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Design and analysis of weld fume extraction and filter apparatus.

INTRODUCTION

The most serious issues in our world environment is pollution particularly air pollution. The air can be polluted by various aspects. Mostly air is polluted because of industry dissipates and automobiles exhausts. In this concept we introduce a new method to filter the welding fumes. The fumes that come from welding spot is known as welding fumes. It is more detrimental to human life and to environment. Various welding process are used now a days to produce permanent joining of parts into product. During welding process mostly nitrous oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide ,metal oxide ,chromium, magnesium, aluminum etc. In most of the industries only they extracts the fumes based on some categories.

The most serious issues in our world environment is pollution particularly air pollution. The air can be polluted by various aspects. Mostly air is polluted because of industry dissipates and automobiles exhausts. There are various types of fume extraction systems are installed in many industries.

The first category is referred to as tip extraction apparatus. This method is typically used in applications such as integral extraction of GMA welding fumes extensively at their source [5]. In electronic industry the workers are exposed to solder fumes containing colophony cause severe asthma problems [1] and it also cause lungs cancer and occupational asthma [2]. The Smaller arm extraction systems usually comprise an arm connected to a remote vacuum apparatus. In smaller arm extraction systems, it has been a very difficult task to achieve desired volume rates and adequate pressures required for adequate alteration without creating the systems excessively large and loud in early days. During metal joining process workers are affected by intrinsic asthma, extrinsic atopic asthma, or asthma with allergic Broncho pulmonary aspergillosis were hankie typed for the HLA A, B, and C loci [3]. All patients who are workers of industries affected with red cedar asthma demonstrated bronchial hyper reactivity to methacholine to the same extent as patients with nonoccupational asthma [4].

The fume extraction torch with LEV integrated into the tool of GMA fume extraction system is the mainly pretty solution but its capture efficiency is often disappointing in practice of some defects of overheating [6]. In detergent industry, the workers not able to breathe freely due to momentous loss of pulmonary elastic recoil causing increased lung volumes and pulmonary compliance [7]. In some metal manufacturing industries, the toxic chromium in the fumes are get filtered by using ultrasonic extraction system [8].

In crushing industry a bag type filter is used for trapping the fine particulates of toxic fumes [12]. A noticeable disadvantage to the fume extraction apparatus with remote vacuum and alter arrangements is that they are not suitably adjustable in different situations another drawback to apparatus with remote vacuum and alter arrangements is that they lean towards to be inefficient. The main dust collection and gas cleaning systems arranged in iron and steel industry are described in two parts. One part deals with the collection of fume from electric arc furnaces and another part is described a number of fabric filters and mechanical cleaners. The light weight fume extraction system focused mainly on ship welding [9]. The main objective is to create good clean comfortable environment to welders. Due to this the workers work fast and they finished their task very effectively. The method of controlling the fumes comes during the industrial process, they include depending on the variety and quantity of weld fume produced [10]. The survey of the metal joining industry says that the manganese easily contaminated into the blood of human kind [11].

The toxins can be controlled by three different ways including dilution aeration, ambient air collection using weakening air, an air cleaning device. Source captures using an Electrostatic precipitator cartridge. These are all having the function of extracting the fumes released during welding process. Some apparatus having filters for fumes. Those all are mostly safe guard the workers but they did not prevent the environment from effects of industrial fumes. Hence it should be filter to precaution the environment from that harmful fume in our concept we filter some toxic fumes using a set of three different filters that have the tendency to absorb the harmful toxic content present in the fumes.

Objectives:

The objective of our concept is to protect the welders as well as the environment from air pollution which is caused by the fumes released during welding process. This is done by extracting the toxic gases released during the welding process followed by filtration using filters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A fume extraction and filter apparatus looks like square block. A motor and fan are fixed at the lower back face of the block. Fan is used to extract the fumes and draws into the apparatus. A flexible pipe with conical inlet opening (duct) in one edge. And the other edge of that pipe is fixed to the apparatus. There are three layers of filters for filtration purpose. The first layer contains Silicone crystal. In the second layer, Carbon rods are placed. Finally, the top layer contains KOH Filter paper.

