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Description of a new species of Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from China.

The genus Aleuroclava (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was established by Singh (1931) with Aleuroclava complex Singh as its type species. Aleuroclava is an Old World genus and represented with 36 species including 4 undetermined species from China (Martin & Mound 2007; Evans 2008; Martin & Lau 2011). It occurs predominantly in the Oriental and Austro-Oriental Regions but also occurs in the Palaearctic and subSaharan (Afro-tropical) regions (Dubey & Sundararaj 2005). Martin (1999) regarded Aleurotuberculatus Takahashi as a junior synonym of Aleuroclava, which was followed subsequently by Dubey & Sundararaj (2005) and other authors. However, many species in this genus differ little in their morphology and a type-based revision is needed, which includes a study of the shape and position of the tubercles along with other characters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Puparia of the new species were collected from Tianmu Mountain, China. Specimens were mounted following the method given by Martin (1987). The terminology for morphological structures follows Bink-Moenen (1983), Martin (1985) and Gill (1990). The holotype is deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University, China. One paratype will be deposited in each of the following institutions: Natural History Museum (NHM), London, UK; United States Natural History Museum (USNM) aleyrodid collection located in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, Maryland, USA and Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata, India. The remainder of the specimens are deposited at Yangzhou University and in A. K. Dubey's personal collection. The measurements and camera lucida drawings were made using a Leica microscope MZAPO located in the Institute of Applied Entomology, Yangzhou University, China. A sample of the specimen was prepared for SEM studies by cutting the leaf along with a puparium, then mounted it on a stub on black carbon conductive adhesive.

The Scanning Electron Microscope images were taken by Philips XL30-Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope at 20 kV/EHT and 80 Pa between 128 x to 1034 x magnification.

ALEUROCLAVA TIANMUENSIS WANG & DUBEY SP. NOV. (FIGS. 1-3, 4-6, 7-10)

PUPARIUM

Body black, elliptical, 731-840 [micro]m long, 413-630 [micro]m wide, broadest at the metathoracic region. Specimems were found 2-4 per leaf, centrally on the under surface of leaves.

Lateral Margin

Crenulate, 28-30 crenulations in 0.1 mm. Paired anterior and posterior marginal setae 24-28 [micro]m and 20-24 [micro]m long, respectively. Thoracic tracheal pore area slightly recessed and differentiated from margin.

Dorsum

Submargin demarcated from dorsal disc by a line along the bases of submarginal papillae. Submargin with a row of tuberculate papillae. Longitudinal molting suture reaching anterior margin and the transverse molting suture reaching the submargin. Cephalic setae 15-20 [micro]m, first abdominal setae 28-35 [micro]m, eighth abdominal setae 5-8 [micro]m and caudal setae 60-70 [micro]m long. Subdorsum with crescent-form tubercles. Caudal furrow indicated with irregular ridges, 52 [micro]m long, 22 [micro]m wide. Median tubercles present on abdominal segments II-VI. Submedian tubercles enlarged near termination of cephalothoracic segment sutures abdominal segment I & II. A few submedian tubercles also present on abdominal segment sutures. Geminate pores present on dorsum.

Vasiform Orifice

Subcordate to subcircular, slightly longer than wide, 39 [micro]m long, 32 [micro]m wide; operculum cordate, almost covering the orifice and obscuring the lingula, 26 [micro]m long, 22 [micro]m wide.

Venter

A pair of ventral abdominal setae 6-8 [micro]m long, 33 [micro]m apart. Antennae extending near the base of prolegs, 53 [micro]m long. Adhesive pads present at apex of legs.

Host Plants

Daphniphyllum macropodum (Saxifragales: Daphniphyllaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae).

Material Examined

HOLOTYPE: China, Zhejiang, Hangzhou, Tianmu Mountain, 1 puparium on slide, on Daphniphyllum macropodum, 25.vii.2011, J. R. Wang (AM-NO.1), deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Paratypes: Twenty six paratypes. All puparia from China, Zhejiang, Tianmu Mt., 13 puparia on 10 slides, 25.vii.2011, J. R. Wang. On Daphniphyllum macropodum: 5 puparia on 5 slides (AM-NO.11, ANIC); (AM-NO.13, USDA); (AM-NO.14, ZSI); (AM-NO.2, Yangzhou Uni.); (AM-NO.7, Yangzhou Uni.); 2 puparia on a slide (AM-NO.9-10, Yangzhou Uni.). On Litsea cubeba: 1 puparium on slide (AM-NO.8, A. K. Dubey); 1 puparium on slide (AM-NO.12, NHM); 2 puparia on 1 slide (AM-NO.3-4, Yangzhou Uni.); 2 puparia on 1 slide (AM-NO.5-6, Yangzhou Uni.). Numerous dry puparia on D. macropodum and L. cubeba leaves with above collection data available at Yangzhou University.

Etymology

The species name 'tianmuensis' is derived from collection locality of the species, Tianmu Mountain. (China).

Remarks

The puparium of A. tianmuensis sp. nov. resembles that of Aleuroclava gordoniae (Takahashi) but differs from it by the presence of median tubercles on the abdominal segments, position of cephalic setae, and by the absence of a minute tubercle associated with each thoracic tracheal pore.

KEY TO THE PUPARIA OF CHINESE SPECIES OF ALEUROCLAVA

[Puparial characters obtained from original descriptions
of species are indicated by asterisks (*)].

1. Puparia with elongate tuberculate setae                    2

--. Puparia without tuberculate setae, simple setae present   3

2. Cephalic setae 360 pm and first abdominal setae 340
[micro]m long; submargin with 3 pairs of rounded pores;
abdominal segments I-IV with small median tubercles;
vasiform orifice circular
                                   tripori (Dubey & Sundararaj)

--. Cephalic setae 264 [micro]m and first abdominal setae
231 [micro]m long; submargin without 3 pairs of rounded
pores; abdominal segments without median tubercles;
vasiform orifice subcircular
                                                 indica (Singh)

3. Puparia with many long papillae arranged in a single row   4
along the margin of the case, papillae protruding beyond
margin

--. Puparia without papillae or with small papillae           5
arranged in a single row along the margin of the case,
papillae not protruding beyond margin

4. Small median tubercles present on all the abdominal
segments                               subindica Martin & Mound

--. Median tubercles absent on the abdominal segments
                                      thysanospermi (Takahashi)

5. Puparium with T-shaped tubercle on cephalothorax           6

--. Puparium without T-shaped tubercle on cephalothorax       8

6. Dorsum with brown pigmentation on median area
                                                 psidii (Singh)

--. Dorsum without brown pigmentation on median area          7

7. Puparia about 1.1-1.3 mm long; submargin with radial
striations, transverse moulting suture not reaching the
margin; thoracic tracheal clefts present       murrayae (Singh)

--. Puparia about 0.6-0.8 mm long; submargin without
radial striations, transverse moulting suture nearly
reaching the margin; thoracic tracheal clefts absent
                                      pyracanthae (Takahashi) *

8. Puparia black                                              9

--. Puparia white or pale                                    15

9. Cephalothorax with 4 pairs of tubercles                   10

--. Cephalothorax without tubercles                          13

10. Abdominal segments II-VI with median tubercles
                              tianmuensis sp. nov. Wang & Dubey

--. Median tubercles absent on abdominal segments            11

11. Vasiform orifice rounded; puparium narrowed on the
posterior region, slightly constricted across the
thoracic tracheal clefts                    guyavae (Takahashi)

--. Vasiform orifice subcordate; puparium narrowed on the
anterior and posterior regions, not constricted across the
thoracic tracheal clefts                                     12

12. Thoracic tracheal folds faintly discernible;
submarginal area with many transverse ridges; caudal
furrow distinct, expanded basally         gordoniae (Takahashi)

--. Thoracic tracheal folds distinct; submarginal area
without transverse ridges; caudal furrow slender, very
narrow, a little widened near the hind end     aucubae (Kuwana)

13. Transverse suture reaching the margin; with many small
circular papillae distributed on the dorsum; vasiform
orifice with 2 eminent pointed lateral tubercles
                                       neolitseae (Takahashi) *

