R Ching, Huot-Creasy H, et al. Isolation of a new Chlamydia species from the feral sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus): Chlamydia ibidis. PLoS One. 2013:8(9):1-11.

(3.) Sachse K, Bavoil PM, Kaltenboeck B, et al. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus. Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2015:38(2): 99-103.

(4.) Sachse K, Laroucau K, Riege K, et al. Evidence for the existence of two new members of the family Chlamydiaceae and proposal of Chlamydia avium sp. now and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. no v. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2014;37(2):79-88.

(5.) Longbottom D, Coulter L.I. Animal chlamydioses and zoonotic implications. J Comp Pathol. 2003; 128(4):217-244.

(6.) Kaleta EF, Taday EM. Avian host range of Chlamydophila spp. based on isolation, antigen detection and serology. Avian Pathol. 2003;32(5): 435-461.

(7.) De Freitas Raso T, Seixas GHF, Guedes NMR. Pinto AA. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Vet Microbiol. 2006; 117(2-4):235-241.

(8.) Harkinezhad T, Geens T, Vanrompay D. Chlamydophila psittaci infections in birds: A review with emphasis on zoonotic consequences. Vet Microbiol. 2009; 135(1-2):68-77.

(9.) Madani SA, Peighambari SM, Barin A. Archive of SID Isolation of Chlamydophila psittaci from pet birds in Iran Archive of SID. Int J Vet Res. 2011; 5(2):95-98.

(10.) European Commission. Avian chlamydiosis as a zoonotic disease and risk reduction strategies. Sci Comm Anim Heal Anim Welf. 2002;(April):26.

(11.) Andersen A, Vanrompay D. Avian chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis). In: Saif YM, Fadly AM, Glisson JR, et al, eds. Diseases of Poultry. 12th ed. Ames, I A: Blackwell Publishing; 2008:971-986.

(12.) Madani SA, Peighambari SM. PCR-based diagnosis, molecular characterization and detection of atypical strains of avian Chlamydia psittaci in companion and wild birds. Avian Pathol. 2013; 42(1):38-44.

(13.) Cross BA. Psittacosis: a clinical review. J Infect. 1990;21 (3):251 259.

(14.) Ran O, Liang M. Yu J, et al. Recombinant protein CPSIT_0846 induces protective immunity against Chlamydia psittaci infection in BALB/c mice. Pathog Dis. 2017;75(3):1-7.

(15.) Sachse K, Hotzel H. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydiae by nested PCR. Methods Mol Biol. 2003;216:123-136.

(16.) Mahony JB, Luinstra KE, Sellors JW, Chernesky MA. Comparison of plasmid- and chromosomebased polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31 (7): 1753-1758.

(17.) Kaltenbock B, Schmeer N, Schneider R. Evidence for numerous ompl alleles of porcine Chlamydia trachomatis and novel chlamydial species obtained by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35(7):1835-1841.

(18.) Sachse K, Vretou E, Livingstone M, et al. Recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of chlamydial infections. Vet Microbiol. 2009; 135(1-2):2-21.

(19.) Doosti A, Arshi A. Determination of the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci by PCR in Iranian pigeons. Int J Biol. 2011 ;3(4):79 82.

(20.) Tatari Z, Peighambari SM. Madani S. Detection of chlamydial infection in Iranian turkey flocks. Iran J Vet Med. 2016;10(2):83-90.

(21.) Spencer WN, Johnson FW. Simple transport medium for the isolation of Chlamydia psittaci from clinical material. Vet Rec. 1983;113(23):535-536.

(22.) Sayada C, Andersen AA, Storey CH, et al. Usefulness of ompl restriction mapping for avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate differentiation. Res Microbiol. 1995; 146(2): 155-165.

(23.) Razmyar J, Rajabioun M, Zaeemi M. Afshari A. Molecular identification and successful treatment of Chlamydophila psittaci (genotype B) in a clinically affected Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Iran J Vet Res. 2016:17(4): 281-285.

(24.) McElnea CL, Cross GM. Methods of detection of Chlamydia psittaci in domesticated and wild birds. Aust Vet J. 1999;77(8):516-521.

(25.) Celebi BS, Ak S. A comparative study of detecting Chlamydophila psittaci in pet birds using isolation in embryonated egg and polymerase chain reaction. Avian Dis. 2006;50(4):489-493.

(26.) Chahota R, Ogawa H. Mitsuhashi Y, et al. Genetic diversity and epizootiology of Chlamydophila psittaci prevalent among the captive and feral avian species based on VD2 region of ompA gene. Microbiol Immunol. 2006;50(9):663-678.

(27.) Haag-Wackernagel D, Moch H. Health hazards posed by feral pigeons. J Infect. 2004;48(4):307-313.

(28.) Heddema ER, Van Hannen EJ, Duim B. et al. Genotyping of Chlamydophila psittaci in human samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12(12); 1989-1990.

(29.) Vazquez B, Esperon F. Neves E, et al. Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in Madrid. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52(1):45.

(30.) Harkinezhad T, Verminnen K, Van Droogenbroeck C. Vanrompay D. Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56(8): 1097-1100.

(31.) Heddema ER, Ter Sluis S, Buys J A, et al. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in fecal drop pings from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72(6): 4423-4425.

(32.) Sachse K, Kuehlewind S, Ruettger A, et al. More than classical Chlamydia psittaci in urban pigeons. Vet Microbiol. 2012; 157(3-4):476-480.

