Printer Friendly

Describing What College Physics Students Learned and How They Learned.


In this study, the author compared the epistemological beliefs between students who were more successful (high gainers) and students who were less successful (low gainers) in a Mechanics standard test. The study involved five high gainers and five low gainers randomly chosen from a Physics class at Central Mindanao University. Epistemological beliefs were determined from the students' descriptions on what and how they learned physics concepts as reflected in their weekly journals. Findings reveal that both groups viewed physics as made up of CONCEPTS. To the high gainers, CONCEPTS are coherent and interrelated giving a clear picture of a big system that form the basis for explaining physical phenomena; while to the low gainers, physics CONCEPTS are isolated bits of information and ideas. On how they learned what they learned, high gainers believe that knowledge has to be reconstructed from what was previously learned, and being less dependent on AUTHORITY, preferred learning through discussion and REASONING after careful OBSERVING A PHENOMENON and INTERPRETATION. The low gainers, on the other hand, believe that physics can be learned from AUTHORITY by carefully listening to their lectures and OBSERVING what they demonstrate.

Keywords - Conceptual Gains, Epistemological beliefs, weekly-journal, Physics Concepts


Epistemological beliefs refer to one's understanding of the nature of knowledge and how these are obtained (Hammer and Elby, 2002; Hofer & Pintrich, 1997; Schommer, 1998). At the beginning, some students believe that knowledge in physics is certain, consisting of facts, formulas, and problem-solving methods, mostly disconnected from everyday thinking; these beliefs are referred to as naive. Few others tend to believe that knowledge is tentative and deals with a unified, coherent, interconnected system of ideas; these beliefs are also held by experts, thus considered sophisticated. The former view tends to encourage learning by memorizing while the later promotes learning by reconstructing and refining one's current understanding.

Various studies showed the influence that epistemological beliefs have on learning orientations (Songer and Linn, 1991; Tsai, 1998). Schommer, et al., (1992) also found that believing on knowledge as simple, which means knowledge consists of isolated facts has negative effects on students' comprehension and problem-solving in mathematics. The belief that knowledge is tentative and changing, as opposed to certain and fixed, were exhibited by students who gave wrong interpretations of controversial evidence (Kardash & Scholes, 1996, as cited in Schommer-Aikins, 2002). Thus, students' beliefs appear to influence how they process and interpret information.

By asking her students to write a tentative conclusion about a passage that presents several theories on the issue, Schommer (1990) found that the more students believe in knowledge as certain and learning as quick, the more oversimplified are their conclusions. Schommer et al., (1992) also found by believing that knowledge is simple, which means knowledge consists of isolated facts.

Epistemological beliefs function as constraints on the knowledge acquisition process that could inhibit students to learn even in effective research-based programs (Vosniadou, 2004). The belief that knowledge comes from an authority constrained them to take responsibility of their learning process (Mol, Stathopoulou, Kollias & Vosniadou, 2003). The growing recognition of student epistemologies and its influence on learning led to the realization of the need to address them in instruction. For example, Redish (2003) conducted a study to identify structures in students' epistemological reasoning in order to design lessons for helping students develop stronger meta-learning skills. The identification of epistemology as a category of informal knowledge may provide teachers an alternative interpretive lens for understanding students' ideas and behavior, assessing abilities and needs, and adapting plans and strategies (Hammer, 1995). It would be easy to assume that most students are not aware of their epistemological beliefs (Hofer & Pintrich, 1997). Promoting students' awareness of their epistemological beliefs and encouraging students to develop more sophisticated epistemologies were found effective in improving student learning in physics (Elby, 2001). Encouraging students to ask questions regarding their epistemologies (Harper, Etkina & Lin, no date) and to reflect on their epistemologies (May & Etkina, 2002) were also found positively correlated with greater conceptual understanding.


This study investigated the epistemological beliefs of a select group of Introductory College Physics students at Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon as they studied and tackled tasks related to force and motion. Conducted in a period of one semester, this study explored students' epistemological beliefs and their relationship to conceptual understanding while students were studying force and motion in an active-learning classroom. To capture their epistemological beliefs and describe their characteristics, the researcher had the students write weekly journals while reflecting on the activities they had in their physics class. By understanding the characteristics and role of epistemological beliefs through repeated reminders and self-reflections, it is reasonable to expect a more fruitful learning experience leading to greater conceptual understanding.

Specifically, this study aimed to look into how students describe what and how they learned physics concepts. Also, it attempted to compare views of students having high gains with those having low gains in standard physics concept test.


The sample of students in this investigation was taken from the group of engineering students enrolled in Introductory Physics during the first semester at Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon. The topics covered in the course were introductory mechanics, heat, and temperature. Weekly, they attended an hour lecture session three times and a three-hour laboratory session.

The same instructor handled both the lecture and laboratory classes of the participating group. Teaching and learning methods used were lectures with visual presentations mixed with active-learning strategies in which students interacted with peers and instructor through discussions, group problem solving, lecture-demonstrations, figuring out exercises, and concept tests. For the students to experience the methods of science, the chosen exercises and experiments had activities for careful observation, prediction and finding possible explanations, test, analyze and interpret results, to be able to draw a conclusion.

Students were made to write weekly reports while thinking of the activities they had for the week. Reports were based on their reflections on the following four open-ended questions:

1. What did you learn in the laboratory this week? How did you learn it?

2. What did you learn in the lectures this week? How did you learn it?

3. What questions remain unclear?

4. If you were the professor, what questions would you ask to determine if your students understood the material?

These questions were developed by Etkina (2000) and employed by May and Etkina (2002). From the weekly reports of their subjects, they came up with 14 codes. To code the reflections written by the students, the coding scheme developed by Etkina (2000) was used with author's permission. The coding scheme has three categories under which are code indications as listed below.

What they say they learned:

1. Formula - equations or other mathematical statements without elaboration on their underlying meaning.

2. Vocabulary - definitions or other physics language conventions.

3. Concept - qualitative descriptions or mentions of concepts, ideas, and relationships.

4. Skill - laboratory design skills, measurement skills, or problem-solving methods and skills.

How they say they learned:

5. Observed phenomenon--pure observation.

6. Constructed concept from observation - learned a concept simply by observing a phenomenon or demonstration.

7. Reasoned/derived in lecture - followed the reasoning process by which the large class came to a concept or formula, by using prior knowledge and experience, logic, mathematics, and/or analogies.

8. Reasoned/derived in the lab - actively reasoned by oneself or in a small group to come to a concept or formula.

9. Learned by doing - learned a concept, definition, or formula by using it, or learned a skill or process by performing or practicing it.

10. Authority - told or convinced by instructor, friend, textbook, or other authority figure.

11. Predicted/tested - predicted the outcome of an experiment and then conducted or observed the experiment.

12. Predicted/tested/interpreted - conducted an experiment to test an idea and interpreted the results of that test.

Inferences about their views:

13. Applicability of knowledge - belief that physical laws or concepts can and should be applied to new problems or to real-life situations.

14. Concern for coherence - belief that physical laws and concepts fit together coherently, or at least should agree with each other with common sense.

The coding scheme of Etkina considers codes 7,8,12 and 14 "favorable codes' as these indicate a student's preference to constructing knowledge by reasoning using previos knowledge or observed phenomenon, validation of ideas through experiment and concern for coherence. Codes 5,10,11 are "unfavorable codes" because these indicate a student's observations without justification or meaning, referring to authority as unquestionable source of knowlesge and describing experiments without any analysis.

To get the samples of ten students for this study, the class was ranked accorcing to their normal gain in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This 30-item standard test in mechanics, developed by Hestenes, D., Wells, M., & Swackhamer, G. (1992), was given to the class at the beginning and end of the semester. The normal gain, which is independent of the pretest, is a better indicator of the extent to which treatment is effective than is either the gain or the posttest (Hake, 1998). Six students with high normal gains in FCI and six students with low FCI normal gains were selected through stratified sampling. For technical reasons, data of only five samples per group were considered for final analysis.


The students' weekly reports revealed their epistemological beliefs and verified through interviews. Regarding what they learned, both groups frequently mentioned CONCEPTS and least about SKILLS. They differed much on FORMULA and VOCABULARY. The low gainers mentioned FORMULA more often than the high gainers, while the high gainers mentioned VOCABULARY more often than the low gainers. Regarding the question of how they learned what they learned, both groups recognized the importance of an AUTHORITY. Low gainers indicated that they prefer learning by OBSERVING A PHENOMENON even if no explanation goes with what is observed while high gainers prefer learning by REASONING IN THE LECTURE. Reports also indicated their CONCERN FOR COHERENCE but only few indicated the APPLICABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE.

Interview results

The weekly reports disclosed what students think of the nature of physics. Both groups indicated physics as made up of CONCEPTS, but the groups viewed concepts in different ways as exposed in the interviews. Some excerpts taken from the interviews are shown in Table 1.