--. Transverse suture not reaching the margin; without
small circular papillae on the dorsum; vasiform orifice
without 2 eminent pointed lateral tubercle                   14

14. Puparia oblong, dorsum and submarginal area with many
long fine wavy furrow-like lines; thoracic tracheal clefts
distinct; vasiform orifice subcordate       kuwanai (Takahashi)

--. Puparia oval, dorsum without wavy furrow-like lines
but with many larger granules; thoracic tracheal clefts
indistinct; vasiform orifice circular      montanus (Takahashi)

15. Cephalothorax with 5 pairs of submedian tubercles        16

--. Cephalothorax with fewer pairs of submedian
tubercles or without tubercle                                19

16. Median tubercles on abdominal segment absent; venter
with an indistinct marginal rim             malloti (Takahashi)

--. Median tubercles on abdominal segment present; venter
without marginal rim                                         17

17. Dorsum smooth; metathoracic tubercles with brown
pigment                                     jasmini (Takahashi)

--. Dorsum granulated; metathoracic tubercles without brown
pigment                                                      18

18. Thoracic tracheal folds discernible; submarginal area
distinct from the dorsal disk; mid-thoracic suture not
reaching the margin; marginal teeth nearly triangular
                                        elatostemae Takahashi *

--. Thoracic tracheal folds not discernible; submarginal
area not well distinct from the dorsal disk; mid-thoracic
suture reaching the margin; marginal teeth rounded
                                           ficicola (Takahashi)

19. Cephalothorax with 4 pairs of tubercles                  20

--. Cephalothorax with fewer pairs of tubercles or
without tubercles                                            24

20. Dorsum with 3 dark brown patches and numerous very
small granules scattered                  carpini (Takahashi) *

--. Dorsum without dark brown patch and with few
granules                                                     21

21. Abdominal segments I-VI with median tubercles            22

--. Median tubercles absent on abdominal segment             23

22. Margin teeth crenulate, cephalic and first abdominal
setae capitates; caudal furrow with irregular markings;
a row of papillae numbering about 50 on submargin
                               takahashii (David & Subramaniam)

--. Margin teeth triangular, cephalic and first abdominal
setae pointed; caudal furrow without irregular markings;
a row of papillae numbering about 80 on margin
                                       lithocarpi (Takahashi) *

23. Mid-thoracic sutures not reaching the margin, a pair
of bristles present on the cephalothorax, basal abdominal
segment reaching beyond the margin; thoracic tracheal
folds indistinct                        rhododendri (Takahashi)

--. Mid-thoracic sutures reaching the margin, a pair of
setae present on the cephalothorax, basal abdominal
segment short, not reaching beyond the margin; thoracic
tracheal folds distinct                  uraianus (Takahashi) *

24. Cephalothorax with 3 pairs of tubercles                  25

--. Cephalothorax with 2 pairs of tubercles or without
tubercle                                                     27

25. Transverse suture reaching the margin; the dorsal
setae capitate, not reaching beyond the margin; numerous
longitudinal wavy lines on the median area of each segment
                                              latus (Takahashi)

--. Transverse suture not reaching the margin; the long,
dorsal setae pointed, reaching the margin, longitudinal
wavy lines absent on the median area                         26

26. Dorsum with numerous very small short rounded papillae
scattered; the metanotum with a pair of dorsal tubercles,
the first abdominal segment with median tubercles, the
thoracic tracheal fold not distinct, with the cleft deeper
and narrowed distally                   multipori (Takahashi) *

--. Dorsum lacking papillae and granules but with some
small circular pores scattered on the disk; the metanotum
without tubercles, abdominal segments without median
tubercles, the thoracic tracheal fold distinct, the cleft
small and widely opening                longispinus (Takahashi)

27. Cephalothorax with 2 pairs of tubercles
                                          piperis (Takahashi) *

--. Cephalothorax without tubercles                          28

28. Cephalic and first abdominal setae reaching beyond
margin                                                       29

--. Cephalic and first abdominal setae not reaching beyond
margin                                                       30

