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Desert Storm - first non-US perspective.

Desert Storm -- First Non-US Perspective

As of January 20, 1991, air units from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Italy, France, Canada and the UK have been involved in the Desert Storm air interdiction campaign against the Iraqi military. In the course of the fighting to date, these forces have posted six losses (one Saudi Tornado IDS, one Italian Tornado IDS, one Kuwaiti A-4KU Skyhawk and four RAF Tornado GR.1 strike aircraft) and six aircraft damaged (four French Jaguar As and two RAF Tornado GR.1s). The Iraqis have claimed 154 allied aircraft destroyed and have displayed seven "captured airmen" on local television, a figure which appears to include two Britains and two Italians.

Of the six nations cited, the UK contribution has been the greatest with the RAF notching up "well over" 300 sorties by January 20. The service's operational effort has been divided between attacks on airfields in southern Iraq and tactical operations over Kuwait and Southeast Iraq. As with the US forces, EW has played a significant role in these operations, a situation summed up by Group Capt David Henderson, RAF commander in Bahrain, who has stated "the electronic support we have received has been quite outstanding. I am referring to the whole panoply of electronic support [jamming and electronic surveillance] available to us." In the jamming context, EA-6B aircraft have been noted at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia and it is likely that these aircraft have been supporting non-US strikes in addition to national operations. In media interviews, British and French crews have commented on the efficacy of disposables in protecting them from Iraqi surface-to-air missiles.

The most significant EW measure introduced by the RAF during the campaign is the British Aerospace ALARM antiradiation missile. Not scheduled to enter operational service until later this year, the RAF confirms its use and notes that radars hit by it have "not come back on air." While not yet confirmed, ALARM is likely being used against emitters in specific target areas rather than as a corridor clearance weapon. So far deployed on the service's Tornado GR.1 aircraft, ALARM has also been ordered by the Saudi air force although there is no indication that they have either received it or employed it operationally. It is also worth noting the French air force's Jaguar A aircraft can be configured to carry the Martel or ARMAT ARMs but again there is no confirmation such weapons have been deployed.

As the Iraqi defense has so far been concentrated on SAM and triple A fire (described by Desert Storm Commander GEN H. Norman Schwarzkopf as being "tougher than downtown Hanoi"), defense suppression missions have formed an important part of the overall operation. RAF Jaguar GR.1A and French air force Jaguar A aircraft have been involved in such missions over Kuwait using "iron" bombs and in the case of the French, LGBs. The RAF has also contributed to the anti-Scud campaign through the Tornado GR.1A reconnaissance aircraft which carries a real-time IR/thermal imaging sensor suite. In the same field, the UK Ministry of Defence is reported to have considered deploying the British ASTOR airborne battlefield surveillance radar system to the Gulf but decided against it on the grounds of not further complicating the "electromagnetic environment."

Known EW equipment deployed aboard non-US aircraft participating in Desert Storm is as follows:

* Aerospatiale Puma HC.1 -- RAF medium lift helicopter. Fixed-source IR jammer, RWR and (possibly) ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser.

* Boeing Chinook HC.1 -- RAF heavy-lift helicopter. ALQ-157 fixed-source IR jammer, ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser and Marconi Defense Systems (MDS) 2-18 GHz ARI.18228 RWR.

* British Aerospace Nimrod MR.2 -- RAF maritime reconnaissance aircraft. C- to J-band Loral EW-1017 ESM.

* British Aerospace Sea Harrier FRS.1 -- Royal Navy VTOL multirole carrier fighter. MDS E- to J-band Sky Guardian 200 RWR and Vinten Vicon 78 chaff/flare dispenser.

* McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet -- Canadian air superiority fighter. ALQ-126B pulse radar jammer, ALQ-162 CW radar jammer, ALR-67 RWR and ALE-39 chaff/flare dispenser.

* Panavia Tornado F.3/Tornado ADV -- RAF/Saudi air defense fighter. RAF Tornado F.3: MDS direction-finding RWHR system, Matra Phimat chaff dispenser and RAM materials. Saudi Tornado ADV: MDS RWHR and a chaff/flare dispenser.

* Panavia Tornado GR.1/GR.1A/Tornado IDS -- RAF/Saudi/Italian strike and RAF reconnaissance (Tornado GR.1A) aircraft. RAF Tornado GR.1: MDS amplitude-comparison RWHR system, MDS Sky Shadow dual-mode jamming pod, Bofors BOZ 107 chaff/flare dispenser and British Aerospace ALARM antiradiation missile. RAF Tornado GR.1A reconnaissance and Saudi Tornado IDS aircraft generally similar. Italian Tornado IDS: "self-protection" suite made up of Elettronica warning and jamming equipment.