Caption: Figure 1. The phylogram was constructed from nucleotide sequences of the ompA gene. The phylogenetic tree was rooted by the ompA gene sequence of Chlamydia caviae. The name of the isolate and genotyping were used to represent our isolates and related references.
Table 1. The incidence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in various
symptomatic and asymptomatic bird species that were sampled
clinically and diagnosed by nested PCR targeting of the ompA gene.

                                                 Samples (n)

Order               Species       Scientific     Symptomatic
                                     name           birds

Psittaciformes    Congo         Psiltacus             9
                  African       erithacus
                  grey parrot

                  Timneh        Psittacus             4
                  African       timneh
                  grey parrot

                  Ring-necked   Psittaca              9
                  parakeet      humeri

                  Alexandrine   Psittacii             5
                  parakeet      eupatria

                  Cockatiel     Nymphicus            28
                                hollandicus

                  Lovebird      Agapornis             2
                                roseicollis

                  Budgerigar    Melopsittacus         4
                                undulatus

                  Orange-       Amazona               1
                  winged        amazonica
                  Amazon

                  Superb        Polytelis            --
                  parrot        Swainsonii

                  Barred        Bolhorhynclius        3
                  parakeet      lineola

                  Green-        Pvrrhura             --
                  cheeked       molinae
                  parakeet

Columbiformes     Rock dove     Columha livia         5

                                Samples (n)    Number (%)
                                                positive

Order               Species     Asymptomatic   Symptomatic
                                   birds         samples

Psittaciformes    Congo              12         1 (11.1%)
                  African
                  grey parrot

                  Timneh             --             0
                  African
                  grey parrot

                  Ring-necked        11         3 (33.3%)
                  parakeet

                  Alexandrine        4           2 (40%)
                  parakeet

                  Cockatiel          62        10 (35.7%)

                  Lovebird           20             0

                  Budgerigar         --          1 (25%)

                  Orange-            1              0
                  winged
                  Amazon

                  Superb             4             --
                  parrot

                  Barred             6              0
                  parakeet

                  Green-             10            --
                  cheeked
                  parakeet

Columbiformes     Rock dove          --          1 (20%)

                                 Number (%)
                                  positive

Order               Species     Asymptomatic    Total
                                  samples      positive
                                                 (%)

Psittaciformes    Congo          4 (33.3%)      23.8%
                  African
                  grey parrot

                  Timneh             --           0%
                  African
                  grey parrot

                  Ring-necked    5 (45.5%)       40%
                  parakeet

                  Alexandrine        0          22.2%
                  parakeet

                  Cockatiel       5 (8.1%)      16.7%

                  Lovebird         1 (5%)        4.5%

                  Budgerigar         --          25%

                  Orange-         1 (100%)       50%
                  winged
                  Amazon

                  Superb          1 (25%)        25%
                  parrot

                  Barred             0            0%
                  parakeet

                  Green-          2 (20%)        20%
                  cheeked
                  parakeet

Columbiformes     Rock dove          --          20%

Table 2. Accession numbers of ompA gene sequences of
Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia caviae used in this
study to detect Chlamydia species in samples collected
from 200 Psittaformes and Columbiformes birds.

Psittaciformes      Genotype      Acccssion No.

C psittaci        A               AY762608
C psittaci        B               AY762609
C psittaci        C               L25436
C psittaci        D               AF269266
C psittaci        E               X12647.1
C psittaci        F               AF269259
C psittaci        E/B             AY762613
C psittaci        M56             AF269268
C psittaci        WC              AF269269
C psittaci        Provisional I   HQ845540
C psittaci        Provisional J   HQ845545
C caviae          --              AF269282

Table 3. Genotyping using CTU and CTL primers (ompA partial
DNA sequencing) of Cpsittaci-positive samples from
14 Psittaciformes and Columbiformes birds.

Psittaciformes              Host              Asymptomatic/
                                               symptomatic

MFR100IR          Ring-necked parakeet            S (a)
MFR201IR          Cockatiel                         S
MFR202IR          Cockatiel                         S
MFR005IR          Cockatiel                         S
MFR006IR          Rock dove                         s
MFR4731R          Cockatiel                         s
MFR4381R          Ring-necked parakeet              s
MFR459IR          Cockatiel                         s
MFR001IR          Ring-necked parakeet            A (b)
MFR002IR          Ring-necked parakeet              A
MFR008IR          Cockatiel                         A
MFR012IR          Congo African grey parrot         A
MFR424IR          Congo African grey parrot         A
MFR325IR          Congo African grey parrot         A


Psittaciformes      Genotype       GenBank
                                  accession
                                   number

MFR100IR          B               KY924646
MFR201IR          A               KY924636
MFR202IR          A               KY924637
MFR005IR          A               KY914493
MFR006IR          B               KY924638
MFR4731R          Provisional I   KY924639
MFR4381R          B               KY924641
MFR459IR          A               KY924640
MFR001IR          A               KY924647
MFR002IR          A               KY924644
MFR008IR          A               KY924645
MFR012IR          A               KY914492
MFR424IR          A               KY924642
MFR325IR          A               KY924643

(a) Symptomatic.

(b) Asymptomatic.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Association of Avian Veterinarians
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Mina, Abbasi; Fatemeh, Akbarzadeh; Jamshid, Razmyar
Publication:Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Mar 1, 2019
Words:3915
Previous Article:Plasma Biochemical and Lipid Panel Reference Intervals in Common Mynahs (Acridotheres tristis).
Next Article:Ex Vivo Biomechanical Comparison of Titanium Locking Plate, Stainless Steel Nonlocking Plate, and Tie-in External Fixator Applied by a Dorsal...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters