Design of printed Yagi antenna with additional driven element for WLAN applications.
Most wireless local area network (WLAN) applications utilize omnidirectional antennas . However, directional antennas such as printed Yagi arrays have been employed to suppress unwanted radio frequency emissions as well as unwanted interference in other directions. Yagi antennas have been utilized in industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) applications at 2.4 GHz where directional radiation is necessary for long distance wireless communications and point-to-point communications. When designing Yagi antennas, the focus is generally on compromising the performance of the gain, front-to-back (F/B) ratio and the bandwidth. In , it is demonstrated that, basically, none of these factors can be optimized without sacrificing the others.
There have been many printed Yagi antenna configurations that have been presented over the last 20 years [3-7]. The use of Yagi antenna designs in microstrip technology was first proposed by Huang in 1989 which consists of one reflector, one driven element, and two directors. These four patches are arranged on the same substrate surface in a way that the overall antenna characteristics are enhanced . To increase the gain, Densmore and Huang introduced stacked Yagi antennas (each antenna consisting four elements) in four rows and excited the driven elements simultaneously . This design can achieve a gain as high as 14dBi, but F/B ratios around 4-5 dB may not be suitable for some applications. In [8, 9], a successful attempt to improve the F/B ratio of printed Yagi array antenna for WLAN and millimeter-wave applications was proposed. Additionally, in  a multiple-reflector structure is proposed to improve the F/B ratio of printed Yagi antennas without significantly sacrificing gain. However, the proposed design is suitable for planar array application.
In this paper, a design of printed Yagi antenna with one additional driven element is proposed to improve the radiation characteristics of the array in both forward and backward radiations. It is well-known that by increasing the length of the radiating dipole the radiation characteristics change and main beam becomes narrower. For proper dipole length, one could adjust the relative amplitude and phase of the excitation of the additional dipole to bring the main lobe of the additional dipole into alignment with the backside lobes of the original Yagi antenna pattern. Then, by subtracting the pattern of dipole antenna from that of the original Yagi array one could reduce the backside lobe in the radiation pattern of the original Yagi antenna.
Moreover, in some applications, such as interference from or to points off to one side or below the main lobe, the reduction in beam width is a more important consideration than the gain increase. In these applications, stacked Yagi antennas may be used to decrease the beamwidth [4, 9, 11]. However, unwanted large lobes may appear on each side of the main lobe with very low f/b ratio. These drawbacks can be overcome by the proposed antenna where beamwidth is reduced while maintaining a high f/b ratio with very low sidelobes level. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 contains the principle of the proposed antenna configuration. Measurement and simulation results are illustrated in Section 3. Also in this section, the proposed Yagi antenna is applied over a frequency range from 2.3 GHz to 2.5 GHz to account for its potential use in WLAN applications. Finally, conclusions are given in Section 4.
2. PRINCIPAL OF THE PROPOSED ANTENNA 2.1. Antenna Configurations
The configurations of the proposed Yagi antenna with additional driven element are depicted in Figure 1. The additional driven element may be arranged on collinear (see Figure 1(a)) or parallel (see Figure 1(b)) with the radiating element of the original Yagi antenna. These configurations consists of original Yagi antenna to produce high gain radiation pattern toward desired direction, and an additional radiating dipole with phase shifter as well as attenuator to produce low gain adjustable radiation pattern that can be used to reduce the unwanted backside radiation of the original Yagi antenna.
It should be mentioned that the use of two additional radiating elements with linear array (all elements are radiating) for sidelobe cancellation was studied in . However, the work presented in this paper involves the addition of one element only and the radiation characteristics can be controlled by changing its length. While the radiation characteristics in  was controlled by changing the separation distance between two additional elements. Furthermore, the measured results show that the technique of adding one radiating element is most effective for parasitic array like Yagi antenna.
2.1.1. Original Yagi Antenna
The Yagi antenna considered herein consists of K dipoles along the x-axes, namely, one reflector, one radiating dipole driven by a voltage generator, and the last K - 2 being the directors. In order to compute the gain of the Yagi array, we assume that the currents are sinusoidal. The vector of voltage is:
V = [[0, 1, 0, 0, ..., 0].sup.T] (1)
Then, we compute the mutual impedance matrix Z and the input currents I
I = [Z.sup.-1]V (2)
Once we have the input currents I = [[[I.sub.1], [I.sub.2], ... ,[I.sub.K]].sup.T], the radiation intensity is given by 
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (3)
Thus, the normalized gain of the array is computed by
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (4)
where K is number of elements, k = 2[pi]/[lambda] the wave number, [lambda] the wavelength, [h.sub.p] the half-length of the pth element, and xp the coordinates for p = 1, 2, ..., K.
