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Description of the female of Lyssomanes miniaceus, with a new distribution record for L. belgranoi (Araneae: Salticidae)/Descripcion de la hembra de Lyssomanes miniaceus, con un nuevo registro de distribucion para L. belgranoi (Araneae: Salticidae).


In Proszynski's Global Species Database of Salticidae (Proszynski c2016), accepted species status means that both sexes have been adequately described and illustrated, while incomplete is due to the description and illustration of only one sex. Salticids constitute the largest family of spiders (WSC c2016), and one apparent problem is that this diversity may be somewhat inflated due to lack of matching of single sex known species (Edwards 2014). However, this argument ignores large amounts of new species, many with both sexes available. waiting to be described.

The American Lyssomanes is one of the most speciose genus of jumping spiders. including 91 valid species distributed mainly in the tropical forests of the Amazonian region (WSC c2016, Galvis 2017). Ten species of this genus inhabit Argentina (L. austerus Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889; L. belgranoi Galiano. 1984; L. hieroglyphicus Mello-Leitao, 1944; L. leucomelas Mello-Leitao, 1917; L. miniaceus Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889; L. nigrofimbriatus Mello-Leitao, 1941; L. pauper Mello-Leitao, 1945; L. penicillatus Mello-Leitao, 1927; L. tristis Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1899; L. yacui Galiano, 1984), and all of them were found in the Misiones province except the dubious L. hieroglyphicus (Galiano 1980, Galvis and Rubio 2016). The southernmost species record is L. pauper in Cordoba and Buenos Aires (Galvis and Rubio 2016).

The latest larger paper on the genus Lyssomanes, describing several new species of Central and South America (Logunov 2014), has achieved an adequate framework for subsequent alpha taxonomic works, and allows to complete the knowledge about such incomplete species status sensu Proszynski (c2016). Thus, in this paper the female of L. miniaceus is described and its somatic and genital morphology is illustrated, additionally a new southernmost record plus new illustration of the rare species L. belgranoi are given.


A number of sources were used for this contribution; eight arachnological collections with specimens and records of ten different species of Lyssomanes were revised: Seccion de Entomologia de la Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay (FCE--Ar, M. Simo and F. Perez-Miles); Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul, Museu de Ciencias Naturais, Porto Alegre, Brazil (FZB, R. Ott); Instituto de Biologia Subtropical, Misiones, Argentina (IBSI--Ara, G. Rubio); Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia (ICN--Ar, E. Florez); Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires, Argentina (MACN, C.L Scioscia and M. Ramirez); Museu de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Porto Alegre, Brazil (MCTP, A.A. Lise); Museo de La Plata, Argentina (MLP, L.A. Pereira); Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil (MZSP, R. Pinto-da-Rocha). Besides that, in latest surveys of the salticid fauna from Northeastern Argentina, specimens of both sexes of L. miniaceus were observed and collected together, plus a female of L. belgranoi. Specimens examined were deposited in IBSI-Ara and MACN.

Description formats and morphological terms follow Rubio et al. (2015) and Zhang and Maddison (2015). Female genitalia were dissected as in Levi (1965), examined after digestion in hot ~15% KOH solution (Ramirez 2014) and clarified in clove oil to study the internal structures. Temporary preparations were examined and photographed using a Leica DM500 compound microscope and a Leica M60 stereomicroscope. Drawings of male palp in Figure 1 were modified following original sources (Logunov 2014), plus examining specimens under the stereomicroscope in the case of L. belgranoi following Galiano (1984). Photographs in nature were taken with a Nikon D80 digital camera using a Micro-Nikkor 85 mm lens. All measurements were made with an ocular micrometer in millimeters, and were obtained as in Galiano (1963). Abbreviations used in the text and figures are: ALE--anterior lateral eye; AME--anterior median eye; CD--copulatory duct; CO--copulatory opening; E--embolus; FD--fertilization duct; MA--median apophysis; MAp--retrolateral projection on MA; PLE--posterior lateral eye; PME--posterior median eye; PT--promarginal teeth; RT--retromarginal teeth; S--spermatheca.



Salticidae Blackwall, 1841

Lyssomaninae Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889

Lyssomanes Hentz, 1845

Diagnosis. Lyssomanes (completes with Chinoscopus and Sumakuru the genera included in the lyssomanines) can be distinguished from Chinoscopus by the third row of eyes that is much narrower than the fourth row, and from Sumakuru by the different disposition of sexual characters of the male palp and general somatic features (see details in Galvis 2017).