Parts:

1. Inlet duct ventilation 2. Inlet tube 3. Inlet fan cover 4. Regulator for fan 5. Outlet of apparatus 7. First filter arrangement (KOH Filter) 8. Second filter arrangement (Copper Coated Graphite Rod) 9. Third filter arrangement (Silicone Crystal) 10. Dc motor 11. Fan

Silicone crystal:

It appears as blue in color. It has the capability to absorb moisture content in the atmosphere. It also used to absorb the dust

Particles present in the atmosphere. It is mostly used in chemical manufacturing laboratories, used in transformer for supply fresh air into the oil tank to prevent the formation of corrosion of the tank of transformer, it is used as a mask in world war second to safe guard the soldiers from the biological weapons and also used as a filter for HEFA.

Copper coated graphite rod:

Properties:

It appears like a reddish brown .it is able to gasifying the carbon into carbon dioxide .it also have the capability to absorb carbon.

The weld fume comes during welding is to be extract and draws into the housing by the fan placed at the bottom face of the block. The fume first passes through silicone crystal layer, after which it passes through the copper coated graphite rod. Then the air travels across the KOH filter paper before exhausting to the atmosphere. The filters used are having the capability to absorb the toxic particles present in the weld fume, making it purified before it reaches the atmosphere. The fan which is used for suction purpose, is run by DC motor. If the filter exists its limit, it should be replaced by a door like opening in the front of the apparatus.

KOH filter paper:

The third and final filter layer of the apparatus is KOH filter paper. The normal filter paper is taken that have the size of 0.2[micro]m.the KOH is taken in a normality of 0.5. The filter paper is made to dip into the KOH. After that the dipped filter paper becomes dry. Finally we get a KOH filter paper. This filter have the tendency to trap the toxic content present in the atmosphere.

Filter apparatus include especially top and bottom surface of housing for flowing of fume from bottom to top of an apparatus. If the filter reaches its limit, it should be replaced for securing good efficiency. Hence it has door like opening in the front face of fume extraction and filter apparatus. The inlet 1 leads into the housing 4 and is in flow communication with an outlet 5 in the top portion.

A motor 10 is liable in the housing. A fan 11 is also liable in the housing 27 and is drivable by the motor 10 to draw air into the inlet 1 and cause the air to exit through the outlet 5. A filter is liable in the housing between the inlet 1 and the outlet 5. And it is arranged to filter air drawn in the inlet before the air exits through the outlet.

The apparatus having the dimensions that should be depend upon the area of using this apparatus. The flow of fumes inside the apparatus is controlled by varying speed of fan using regulator (resistor). To accomplish desired high volume flow rates, low noise Levels, and small sizes, the apparatus 5 is preferably Provided With features that cooperate to yield a more compact and powerful apparatus.

DC motor offers the advantage of a higher power output than a AC motor of considerably the same size. Moreover, the use of a DC motor offers the advantage of providing an apparatus with less susceptible to variations in performance than an AC motor. For example, performance characteristics of AC motors tend to vary depending upon whether the motor is being used with a conventional US power supply or used with a conventional European power supply.

It is observed that combining a DC motor 10 with a fan assembly 11 has been discovered to be capable of yielding exceptionally effective air moving equipment requiring a minimum of space while operating at low noise levels. The assembly of fan and motor is aimed specifically for the purpose that the motor has prelubricated double ball bearing and is provided with class A and E insulation. Thus it is a charming, quiet motor that lasts extensive and deliver the maximum output at lower operating cost.

