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Description of Gonatopus sandovalae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), a new species from Ecuador.

Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) are parasitoids of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera) (Guglielmino & Virla 1998; Guglielmino & Buckle 2003, 2010; Guglielmino et al. 2013). The biology of this small group of wasps is still poorly known (Carcupino et al. 1998; Guglielmino 2000; Guglielmino et al. 2006, 2008, 2015). The genus Gonatopus Ljungh, 1810 is present in all zoogeographical regions. About 441 species have been described from all continents (Olmi & Guglielmino 2013; Guglielmino & Olmi 2014; Olmi & Xu 2015).

The genus was revised at first at world level by Olmi (1984, 1991) and more recently by Xu et al. (2013) for the Oriental region, Olmi & Virla (2014) for the Neotropics, and Olmi & Xu (2015) for the Eastern Palaearctic region. One hundred and twenty-three species of Gonatopus are known from the Neotropical region (Olmi & Virla 2014). According to Olmi & Virla (2014), the genus Gonatopus is divided into 12 groups. They are distinguished on the basis of the following characters:

1.--     Fully winged (not found in the Neotropical       Group 11

1'.--    Apterous (Fig. 1)                                        2

2.--     Enlarged claw without subapical tooth, or                3
         with 1 very small subapical tooth (Plate
         181A in Olmi & Virla 2014)

2'.--    Enlarged claw with one large subapical                   6
         tooth (Fig. 5)

3.--     Distal apex of enlarged claw with group of        Group 8
         lamellae (not found in the Neotropical

3'.--    Distal apex of enlarged claw without                     4
         lamellae (Plates 181A, E, 182E-G, 183C, D
         in Olmi & Virla 2014)

4.--     Pronotum crossed by strong transverse             Group 7
         impression (Plates 181C, D, 182A-D, 183A,
         B in Olmi & Virla 2014)

4'.--    Pronotum not crossed by transverse                       5
         impression or slightly impressed (Plates
         202, 203A, C in Olmi & Virla 2014)

5.--     Palpal formula 6/3                               Group 12

5'.--    Palpal formula different                          Group 6

6.--     Pronotum not crossed by transverse                       7
         impression or slightly impressed (as in
         Plate 172B in Olmi & Virla 2014)

6'.--    Pronotum crossed by strong transverse                    8
         impression (Fig. 2)

7.--     Labial palpi 3-segmented Group 9 (not             Group 9
         found in the Neotropical region)               (not found
                                                            in the

7'.--    Labial palpi 2-segmented                          Group 5

8.--     Enlarged claw without lamellae, with or           Group 1
         without bristles or peg-like hairs (Plate
         153B, D in Olmi & Virla 2014)

8'.--    Enlarged claw with lamellae (Fig. 5)                     9

9.--     Labial palpus 2-segmented                               10

9'.--    Labial palpus 3-segmented                               11

10.--    Maxillary palpus composed of 2-4 segments         Group 2

10'.--   Maxillary palpus 5-segmented                     Group 10

11.--    Maxillary palpus 6-segmented                      Group 4

11'.--   Maxillary palpus with 4-5 segments                      12

12.--    Maxillary palpus 5-segmented                      Group 3

12'.--   Maxillary palpus 4-segmented                     Group 10

In 2015, we examined additional specimens of Gonatopus from Ecuador and found the new species described herein.

Material and Methods

The descriptions follow the terminology used by Olmi (1984), Olmi & Guglielmino (2010), and Olmi & Virla (2014). The measurements reported are relative, except for the total length (head to abdominal tip, except antennae), which is expressed in millimeters. In the descriptions, POL is the distance between the inner edges of the 2 lateral ocelli; OL is the distance between the inner edges of a lateral ocellus and the median ocellus; OOL is the distance from the outer edge of a lateral ocellus to the compound eye; OPL is the distance from the posterior edge of a lateral ocellus to the occipital carina; and TL is the distance from the posterior edge of an eye to the occipital carina. The material studied in this paper is deposited in the collections of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador (QCAZ).


