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Description of a new species of Tuberaleyrodes (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from China.

The genus Tuberaleyrodes (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) comprises 5 species worldwide (Martin & Mound 2007). Puparia of Tuberaleyrodes species have dorsal setae on elongated tubercles, and the pattern of tuberculation is useful for species identification (Dubey et al. 2008). However, the length of the dorsal tubercles is found to vary with the nature of leaf surface. Tuberaleyrodes species are usually found feeding on Lauraceous hosts and are likely to be confused due to intraspecific variations. For instance, according to the literature, T. machili var. actinidaphnis Takahashi is a variety of T. machili Takahashi found on different genera of Lauraceae. Currently, T. machili actinodaphnis remains as a synonym of T. machili, however, further examinations of type specimens are needed to confirm their synonymy.


Puparia of the new species were collected by J. R. Wang from Daming Mountain in South-Central Guangxi Province of China. Puparia were mounted following techniques in Martin (1987). The terminology for morphological structures follows Bink-Moenen (1983), Martin (1985) and Gill (1990). The holotype is deposited in the Institute of Applied Entomology, College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, China. One paratype each will be deposited in the Australian National Insects

Collection, Canberra, Australia; Natural History Museum (NHM), London, UK; United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, Maryland, USA and Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata, India, and the remaining paratypes are deposited at the Yangzhou University and in A. K. Dubey's (AKD) personal collection in New Delhi, India. The measurements and camera lucida drawings were made using a MZ APO Leica microscope. Scanning Electron Microscope images were taken with a Philips XL30-Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope at 20 kV/EHT and 66.7 Pa.


Tuberaleyrodes lauri sp. nov. Dubey & Wang (Figs. 1-10) Puparium

Light yellow, suboval, found on the lower surface of leaves, 860-920 [micro]m long, 610-660 [micro]m wide.


Irregularly and smoothly crenulate, 15-16 crenulations in 0.1 mm. Margin not modified at thoracic tracheal pore openings, but slightly emarginated at caudal tracheal pore opening.


Elongate tubercles (t) tapering and variably curved (= falcate), 195-327 [micro]m long, apically with a seta (s), 32-40 [micro]m long (Figs. 1 and 2; ts). Tuberculate setae are formed from dorsal elevation of puparial cuticle, ts slightly swollen on puparial surface and without articulating circle or groove, surface puffy, with ridges or grooves or minute tubercles, not smooth, gradually narrowing towards apex and forming a socket in which apical seta is fixed. Submargin not separated from the dorsal disc. Six pairs of subdorsal tubercle-setae --2 cephalic pairs, 1 prothoracic pair, 3 pairs on abdominal segment I and IV & VII, position varies on cadual area. Length of subdorsal tubercles were subequal to cephalic tubercles 195-327 [micro]m long, but actual length of apical seta on elongate tubercle measured 32-40 [micro]m long.

Eight pairs of submarginal setae (sms): 4 pairs each on cephalothorax and abdomen. 3 pairs sms on cephalothorax, 1 pair sms laterad of metathorax; 1 pair sms laterad of abdominal segment II, and 3 pairs sms laterad of segment VII to caudal end; sms length variable, 7-47 [micro]m long, length varied within a puparium from 4 to 42 [micro]m long, sms on posterior abdomen usually smaller than others.

Cephalic setae (cs) and first abdominal setae (as1) on elevated tubercles, eighth abdominal (as8) and caudal setae (cs) not on elevated tubercles.

Submedian pockets (smp) were visible on cephalothoracic and abdominal segment sutures. Dorsal pores (dp) located on minute tubercles, a row each in submargin and submedian area, dorsal pores irregularly located on subdorsum. Median length of abdominal segment VII 20 pm long almost half the length of segment VI. Thoracic tracheal furrows absent but caudal furrow indicated, filled with irregular ridges resembling those of dorsal crenulations, 100-105 [micro]m long, 15 [micro]m wide.

Vasiform Orifice

Subcordate, as long as wide or slightly longer than wide, 53-67 [micro]m long, 52-67 wide; posterior edge elevated; operculum subcordate, almost covering the orifice, 30-37 [micro]m long, 36-37 [micro]m wide; lingula tip exposed, simple lobe, not extending beyond the posterior margin of the vasiform orifice. No paired apical setae observed on lingula.


Paired ventral abdominal setae, 27-50 [micro]m long, 22 [micro]m apart; paired meso-, and metathoracic setae, 3 [micro]m long; paired rostral setae, 2 [micro]m long. Antennae reaching near the base of prolegs, 70-80 [micro]m long, keel 5 [micro]m long. Thoracic and caudal tracheal folds indicated with stipples. Spiracles visible.


Anterior marginal setae 20-22 [micro]m long, posterior marginal setae 27-42 [micro]m long. Cephalic setae 287-335 [micro]m long of which the actual length of setae located on tip of elevated cuticle measured 30-40 [micro]m long. Similarly, the first abdominal setae measured 152-296 [micro]m long, the length of first abdominal setae was slightly shorter than cephalic setae, sometimes the cephalic setae was observed along the subdorsal setae. The number of subdorsal setae found one pair more or less in each half of the puparium. Eighth abdominal setae 77-100 pm long and caudal setae 78-100 [micro]m long.