Equations (2) and (4) provide a complete solution to the problem of coupled antenna arrays, based on the sinusoidal approximation for the currents. In the special case of identical antennas, Equation (4) factors into an array factor and an element factor:
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (5)
Here the first factor represents the array factor while the second factor represents the element factor. The H-plane gain [G.sub.H]([psi]) is defined to be the azimuthal gain on the xy-plane corresponding to 0 = [pi]/2, and the E-plane gain [G.sub.E]([theta]) is defined to be the polar gain on any fixed azimuthal plane [psi] = [[psi].sub.o]. We assume that the lengths and spacing are such that the maximum gain is toward endfire, i.e., towards [theta] = 90[degrees], [psi] = 0[degrees]. The forward and backward gains are defined as:
[G.sub.f] = [G.sub.max] = G(90[degrees], 0) (6)
[G.sub.b] = G(90[degrees], 180[degrees]) (7)
Figure 2 presents calculated and measured radiation patterns (E-plane) of a seven-element equally spaced Yagi array. From these results there is good agreement between the measured and simulated radiation patterns. It is also observed that this antenna have a relatively large backward gain. By reducing the backward gain while maintaining high forward gain would be very useful for WLAN applications. The 3 dB beam width is approximately 44[degrees] for both measured and simulated patterns.
2.1.2. Dipole Antenna
For the dipole antenna, the radiation intensity can be written as
[U.sub.dipole] = [eta][[absolute value of [I.sub.o]].sup.2]/8[[pi].sup.2][[cos([kl/2]cos[theta]) - cos(kl/2)/sin [theta]].sup.2] (8)
The electric and magnetic field components of a dipole antenna can be written as 
[E.sub.[theta]] = j[eta][[I.sub.o][e.sup.-jkr]/2[pi]r][cos([kl/2]cos[theta]) - cos(kl/2)/sin[theta]] (9)
[H.sub.[psi]] = j[[I.sub.o][e.sup.-jkr]/2[pi]r][cos([kl/2]cis[theta]) - cos(kl/2)/sin[theta]] (10)
where [I.sub.o] constant, r is the radial distance and [theta] the polar angle. The normalized (to 0 dB) radiation pattern in E-plane of a half-wavelength dipole can be obtained from (8) by letting l = [lambda]/2. Doing this, it reduce to
[G.sup.([lambda]/2)dipole]([theta]) = [[cos([[pi]/2]cost[theta]/sin[theta]].sup.2] (11)
As can be seen from Equation (8) that the radiation intensity is a function of the length of the dipole (l). By varying l, its radiation characteristics can be adjusted. The normalized radiation patterns, as given by (8) for l = X/50, X/2, X, and 1.25X are plotted in Figure 3. The radiation pattern for an infinitesimal dipole l = X/50 is also included for comparison. It can be seen that as the length of the dipole antenna increases, the main beam becomes narrower. Because of that, the directivity should also increase with length. It is found that the 3 dB beamwidth of each is equal to
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
As the length of the dipole antenna increases beyond one wavelength (l > [lambda]), the number of lobes begin to increase. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the measured radiation patterns of the dipole antenna at two different lengths l = 0.490[lambda] (l = 5 cm) and l = 1.80[lambda] (l = 24.4 cm) respectively. As illustrated in Figure 4 and Figure 5, the measured radiation pattern of a dipole becomes more directional as its length increases. When the overall length is greater than one wavelength, the number of lobes increases and the dipole antenna loses its directional properties. However, the main beam and the beam width of the dipole antenna are two of the important parameters that need to be considered in the proposed method (as will be discussed in the following section).
2.2. Back Lobe Reduction
Consider the case where one radiating dipole is added to the Yagi array, as shown in Figure 1(c). Let the amplitude of its excitation be A and let the phase of its excitation be B. The total field radiated by the proposed antenna can be written,
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (12)
We wish to set the values of amplitude and phase excitation for added dipole so as to achieve the objective of a sector of reduced backward radiation centered at angle ([theta] = -90[degrees] and [psi] = 0[degrees]). The approach is to properly set the length of dipole (l) and phase (B) so that the lobes of the radiation pattern of the dipole antenna are matched in width to the backside lobes of the original Yagi antenna and then to set the amplitude to cancel the backside lobes of the original Yagi antenna in the desired angular region. We choose the length of the added dipole to be equal to l = 0.5[lambda] which is equal to the length of the original driven element of the yagi antenna and the phase of the added dipole is chosen to be B = [pi] resulting in
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (13)
It is now quite obvious that the desired goal can be achieved by properly setting the value of amplitude excitation (A) of the added dipole; that is, setting
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (14)
Results in a total field
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (15)
which obviously has a zero at [theta] = [[theta].sub.backlobe] and [psi] = [[psi].sub.backlobe] (that is [theta.sub.backlobe] = -90[degrees] and [[psi].sub.backlobe] = 0[degrees]). More importantly, however, it has a small magnitude in a wide region surrounding [[theta].sub.backlobe] = -90[degrees] by virtue of the matching of the back lobe widths discussed above.