Between the inlet and the outlet, a set of three filters are installed into the apparatus assembly. First the fumes are extracted and then the fumes are made to pass through a set of filters for filtering the toxic fumes. Fumes that flow from bottom to top of the setup. Toxic fumes first pass through the silicone gel. Then it flows through the copper coated graphite rod. At last the toxic fumes are made to pass through the KOH filter. Finally the filtered fumes exit through the outlet of the setup. The fume extraction and filter having the features of present invention can reduce the toxic content present in the fumes through the filters used.

Results:

The fumes that comes during welding process are more harmful .it can be extracted and filtered by present invention. Before the filtration process the weight of Activate charcoal are less when compared with the weight of graphite rod after the filtration process. Before the filtration process the weight of Alum filter paper are less when compared with the weight of Alum filter paper after the filtration process. But the silicone gel turns pink colour after the filtration process.

Silicone crystal

Before welding Weight = 1 kg Appearance of color = Blue

In our present invention silicone crystal is used as a first filter. The fumes that draws into the housing is made to pass through the silicone crystal first. Due to this the harmful effects of toxic fumes are absorbed by the crystal. Before welding the weight of silicone crystal is 1 kg but after the completion of 1 hour of welding process using 30 electrodes, the weight of silicone crystal is increased as 1.036 kg. Hence it is conclude that about 0.337 kg of toxic content present in the welding fumes at the end of 4 hours are get trapped through silicone gel around 33.7 % as shown in fig.4. The silicone crystal is in the colour of blue before welding process. After the welding process the silicone gel turns into pink in colour.

Copper coated graphite rod:

Before welding

Weight of positive rod = 45.29 grams Weight of negative rod = 16.15 grams Appearance of color = reddish Brown

The graphite rod is grey in colour. The copper is coated on the outer surface of the graphite rod for initiating reaction for filter the fumes from welding process. Here we are using two electrodes, they are positive copper rod and negative copper rod. The negative graphite rod is smaller in size compared with the positive graphite rodAnd also the weight of the negative copper rod is lesser in weight when compared with the positive copper rod. The positive and negative graphite rod having the appearance of the colour of reddish brown.

The positive graphite rod is having the weightage of about 46.29 kg before the process of welding. After the process of welding for 1 hour by 30 electrodes, the weight of positive graphite rod increase up to 46.31 g and also its colour turns to dim in comparison with graphite rod that are having the appearance before the welding process. This process continuous the weight of positive graphite rod goes on increasing up to 46.31g at the end of the time of 4 hours welding and the 120 piece of welding rods used. Thus the positive carbon rod trap the particulates of around 2.4 % as shown in fig.5.

The negative graphite rod is having the weightage of about 16.15 kg before the process of welding. After the process of welding for 1 hour by 30 electrodes, the weight of negative graphite rod increase up to 16.67 g and also its colour turns to dim in comparison with graphite rod that are having the appearance before the welding process. This process continuous the weight of positive graphite rod goes on increasing up to 18.29g at the end of the time of 4 hours welding and the 120 piece of welding rods used. Thus the negative carbon rod trap the particulates of around 14.3% as shown in fig.6.

KOHfilter paper:

Before welding Weight = 2.78 g Appearance of color = white

The third and final filter layer of the apparatus is KOH filter paper. The normal filter paper is taken that have the size of 0.2[micro]m. the KOH is taken in a normality of 0.5. The filter paper is made to dip into the KOH. After that the dipped filter paper becomes dry. Finally we get a KOH filter paper.

Before the process of welding the filter paper is having the weightage of 2.78 g and also it appears in the colour of white. But the colour of the filter paper changes to lite brown after the welding process for 1 hour by 30 welding electrodes. The weight of the paper increases from 2.78 g to 2.81 g .thus the KOH filter paper trap the very minute size of toxic content present in the welding fumes. This process continuous the weight of positive graphite rod goes on increasing up to 2.91 g at the end of the time of 4 hours welding and the 120 piece of welding rods used. Thus the KOH filter paper trap the particulates of around 4.7% as shown in fig.7. And the appearance of filter is brown.