* SEPECAT Jaguar GR.1A/Jaguar A -- RAF/French air force strike aircraft. RAF Jaguar GR.1A: ALQ-101(V) jamming pod (UK modified), MDS ARI.18223 2-18 GHz RWR, ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser and Matra Phimat chaff dispensing pod. French air force Jaguar A: Dassault Electronique Barax detector-jamming pod, Matra Phimat chaff pod, an IR flare dispenser in the brake chute housing (18 flares) and Alkan 5020 conformal chaff/flare dispenser.

* Westland Lynx AH.1 or 7/HAS.3 -- British Army antitank (AH.1/7) and Royal Navy ASW (HAS.3) helicopter. Lynx AH.1/7: RWR, chaff/flare dispenser and fixed-source IR jammer. Lynx HAS.3: Racal C- to J-band MIR-2 ESM, chaff/flare dispenser, Whittaker Yellow Veil noise jamming pod and Loral Challenger fixed-source IR jammer.

* Sikorski CH-124A Sea King -- Canadian surface search naval helicopter. APR-39 RWR, AAR-47 missile approach warner, M-130 chaff dispenser, ALQ-144 fixed-source IR jammer and Tracor SLIP-AR laser warner.

* Westland Sea King AEW.2A -- Royal Navy AEW helicopter. Racal MIR-2 ESM.

It should be noted the foregoing is preliminary and will be modified/added to in future reports.

Chinese AEW Bull

In the first clear indication of an active airborne early warning (AEW) program, the People's Republic of China has released a photograph of a recently retired Tupolev Tu-4 Bull (itself a copy of the American B-29) AEW testbed. Fitted with turboprop engines, the AEW Bull features a dorsal rotodome, two ventral radomes and stabilizing endplates on the horizontal tail surfaces. Activity now seems to be centering on an AEW variant of the Shaanxi Y-8 (the Soviet Antonov An-12 Cub transport built under license). A number of western manufacturers have produced mission avionics proposals for such an aircraft including the UK's GEC-Ferranti combine with equipment developed for the RAF's cancelled Nimrod AEW.3 aircraft.

First Sampson, Now Delilah

Israeli defense contractor IMI has announced details of a "fourth-generation" successor to its Sampson air-launched decoy. Named Delilah, the new vehicle is quoted as being near to operational deployment with the Israeli air force and being available for export. Photographs reveal Delilah to be an 8 ft 10 in.-long cruise missile-like vehicle with four stabilizing tail fins and fixed-flight surfaces (spanning 3 ft 8 in.) at the mid-point of the fuselage. Power is provided by a Williams jet engine (fed by a ventral air intake) and the device is said to have an all up weight of 395 lbs.

Quoted operational parameters include the ability to be air launched at altitudes of between 150 and 30,000 ft. Flight endurance is said to be 30 minutes and the vehicle uses digital flight control which allows maneuvers to be made at preprogrammed waypoints. The vehicle is stressed to 6 gs, can fly at speeds of up to Mach 0.8 and has a range of 249 miles. Intended as a radar decoy, Delilah's mission payload can be either a Luneberg lens or what are described as "active radio-frequency repeaters" operating in the A, C and L bands.

In addition to being air launched, reports suggest that Delilah can be fired from the ground by means of a truck-mounted system equipped with up to eight vehicles, each of which is factory-sealed in a carriage/launch container. Once "containerized," Delilah is quoted as remaining in operational condition for up to five years.

Australian OTH Radar Progress

The Australian government has allocated $750 million to fund the completion of an over-the-horizon (OTH) radar system in northern Australia. Building on the success of the existing Jindalee system located at Alice Springs, Central Australia, the new program will involve the construction of radars at Laverton, western Australia and Longreach, Queensland. Each site will house separate transmission and reception arrays and a system coordination center will be built in Edinburgh, South Australia. Press reports suggest the completed system will have a maximum detection range of 1,864 mi against both air and sea targets.

The government-owned Telecom Australia organization is acting as the program's prime contractor with the UK's GEC-Marconi (HF transmission/reception, signal processing and research and development) and America's Lockheed Missiles and Space (software) acting as chief subcontractors. Entering service in the mid-1990s, the system will be the first operational OTH radar system outside the US or Russia.

Stealthy CLARA

Under the acronym CLARA (Compact [CO.sub.2] Laser Radar System), Britain and France are to collaborate on the development of a stealthy laser radar suitable for both fixed-wing and helicopter applications. More specifically, the UK's Ministry of Defense describes the program's objectives as being the creation of a system capable of "detecting obstacles, terrain following, true air-speed measurement and ground air target characterization." Work to date includes French avionics contractor Sextant testing a laser air-speed measurement system aboard a Mirage III testbed aircraft and the UK's Thorn EMI working on laser altimeter and helicopter obstacle warning systems. Press speculation suggests that these developments are a basis for rather than a part of the specific

CLARA project.
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Title Annotation:Operation Desert Storm; focus on electronic warfare
Author:Streetly, Martin
Publication:Journal of Electronic Defense
Date:Mar 1, 1991
Previous Article:The state of EW.
Next Article:EA-6B pods updated for Desert Storm.

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