To the low gainers, the view of physics as CONCEPTS means physics deals with ideas, a mere listing of words and pieces of information without mention or explanation of meaning and connectivity. These concepts seem to be bits of facts they just read or heard during the discussion.

The high gainers appeared to be more reflective about what and how they said they learned. In the interviews, they gave many insights concerning the first question. To them, CONCEPTS in physics are interrelated ideas and that the relations can provide the basis for an explanation. They believe in the connection of what they observed and discussed to events outside of the classroom as articulated through their responses.

On the question, "How did you learn what you claimed you learned?", both groups indicated their dependence on the AUTHORITY. The low gainers tended to rely on authority for facts. Most of them were not critical of the information or materials given. They believed that physics can be learned by observing or by doing but without mentioned of what they learned in the process. Although some of them claimed to have learned from the group discussion, they were mostly listeners rather than active learners. Mostly they were passive learners and believed that learning is quick. Some excerpts from the interview are given in Table 3a and 3b.

High gainers believed that inputs in physics given by an AUTHORITY are not merely to be transferred but should be analyzed and criticized to form new knowledge. They had varied ways of approaching knowledge acquisition. Having understood the materials and what there is to learn, they felt that they can do many things with their knowledge. There is an indication that the high gainers were aware of their prior knowledge in physics. They indicated the need to reconstruct what they know already by evaluating new materials through group discussions and reasoning.

The high gainers tended to use strategies other than memorizing and manifested the ability to describe and explain what they observed in terms of what were learned. There is an indication that the high gainers were aware of their prior knowledge in physics. They indicated the need to reconstruct what they know already by evaluating new materials through group discussions and reasoning. They believed that inputs in physics given by an authority are not merely to be transferred but should be analyzed and criticized to form new knowledge. They had varied ways of approaching knowledge acquisition. Having understood the materials and what there is to learn, they felt that they can do many things with their knowledge.

The students' weekly reports and interviews revealed how they say they learned. Both groups mentioned AUTHORITY but differed in how these should be dealt with. While low gainers are merely receptors of information, the higher gainers reasoned and build their ideas with the help from peers and instructor. They also indicated OBSERVED PHENOMENON. The low gainers just mentioned they made observations without giving any explanation or description about what they observed, while high gainers described what they are learning from the observed events and tried to connect what they observed to the concepts being learned. The low gainers mentioned having learned by having PREDICTED/TESTED but only because it was fun doing, while the high gainers mentioned PREDICTED/TESTED/INTERPRETED because they tried to figure out or translate their observations into something meaningful for them. High gainers are more reflective and involved in the learning process than low gainers are.


The students' weekly reports and interviews revealed their views about what physics knowledge is and how it can be learned. There seems to be a trend in the epistemological beliefs of the more successful (high gainers) in achieving conceptual understanding of force and motion that vary from the epistemological beliefs of the less successful ones (low gainers).

Both groups indicated that physics is learning CONCEPTS but only the high gainers were able to integrate what they learned and connect what they observed to the concepts being learned. Low gainers seemed to believe in knowledge as simple while the high gainers believed that knowledge consists of interrelated ideas that provide explanations. The high gainers preferred learning VOCABULARY to FORMULA being more interested in meanings and descriptions; and they considered equations as expressions of relationships. Low gainers, on the other hand, favored FORMULA to VOCABULARY; for them equations are tools to solve a problem and get the correct answers without concern of their meaning.

On how they learned what they learned, both groups mentioned learning from AUTHORITY. High gainers are less dependent on authority, yet still consider the significance of authority in shaping their ideas. The low gainers, on the other hand, believe that physics can be learned from authority by carefully listening to their lectures and observing what they demonstrate. High gainers believe that knowledge has to be reconstructed from what was previously learned, even in the early years, through discussion and REASONING after careful OBSERVING A PHENOMENON. High gainers showed responsibility to their learning as manifested in their eagerness to describe, clarify and INTERPRET their observations.

Low gainers preferred to just watch but could hardly express or describe what they were watching while OBSERVING A PHENOMENON. Low gainers mentioned learning by PREDICTING/TESTING but could not articulate any meaning or interpretation. Bing more of the passive type, low gainers could not contribute much to the discussion and preferred to listen.

The groups also differed in how much they write about what and how they learned. High gainers indicated in their reports plenty of thoughts and personal involvement in their learning; while the low gainers were less reflective of what they were learning and doing.


Elby, A. 2001 Helping physics students learn how to learn, American Journal of Physics, 69, Suppl. 1 S54 - S64.