Lyssomanes miniaceus Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889

Figs. 1, 2a-f, 3a-c; e-h

Lyssomanes miniaceus Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889: 227, 230, p1. 11, fig 6 (male lectotype and four male paralectotypes from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Tijuca, Therezopolis, deposited in MNHN--Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, France, not examined); Simon 1901: 392, 396; Mello-Leitao 1943: 221; Galiano 1962: 68, pl. 5, figs 6-9 (redescription of the male paralectotype); Galiano 1980: 18, map 4; Buckup et al. 2010: 500; Logunov 2014: 74, figs 15-18; Rubio 2014: 3, fig 2a-d; CAA 2016; WSC 2016.

Diagnosis. Males of Lyssomanes miniaceus can be distinguished from other Lyssomanes by having a very developed median apophysis (MA) with a large retrolateral projection (MAp) that resembles a horseshoe (Fig. 1), and red coloration on patella and tibia of legs I and II; females differ from those of other congeners by the following combination of characters: spherical/slightly oval spermathecae (S), copulatory openings (CO) emerging at the posterior edge of S in a shallow concavity (Fig. 2c-e), and white sparse hairs ventrally on femora I and II (Figs. 2a, b).

Material examined. ARGENTINA.

Misiones: one male, Cataratas del Iguazu, Nov 1954, Schiapeli, De Carlo, MACN 5694; one male, General Belgrano, Dec 1972, M.E. Galiano, MACN; two males, one female, General Manuel Belgrano, Urugua-i Wildlife Reserve, 25[degrees]58'27.64" S, 54[degrees]6'58.79" W, 293 mas1, 5 Nov 2013, G.D. Rubio, C.I. Arganaraz, IBSI-Ara 0090, tissue sample GDR 4099; two males, same data, 26 Nov 2014, IBSI-Ara 00462-00463; one male, Parque Nacional Iguazu, Oct 1971, M.E. Galiano, MACN; one male, same locality, 23-29 Nov 1981, P. Goloboff, MACN; one male, same locality, 11-17 Nov 1984, C.L. Scioscia, MACN; one male, same locality, Nov 1987, C.L. Scioscia, MACN; one male, same locality, Dec 1987, C.L. Scioscia, MACN; one male, Rio Uruguai, Pantridge, MACN; one male, San Antonio, Nov 1954, Schiapeli, De Carlo, homeotype MACN 5098; one male, Yacui, Nov 1970, M.E. Galiano, MACN. BRAZIL. Rio Grande do Sul: one male, Campo Bom, 16 Nov 1979, C.J. Becker, FZB 8788; two males, one female, Derrubadas, Parque Estadual do Turvo, 28-31 Oct 2003, R. Ott, FZB 37448; one male, one female, two immatures, Triunfo, 15 Sep 1977, E.M. Buckup, FZB 6502.

Description. Male (Lectotype, MNHN) is well illustrated and described in previous contributions: see Galiano (1962: 68, plate V, figs 6-9) and illustration in Logunov (2014, figs 15-17). Left palp and habitus as in Figures 1 and 3e, f respectively.

Female (IBSI-Ara 0090, Figs. 2a-f, 3a-c, g, h). Total length: 7.20. Carapace 2.60 long, 2.25 wide, 1.44 high; abdomen 3.90 long, 2.10 wide. Eye sizes: AME 0.61, ALE 0.32, PME 0.05, PLE 0.27. Ocular quadrangle 1.06 long. Anterior eye row 1.52 wide, posterior 1.12 wide. Clypeus height 0.30. Cephalic region high, thoracic region down sloping (Fig. 2b). Chelicerae with two moderately large promarginal teeth, and five retromarginal teeth, the proximal smaller than the others (Fig. 2f). Sternum slightly longer (1.20) than wide (1.12). Leg measurements [total leg (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus)]: I 9.40 (2.75, 1.17, 2.60, 2.28, 0.60); II 8.02 (2.40, 1.08, 2.20, 1.75, 0.59); III 7.72 (2.28, 0.92, 1.72, 2.10, 0.70); IV 7.79 (2.24, 0.82, 1.80, 2.28, 0.65). Abdomen oval, dorsal abdominal scutum absent (Figs. 2a, 3g). Coloration (in alcohol): Carapace yellow; cephalic region pale yellow, with black patches around the ALEs, PMEs and PLEs (Figs. 2a, b); ocular quadrangle covered by white hairs inwards and reddish hairs to outside of the area. Thoracic region yellow. Chelicerae pale yellow. Legs pale yellow, slightly darker on the distal ends. Femora I and II with white sparse hairs throughout the ventral area (Figs. 2a, b). Sternum and labium pale yellow. Abdomen pale yellow, with sparse small light brown hairs. Spinnerets pale yellow. Epigyne: epigynal plate small, thin and translucent, wider than long (Figs. 2c, 3a); two small copulatory openings (CO), emerging in a very shallow concavity (Fig. 2c). Each CO has a narrow slightly sclerotized rim, anteroectally. Copulatory ducts short, directed forward, connecting to a spherical/slightly oval spermatheca (Figs. 2d, 3a-c). Accessory gland absents. Fertilization duct large, posterior to spermathecae, located dorsally (Figs. 2e, 3c).