Gonatopus sandovalae sp. nov. (Figs. 1-5)


Holotype female. Apterous (Fig. 1). Length 3.4 mm. Body testaceous-ferruginous, except petiole black; antenna brown, except segments 1 and 2 testaceous and segment 10 whitish. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in following proportions: 8:6:14:9:7:6:6:6:5:10. Head very excavated, glossy, unsculptured; frontal line complete; occipital carina absent; temple absent; POL = 1; OL = 1; OOL = 6. Palpal formula 5/2. Pronotum glossy, unsculptured, crossed by strong transverse impression. Scutum glossy, unsculptured, with 2 lateral pointed apophyses (Figs. 1 and 3). Scutellum inclined. Metanotum inclined, unsculptured, not transversely striate, not hollow behind scutellum (Figs. 2 and 4). Meso- and metapleuron transversely striate. Metathorax + propodeum glossy, with anterior surface unsculptured; posterior surface transversely striate. Meso-metapleural suture obsolete. Protarsal segments in following proportions: 14:3:4:14:22. Enlarged claw (Fig. 5) with 1 large subapical tooth and 1 row of 5 lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 5) with 2 rows of 4+11 lamellae; distal apex with at least 15 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/0/1.

Male: Unknown.


HOLOTYPE female, ECUADOR: Los Rios Province, Centro Cientifico Rio Palenque, 180 m, Col. MAB-UNESCO, 10-I-1981, col. S. Sandoval (QCAZ).


The species is named after the collector, Ms. Sonia Sandoval.


The characters distinguishing the new species are as follows: female apterous (Figs. 1 and 2); palpal formula 5/2; pronotum crossed by strong transverse impression (Figs. 2 and 4); scutum with 2 lateral pointed apophyses (Figs. 1 and 3); metanotum not hollow behind scutellum (Figs. 2 and 4); meso-metapleural suture obsolete; posterior surface of propodeum strongly transversely striate (Figs. 1, 3, 4); enlarged claw with lamellae and 1 large subapical tooth (Fig. 5). Because of the above characters, G. sandovalae belongs to Gonatopus group 10 (see Introduction of this paper). Gonatopus sandovalae is close to G. canadensis (Olmi 1984) and G. malkini (Olmi 1991). The main differences among these 3 species regard the sculpture of the scutum: with 2 lateral pointed apophyses in G. sandovalae (Figs. 1 and 3); without lateral apophyses in G. canadensis and G. malkini (Plate 154D in Olmi & Virla 2014). Following the description of G. sandovalae, the key to the females of the Neotropical species of Gonatopus group 10 published by Olmi & Virla (2014) can be modified by replacing couplet 4 as follows:

4.--      Scutum with 2 lateral pointed apophyses        G. sandovalae
          (Figs. 1 and 3) G                                   sp. nov.

4'.--     Scutum without lateral pointed apophyses                 4 *
          (Plate 154D in Olmi & Virla 2014)

4*.--     Metathorax + propodeum with anterior region    G. canadensis
          granulated and disc with strong track of              (Olmi)
          median longitudinal furrow

4*'.--    Metathorax + propodeum with anterior region       G. Malkini
          alutaceous and disc without strong track of           (Olmi)
          median longitudinal furrow


Many thanks to Giovanni Onore for his help during a recent trip to Ecuador. We are also grateful to the QCAZ Museum staff (Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito) for the loan of the specimen studied in the present paper.

References Cited

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Guglielmino A, Buckle C. 2010. Description of larval instars of Mystrophorus formicaeformis Ruthe (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Zootaxa 2602: 57-66.

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Olmi M, Guglielmino A. 2013. Description of Gonatopus rileyi sp. nov. from Arkansas (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 89: 79-83.

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Adalgisa Guglielmino (1), Massimo Olmi (2) *, and Stefano Speranza (1)

(1) Department of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 01100 Italy; E-mail: (A. G.), (S. S.)

(2) Tropical Entomology Research Center, Via De Gasperi 10, Viterbo, 01100 Italy; E-mail: (M. O.)

* Corresponding author; E-mail: (M. O.)

Caption: Figs. 1-5. Female holotype of Gonatopus sandovalae sp. nov.: habitus in dorsal (1) and lateral (2) view; scutum, scutellum and metathorax + propodeum in dorsal view (3); mesosoma in lateral view (4); chela (5). scale bar 1.28 mm for 1 and 2, 0.53 mm for 3, 0.58 mm for 4, and 0.14 mm for 5.


Please note: Some tables or figures were omitted from this article.
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Author:Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Olmi, Massimo; Speranza, Stefano
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3ECUD
Date:Sep 1, 2016
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