29. Puparia about 0.65 mm long, each abdominal segment with
faint longitudinal markings on the median area near the
hind margin; caudal furrow without markings
                                         melastomae (Takahashi)

--. Puparia about 0.75 mm long, each abdominal segment
without faint longitudinal markings; caudal furrow with a
few transverse striae on the side         meliosmae (Takahashi)

30. Cephalothorax indented at the front; constricted
across the thoracic tracheal pores; caudal furrow
constricted near the base          trachelospermi (Takahashi) *

--. Cephalothorax not indented at the front; not
constricted across the thoracic tracheal pores; caudal
furrow not constricted near the base                         31

31. Puparia about 0.75-0.78 mm long, marginal teeth
crenulate; venter without faint circular markings;
vasiform orifice subcordate
                                   lagerstroemiae (Takahashi) *

--. Puparia about 0.81-0.86 mm long, marginal teeth
rounded; venter with many faint circular markings;
vasiform orifice rounded                  similis (Takahashi) *


Caption: Figs. 1-3. Aleuroclava tianmuensis sp. nov., slide mounted specimen: (1) puparium; (2) median tubercles; and. (3) vasiform orifice and caudal furrow.

Caption: Figs. 4-6 Aleuroclava tianmuensis sp. nov.: (4) puparium, dorsal and ventral views; (5) margin; and (6) vasiform orifice and caudal furrow.

Caption: Figs. 7-10. SEM of Aleuroclava tianmuensis sp. nov.: (7) puparium; (8) anterior setae and cephalic setae; (9) median tubercles on abdominal segments; and (10) vasiform orifice and caudal furrow.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study was supported by a grant (No. 201303019, No. 200803005) under the program Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China, and the Young Scientist Award Project (No. SB/YS/LS27/2013) of the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India.

REFERENCES CITED

BINK-MOENEN, R. M. 1983. Revision of the African whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), mainly based on a collection from Tchad. Monogr. Nederland Entomol. Ver., 10: 1-210.

DUBEY, A. K., AND SUNDARARAJ, R. 2005. A review of the genus Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with descriptions of 8 new species from India. Oriental Insects. 39: 241-272.

EVANS, G. A. 2008. The whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of the world and their host plants and natural enemies. Available at http://www.sel.barc.usda. gov:591/1WF/whitefly_catalog.htm (version 23 Sep 2008).

GILL, R. J. 1990. The morphology of whiteflies, pp. 13-46 In D. Gerling [ed.], Whiteflies: Their Bionomics, Pest Status and Management. Intercept. Andover.

MARTIN, J. H. 1985. The whitefly of New Guinea (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) (Entomol.). 50: 303-351.

MARTIN, J. H. 1987. An identification guide to common whitefly pest species of the world (Homoptera: Aley rodidae). Trop. Pest Mgt. 33: 298-322.

MARTIN, J. H. 1999. The whitefly fauna of Australia (Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) a taxonomic account and identification guide. CSIRO Entomology Tech. Paper. 38: 1-197.

MARTIN, J. H., And MOUND, L. A. 2007. An annotated checklist of world's whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Zootaxa. 1492: 1-84.

MARTIN, J. H., AND LAU, S. K. 2011. The Hemiptera-Sternorrhyncha (Insecta) of Hong Kong, China--an annotated inventory citing voucher specimens and published records. Zootaxa. 2847: 1-122.

SINGH, K. 1931. A contribution towards our knowledge of the Aleyrodidae (whiteflies) of India. Mem. Dept. Agric. India (Entomol. Series). 12: 1-98.

JI-RUI WANG (1), ([dagger]) ANIL KUMAR DUBEY (2), ([dagger]) AND YU-ZHOU DU (1), *

(1) School of Horticulture Plant Protection & Institute of Applied Entomology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China

(2) DST Young Scientist Project, Forest Entomology Division, Forest Research Institute, New Forest, Dehradun, India 248006

([dagger]) Ji-Rui Wang and Anil Kumar Dubey contributed equally and both are first authors.

* Corresponding author; E-mail: yzdu@yzu.edu.cn

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Author:Wang, Ji-Rui; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Du, Yu-Zhou
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jun 1, 2014
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