This assumption is under the condition that the mutual effect between additional radiating dipole and original Yagi antenna is very small and may be neglected. To satisfy this requirement, first we need to study the effect of mutual coupling for two radiating dipoles that arranged either on parallel (side-by-side) or collinear . The mutual impedance, referred to the current maximum, based on the induced emf method of a side-by-side and a collinear arrangement of two dipoles is shown plotted in Figure 6. It is apparent that the side-by-side arrangement exhibits larger mutual effects since the dipoles are placed in the direction of maximum radiation. To this aim, the collinear configuration is adopted in this paper. To further reduce the effect of mutual coupling, the separation distance between two antennas is chosen to be more than 1.0[lambda] (see Figure 1(c)).
3. NUMERICAL AND MEASURED RESULTS
To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed antenna configuration described above, we measured the radiation pattern for different design. The original Yagi antenna consists of seven dipoles (one reflector, one radiating dipole, and five directors) their lengths and x-locations were in units of [lambda]
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
The proper values of the phase and amplitude excitation of the additional dipole are set by using 180 phase shifter and -10 dB attenuator. We begin with the case of l = 0.490[lambda] (or l = 5 cm), i.e., the length of the additional dipole is equal to the length of radiating dipole of the original Yagi antenna. The matching between beam widths of the original Yagi and added dipole is illustrated in Figure 7(a). For this case, the resulting pattern is shown in Figure 8. Note the reduction in the backward radiation. It is also apparent from Figure 7(b) that the best matching between these two aforementioned radiation patterns are occurs when we choose the length of dipole antenna l = 1.0[lambda] (or l = 12.4cm). The simulated and measured results for this case are shown in Figure 9. Note that the reduction in the backside radiation is extended over wide region centered at -90[degrees]. Note also the 3dB beamwidth is reduced from 44[degrees] in original Yagi to 38[degrees] in the proposed antenna. The gain of the original Yagi antenna was 11.9 dB, while the gain of the proposed antenna was 11.7dB. The front-to-back ratio at 2.4 GHz is higher than 20dB and is much higher than previous woks [8-10].
Note also that the measured patterns that were shown in Figures 8(b) and 9(b) differ slightly from the calculated patterns that are shown in Figures 8(a) and 8(b) especially at the center of the back lobes (i.e., around [theta] = -90[degrees] and [psi] = 0[degrees]). This asymmetry of the back lobes caused by the asymmetry of the measurement environments. The measurement of the radiation patterns are made in a normal room (i.e., it includes some structures such as computers, tables, ... etc.). Therefore, some differs exist in the measured results.
To demonstrate the major benefits, a performance comparison of the proposed configuration and stacked Yagi antennas [4,9] is provided. In this case, two printed Yagi antennas were combined (each Yagi consisting seven elements). For the purpose of fair comparison, the separation distance between two Yagi antennas was kept same as the distance between the added dipole and original Yagi in the proposed antenna. Also, collinear arrangement of these two stacked Yagi antennas was used The simulation and measured results for these two stacked Yagi antennas are shown in Figure 10. It can be seen that the large lobes have appeared on each side of the main lobe and 6 dB down. Although, the gain is increased about 1.6 dB but at the cost of high radiation in the unwanted directions and this may not be suitable for some applications
Finally, the original Yagi, proposed antennas (structure 1 and structure 2), and stacked two Yagi antennas were simulated over a frequency range from 2.3 GHz to 2.5 GHz to account for their bandwidth. The carrier frequency was set equal to 2.4 GHz in all antennas. The gain and VSWR versus frequency are depicted in Figure 11. Note that the good performance of the structure one (VSWR [less than or equal to] 1.9 and gain > 11 dBi) is maintained over a frequency range from 2.3 GHz up to 2.45 GHz. Note also the gain of the stacked two Yagi antennas was increased about 1.6 dB in most frequency range. However, it have values of VSWR > 5 at 2.4 GHz.
In this paper, the design of the Yagi antenna with an additional radiating dipole has been presented for WLAN applications. The radiation characteristics of the proposed array in both forward and backward radiation were significantly improved. The additional dipole is arranged on collinear to the radiating dipole of the original Yagi antenna. In comparison to an original Yagi antenna, measurement of the proposed antenna has improvement in F/B ratio more than 15 dB at 2.4 GHz
Moreover, the proposed antenna was compared to well-designed two stacked Yagi antennas (each Yagi has seven elements). These two Yagi antennas were aligned on collinear with separation distance about 6 cm. The gain was increased about 1.6 dB but at the cost of larger sidelobes and backward radiation. On the other hand, the proposed antenna can simultaneously achieve high gain with a very low radiation in back lobe and side lobes directions.
The principal of the new antenna array may be extended to various types of antennas.
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Jafar R. Mohammed *
Communication Engineering Department, College of Electronic Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
* Corresponding author: Jafar Ramadhan Mohammed (email@example.com).
Received 12 December 2012, Accepted 28 January 2013, Scheduled 31 January 2013
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|Title Annotation:||wireless local area network|
|Author:||Mohammed, Jafar R.|
|Publication:||Progress In Electromagnetics Research C|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2013|
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