Discussion:

Initially we did our invention in the structure of chimney. Duo to flow of fumes shortage. So we introduce a new model in the form of square block. We did analysis various components of filters .after that analysis we put forth the set of filters like silicone crystal, copper coated graphite rod, KOH filter paper. We analysis the affinity and effectiveness of the filters that are used in our welding fume extraction and filter apparatus on the basic of its weightage of filter component before and after welding process. Due to this analysis we predict that the amount of fumes that are get to be trapped by the filters and also we are able to know the amount of fumes came out of the welding process.

Conclusion:

Thus the toxic fumes produced during above chemical manufacturing, metal fabrication, primary metal production, petroleum processing, welding, soldering process are harmful to environment and human life. But in our present invention, there are no standard. It is flexible and adjustable to the place where it is used. It has many applications. Most probably it is used in order to extract and to filter the welding fume to produce the best by providing cheap. It also having the features reducing the toxic content present in the welding fumes through the filters used to safeguard the human life as well as environment

Finally we conclude that, for 4 hours experimentation the silicone crystal absorbs around 33.7%, KOH filter absorbs 4.7%, positive graphite rod absorbs 2.4% and negative graphite rod absorbs 14.3% of particulates and gases from the fumes which combined about 54.9% % of fumes are trapped. Finally we conclude that, due to our present invention the welders are turn aside from the pneumonia, metal fume fever, occupational asthma, irritation of throat, temporary reduced lung function, eye irritation, skin ulceration which all are caused by toxic fumes comes out during welding process.

REFERENCES

[1.] Burge, P.S., M.G. Harries, I.M. O'Brien, J. Pepys, 1978. Respiratory disease in workers exposed to solder flux fumes containing colophony (pine resin) Clin Allergy, 8: 1-14.

[2.] Burge, P.S., W. Perks, I.M. O'Brien, R. Hawkins, M. Green, 1979. Occupationa asthma in an electronics factory. Thorax., 34: 13-18.

[3.] Brostoff, J., J.F. Mowbray, A. Kapoor, S.J. Hollowell, M. Rudolf, K.B. Saunders, 1976. 80% of patients with intrinsic asthma are homozygous for HLA-BW6. Lancet., 2: 872-3.

[4.] Chan-Yeung, M., 1977. Fate of occupational asthma: a follow-up study of patients with occuptional asthma due to Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata). Am Rev Respir Dis., 116: 1023-9.

[5.] Cornu, J.C., J.P. Muller and J.C. Guelin, 1993. A method for measuring the capture efficiency of fume-extracting welding guns, welding in the World/Soudage dans leMonde, 31: 49-53.

[6.] Kollman, K.G., 1973. Solving the problem of GMAW fume extraction.Welding Journal, pp: 504-508.

[7.] Musk, A.W., B. Gandevia, 1976. Loss of pulmonary elastic recoil in workers formerly exposed to proteolytic enzyme (alcalase) in the detergent industry. Br J Ind Med., 33: 158 -65.

[8.] Wang, J., K. Ashley, E.R. Kennedy, C. Neumeister, 1997. Determination of hexavalent chromium in industrial hygiene samples using ultrasonic extraction and flow injection analysis. Analyst., 122: 1307-1312.

[9.] Wildenthaler, L. and H.B. Cary, 1971. A progress report on fume extracting system for gas metal arc welding unit. Welding Journal, pp: 623-635.

[10.] Wiehe, A.E., H. Cary and L. Wildenthaler, 1974.Application of a smoke extracting systemfor continuous electrode welding.Welding Journal, pp: 349-361.

[11.] Wangenen, H.D.V., 1979. Assessment of selected control techniques for welding fumes, NIOSH report no 79-125.

[12.] Youngjin seo., 2015. Characterization of industrial filtration system for fine particles. ARPN journal of engineering and applied sciences, pp: 10605-10610.

(1) Vinoth P., (2) Siva Subramanian S., (3) Rajeevan V.S, (4) Rajapavithran R.