Host Plant

Cinnamomum subavenium Miq. (Laurales: Lauraceae). (Fig. 11)

Material Examined

HOLOTYPE, China: Guangxi, Daming Mt., 1 puparium on slide, on Cinnamomum subavemum, 06.viii.2011, J.-R. Wang (YU).

PARATYPES: 17 puparia on 16 slides, data same as of holotype (AKD-5, ANIC-1, NHM-1, USDA-1, ZSI-1 & remaining in Yangzhou University, China). (see details of acronyms in Material and Methods)


The species name 'lauri' is derived from the family of the host plant, Lauraceae.

Key to the Puparia of Tuberaleyrodes Species

1. Eight pairs of simple submarginal setae present along the bases
of tuberculate setae                      lauri sp. nov. Dubey & Wang

--. Eight pairs of simple submarginal setae absent along the bases
of tuberculate setae                                                2

2. Tuberculate setae not reaching beyond the puparial margin;
meso- and metathoracic setae absent                       spiniferosa

--. Tuberculate setae setae reaching beyond the puparial margin and
at least mesothoracic setae present; submarginal setae placed on
small tubercles not reaching beyond puparial margin                 3

3. Puparia elliptical; all or at least most of the submarginal setae
reaching beyond the puparial margin                                 4

--. Puparia oval; none of the submarginal setae reaching beyond the
puparial margin                                                     5

4. Caudal setae fixed in basal sockets or placed on elevated
tubercles; metathoracic setae absent; abdominal submedian/subdorsal
area without setae                                          rambutana

--. Caudal setae not fixed in basal sockets/elevated
tuberclesabdominal submedian/subdorsal area with setae              5

5. Thoracic tracheal area with clear cleft; meso- and metathoracic
setae absent; submedian area of cephalothorax and abdomen with a
longitudinal row of tubercles                                  bobuae

--. Thoracic tracheal area with slight indentation, cleft absent;
meso- and metathoracic setae present; submedian area of cephalothorax
and abdomen without longitudinal row of tubercles                   6

6. Puparium pale; ventral submarginal area without a fold along
puparial margin; submedian area of metathorax with a pair of
tubercles cluster, usually pigmented; median tubercles absent on
abdominal segments, but tubercles along the segment sutures
present                                                       machili

--. Puparia grayish black; ventral submarginal area with a fold
along puparial margin; submedian area of metathorax without a pair of
tubercles cluster, not pigmented; median tubercles present on
abdominal segments                                         neolitseae


The new species differs from all the known Tuberaleyrodes species by the presence of subdorsal setae placed on elongate tubercles that reach well beyond the lateral margin, 8 pairs of minute submarginal setae placed approximate to the row of subdorsal setae, tuberculate dorsum and the median length of abdominal segment VII nearly half of VI. It resembles T. rambutana Takahashi by the presence of longer dorsal setae, but differs from it in shape and by the absence of mesothoracic setae. It also resembles Acanthaleyrodes callicarpae Takahashi, but differs from it by the absence of wavy markings on submarginal/subdorsal area. Tuberaleyrodes and Acanthaleyrodes share some common characteristics such as dorsally elevated tuberculate setae but the latter differs by the presence of posteriorly an elevated vasiform orifice.

Caption: Figs. 1-5. Tuberaleyrodes lauri sp. nov. 1, puparium, dorsal and ventral views. 2, tuberculate seta. 3, submarginal seta, 4, legs and antenna, 5, vasiform orifice and caudal furrow.

Caption: Figs. 6-11. SEM of Tuberaleyrodes lauri sp. nov. and host plant, 6. puparium, habitus, 7, empty pupal case, 8, caudal furrow, 9, vasiform orifice, 10, tuberculate seta, 11, host plant Cinnamomum subavenium (Laurales: Lauraceae).


The publication is supported by grants (No. 201303019, No. 200803005) under the program Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China.


BINK-MOENEN, R. M. 1983. Revision of the African whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), mainly based on a collection from Tchad. Monogr. Nederland Entomol. Ver. 10: 1-210.

DUBEY, A. K., KO, C. C. AND DAVID, B. V. 2008. The genus Singhius Takahashi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with notes on pupal dimorphism and intra-specific variation, and a key to species. Zool. Studies 47: 507-518.

GILL, R. J. 1990. The morphology of whiteflies, pp. 1346 In D. Gerling [ed.], Whiteflies: their bionomics, pest status and management. Andover: Intercept.

MARTIN, J. H. 1985. The whitefly of New Guinea (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) (Entomol.). 50: 303-351.

Martin, J. H. 1987. An identification guide to common whitefly pest species of the world (Homoptera: Aley rodidae). Trop. Pest Mgt. 33: 298-322.

MARTIN, J. H., AND MOUND, L. A. 2007. An annotated checklist of world's whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Zootaxa 1492: 1-84.


(1) College of Horticulture and Plant Protection & Institute of Applied Entomology, Yangzhou University, Jiangsu, China

(2) Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India 110012

* Corresponding author; E-mail:;


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Author:Wang, Ji-Rui; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Du, Yu-Zhou
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jun 1, 2013
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