Etkina, E. 2000 Weekly reports : a two-way feedback tool, Science Education, 84, 594-605.

Hammer, D. 1995 Epistemological considerations in teaching introductory physics, Science Education, 79, 393-413.

Hammer, D., & Elby, A. 2002 On the form of a personal epistemology. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs about Knowledge and Knowing (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum), pp. 169-190.

Harper, K., Etkina, E., & Lin, Y. (n.d.) Encouraging and analyzing student questions in a large physics course: meaningful patterns for instructors, (Manuscript given by Etkina, E.)

Hestenes, D., Wells, M., & Swackhamer, G. 1992 Force Concept Inventory, The Physics teacher, 30, 141-158.

Hestenes, D., & Halloun, I. 1995 Interpreting the Force Concept Inventory: A Response to the Critique by Huffman and Heller. The Physics Teacher, 33, 502,504-506.

Lising, L., & Elby, A. 2005 The impact of epistemology on learning: a case study for introductory physics, American Journal of Physics, 73, (4), 372-382

May, D.B., & Etkina, E. 2002 College physics students' epistemological self-reflections and its relationship to conceptual learning, American Journal of Physics, 70, (12)1249-1258.

Mol, A., Stathopoulou, C, Kollias, V., & Vosniadou, S. 2003 Gradual learning of science in a CSCL environment and the quest of epistemologically sophisticated learners, Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE internatioal conference on advanced learning technologies (CALT'03). From

Redish, E. F. 2002 Developing student expectations in algebra-based physics, presentation at the Conference on Integrating Science and Math Education Research, orono, Maine, June 24, 2002, on line at

Schommer, M. 1990 Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, (3)498-504.

Schommer, M. 1998 The influence of age and education on epistemological beliefs, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 551-562.

Schommer-Aikins, M. 2002 An evolving framework for an epistemological belief system. In B.K. Hofer & P.R. Pintrich (Eds) Personal Epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing, Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum, 103-118.

Songer, N.B., & Linn, M.C. 1991 How do students' views of science influence knowledge interpretation, Journal of research in Science Teaching, 28, (9)761-784.

Tsai, C-C. 1998 An analysis of scientific epistemological beliefs and learning orientations of Taiwanese eight graders, Science Education, 82, 473-489.

Vosniadou, S. 2004 Exploring the relationship between epistemological beliefs and Physics understanding, (from the web)


ORCID No. 0000-0001-6948-7257

Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Maramag Bukidnon
Table 1. Interview excerpts comparing the group's meaning of CONCEPTS.

Group        What they              Some excerpts taken from the
             learned                interview
         Code      Description

Low      CONCEPTS  listing of       "I learned about speed and
gainers            words,           acceleration--that is when the
                   ideas,           body goes up, the speed is
                   observations;    decreasing; but when it goes
                   No explanation   down, the speed is increasing."
                                    ".. learned rotation, torque
                                    and moment of inertia"

                                    " ..about free falling body...
                                    that is it will fall because of
                                    gravity and friction."
                   simple,          "I learned about force by
                   fixed and        watching the things that fall
                   concepts         from trees. I realized that the
                   are isolated,    concepts on free-fall are true."

High     CONCEPTS                   "...the topic torque is
gainers                             related to the rotation of bodies.
                                    For example, opening a door
                                    requires torque, and it would
                                    be easier to open the door if
                                    door knobs are placed far
                                    from the hinges. The seesaw
                   connected        moves easily if one sits at
                   ideas; explain   the farthest side of the
                   relationship     seesaw. In both cases, the torque is
                   coherent         more effective because of
                   interrelated     greater moment arm."
                   giving a
                   clear picture    "I should understand velocity
                   of a big system  and acceleration to understand
                   and form         why it is advised to slow
                   the basis        down on slippery roads.
                   for explaining   The faster the speed, the
                   physical         greater its acceleration if made
                   phenomena        to stop, because acceleration
                                    is how fast you can stop your
                                    car. Acceleration is the change
                                    of speed divided by time."

                                    "Physics is complex, deals with
                                    relationships, the first
                                    topic related to another topic
                                    and that topic related to still
                                    another topic. For example,
                                    vectors are connected to the
                                    velocity, velocity to acceleration,
                                    acceleration to force and
                                    so on. ."

                                    "... to determine the acceleration
                                    we need to know the
                                    velocity before and after, if
                                    there is a change. However, the
                                    change is not only from, let
                                    us say, 5m/sec to 10m/sec,
                                    we also need to know their
                                    directions because velocity is
                                    a vector. It matters if they are
                                    in the same direction, opposite
                                    or perpendicular from
                                    each other. That will matter."