(1) Mechanical Department, K Ramakrishna College of Engineering, Samayapuram, Tiruchlrappall-621 112, Tamllnadu, India.

(2) Mechanical Department, K Ramakrishna College of Engineering, Samayapuram, Tiruchirappali-621 112, Tamilnadu, India.

(3) Mechanical Department, K Ramakrishna College of Engineering, Samayapuram, Tiruchirappali-621 112, Tamilnadu, India.

(4) Mechanical Department, K Ramakrishna College of Engineering, Samayapuram, Tiruchirappali-621 112, Tamilnadu, India.

Received 28 February 2017; Accepted 22 May 2017; Available online 6 June 2017

Address For Correspondence:

Vinoth p.,Mechanical Department, K. Ramakrishna College of Engineering, Samayapuram, Tiruchirappali- 621 112, Tamilnadu, India. E-mail:vinothselvam0007@gmail.com

Caption: Fig. 1:

Caption: Fig. 2:

Caption: Fig. 3:
Table 1: Analysis of fumes after welding

S.no   No.of       Time    Weight Of   Appearance
       Welding             Silicone    Of Colour
       Electrode           Crystal     After
                           After       Welding
                           Welding

1      30          1 hrs   1.036 kg    Partially
                                         pink with
                                         blue
2      60          2 hrs   1.113 kg    pink
3      90          3 hrs   1.213 kg    pink
4      120         4 hrs   1.337 kg    Partially
                                         pink with
                                         white

Table 2: Analysis of fumes after welding

S.no   No.of       Time    Weight Of   APPEARANCE
       Welding             Positive    OF COLOUR
       Electrode           Graphite    AFTER
                           Rod After   WELDING
                           Welding

1      30          1 hrs   45.63 g     Reddish brown
2      60          2 hrs   45.91 g     Reddish brown
3      90          3 hrs   46.13 g     Dim Reddish
                                         brown
4      120         4 hrs   46.31 g     Dim Reddish
                                         brown

Table 3: Analysis of fumes after welding

S.NO   NO.OF       TIME    WEIGHT OF   APPEARANCE
       WELDING             NEGATIVE    OF COLOUR
       ELECTRODE           GRAPHITE    AFTER
                           ROD AFTER   WELDING
                           WELDING

1      30          1 hrs   16.67 g     Reddish brown
2      60          2 hrs   17.21 g     Reddish brown
3      90          3 hrs   17.73 g     Lite dim
                                         Reddish
                                         brown
4      120         4 hrs   18.29 g     Dim Reddish
                                         brown

Table 4: Analysis of fumes after welding

S.NO   NO.OF       TIME    WEIGHT
       WELDING             OF KOH
       ELECTRODE           FILTER
                           PAPER

1      30          1 hrs   2.81 g
2      60          2 hrs   2.84 g
3      90          3 hrs   2.87 g
4      120         4 hrs   2.91 g

Fig. 4: Efficiency of Silicone Crystal

Filtration %

1.036 kg   1.113 kg   1.213 kg   1.337 kg
1 hrs      2 hrs      3 hrs      4 hrs
30         60         90         120

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 5: Efficiency of positive rod

filtration %

45.63 g   45.91 g   46.13 g   46.13 g
1 hrs     2 hrs     3 hrs     4 hrs
30        60        90        120

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 6: Efficiency of negative rod

Filtration %

16.67 g   17.21 g   17.73 g   18.29 g
1 hrs     2 hrs     3 hrs     4 hrs
30        60        90        120

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 7: Efficiency Of Filter

filtration %

2.81 g   2.84 g   2.87 g   2.91 g
1 hrs    2 hrs    3 hrs    4 hrs
30       60       90       120

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Article Details
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Author:Vinoth, P.; Subramanian S., Siva; Rajeevan, V.S.; Rajapavithran, R.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jun 1, 2017
Words:3601
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