Sexual dimorphism. Male and female differ slightly in their size and somatic morphology, females are slightly larger than males, mainly due to their larger abdomen (Fig. 3e-h). Some males are more pigmented than females, e.g. brown spot on thoracic region and red coloration on femur, patella and tibia of legs I and II. Regarding setae, two characteristics are markedly different: males have black thick setae covering all legs, and a dense patch of white hairs ventrally on femora I and II (Fig. 3f). Females have such white hairs, but less dense.

Comments. The presence of white hairs throughout the ventral area of femora I and II could be an intersexual shared autapomorphy (see Edwards 2014), it is supported by geographic and phenological evidence.

Natural history. In the Urugua-i Wildlife Reserve, specimens were collected using Garden-Vacuum on foliage of rainforest vegetation, where they share the habitat with other species of Lyssomanes (L. leucomelas Mello-Leitao, 1917, L. nigrofimbriatus Mello-Leitao, 1941 and L. pauper). This area corresponds to subtropical rainforests in the Upper Parana Atlantic Forest Ecoregion (Olson et al. 2001). This species is found between 4-993 masl.

Distribution. Brasil (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul) and Argentina (Misiones).

Lyssomanes belgranoi Galiano, 1984

Figs. 2g, 3d

Lyssomanes belgranoi Galiano, 1984: 274, figs 17-19, 31-32 (male holotype and female paratype from Argentina, Misiones, San Antonio, deposited in MACN 7725 and 7726 respectively, not examined); Rubio 2014: 3; CAA 2016; Galvis and Rubio 2016: 20, fig 1B; WSC 2016.

Material examined. ARGENTINA.

Corrientes: one female, Paraje Tres Cerros, 29[degrees]6'34.30" S, 56[degrees]55'51.92" W, 163 masl, 21 Feb 2015, G. Avalos, IBSI-Ara 0789, tissue sample GDR 4195.

Note. For diagnosis, description and further taxonomic information see Galiano (1984: 274, figs 17-19, 31-32). Epigyne as in Figs. 2g, 3d.

Distribution and remarks. Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes). Known altitudinal distribution: 163-520 m. New records from the Paraje Tres Cerros in the Eastern Corrientes (Argentina). The last record of this species was in December 1972 (Galiano 1984); this is the fourth specimen found.


GDR examination of specimens, description, illustrations, paper writing; WG examination of specimens, paper writing; MFN examination of specimens, paper writing.


The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


We wish to thank Gilberto Avalos for collecting the specimen of L. belgranoi; the curators of the arachnological collections for permiting the revision of the material, especially Cristina Scioscia; and Pedro Cuaranta for the illustration in Figure 2g. We would also like to express our gratitude to Caldasia editorial staff for their helpful comments and corrections made to the final version of the manuscript. This publication is partly funded by the Fondo para la Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (FONCyT), Argentina and SGCyT (UNNE) PI F 021/2014.


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Recibido: 11/10/2016

Aceptado: 11/06/2017


CONICET, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Cerro Azul (EEA Cerro Azul, INTA), Cerro Azul, Misiones, Argentina.


Laboratorio de Aracnologia & Miriapodologia (LAM-UN), Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogota, Colombia.


Laboratorio de Biologia de los Artropodos, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (FaCENA-UNNE), Corrientes, Argentina.
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Title Annotation:ZOOLOGIA
Author:Rubio, Gonzalo D.; Galvis, William; Nadal, Maria F.
Date:Jul 1, 2017
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