Table 2. Interview excerpts illustrating the low gainers' meaning of
FORMULA and high gainers' meaning of VOCABULARY

Group      What they learned             Some excerpts taken from the
           CODE         Description      interview

Low        FORMULA                       "From my point of view,
gainers                                  equation is important
                                         because just when you
                                         already know how to get
                                         the value, but there is no
                        means of         certain equation, you
                        checking         will find it difficult to
                        whether          determine if the solution
                        solution is      is correct."
                        used to verify   "It is important because
                        if theory or     if there was no equation,
                        law is true;     there's no way to get the
                        tool for         final result; therefore,
                        problem          we cannot tell that the
                        solving          theory or that law is true."

                                         ....formulas must satisfy the
                                         concepts. like for
                                         example F = ma."

                                         "I learned about formulas
                                         and problem-solving...... like
                                         if you know the equation of
                                         motion, it is easier to solve
                                         the problem."

High       VOCABULARY                    "if you know the definition
gainers                                  of concepts, like
                                         momentum is mass times
                                         velocity; p = m x v
                                         then formulas can be derived."

                                         "To learn concepts, I get
                        meaning,         first the meaning of the
                        definitions,     concepts. If you know the
                        explanation;     concepts, you have an
                        tool in          idea what to do with the
                        deriving         problem, how to solve.
                        formula          With the concepts, there is
                                         also an explanation
                                         on how to solve."

                                         "I made myself clear about
                                         the meaning of the
                                         concepts to derive an equation

                                         "...explanations deal with
                                         concepts but
                                         concepts have to be
                                         carefully defined."

Table 3a. Interview Excerpts showing group's responses on how they
learn what they learned

Group      How they learned         Some excerpts taken from the
         CODE       Description     interview

                                    "I learn by reading the
                                    book... I watch TV. I
                                    learn most
                                    by listening from the
                                    teacher's lectures."

Low      AUTHORITY  Book            "I exerted effort by researching
gainers             Teacher         with the computer. ....
                    TV              I look for problems and read
                                    those which have answers.
                                    Then I know how to get it."

                    Computer        "I prefer that the teacher give
                    Classmates      a step by step solution to
                                    a problem that I can copy..."

                    Reliable        "I just listened to my
                    source           classmates; usually I
                    of information   just agreed
                                     with what they say)

                                    "I listened to your lecture
                                    ma'am...I have so many
                                    questions in my mind, but
                                    I am not sure about my
                                    question,... they might be
                                    stupid ones."

                                    "... I got confused, so I
                                    solicited the ideas of my

                                    "There are some factors to
                                    consider if a person is reliable
                                    in the field or not like,... I'll
                                    try to reason out, I'll ask
                                     to prove me wrong, I think
                                    I'll have to change what
                                    I believed earlier.

High     AUTHORITY  Teacher         "... I understand more what
gainers             Classmates      is in the book when I
                    Books           observe what is happening "

                    Source of       "In the think-pair-share activities,
                    information     we shared ideas. We
                    that have to    contributed; we listened at the
                    be discussed,   reasons to determine
                    checked,        whose idea will be considered
                    analyzed,       final. I also learned when
                    reasoned with,  the teacher asked questions
                    validated       because I was able to express
                                    my ideas. Expressing my ideas
                                    is important because if
                                    this not so right, it can still be
                                    changed. I already have
                                    an idea of the topic, but it is
                                    not really exact, I just
                                    understood a little."

                                    "... the biggest portion of
                                    what I learned was through
                                    the discussions and illustrations
                                    of the teacher. However,
                                    again, there must be an
                                    exchange of ideas between
                                    teacher and classmates. With
                                    the use of illustrations
                                    and through interactions, the
                                    side of the students
                                    can be heard; unlike when
                                    only the teacher is talking.
                                    Interaction is important for
                                    both sides to understand
                                    each other."

Table 3b. Interview excerpts showing group's responses on how they
learn what they learned

Group       How they learned         Some excerpts taken from the
         CODE         Description    interview

Low      OBSERVED                    "I learn by observing
gainers  PHENOMENON                  things as they happen..."
         PREDICTED/                  "...when we performed
         TESTED                      experiment in the laboratory
                                     about the topic, we performed
                                     and I learned a lot because
                                     it is actual. I learned more in
                                     the lab because when you
                                     discussed, certain
                                     things need to be illustrated.
                                     It is much better when it is

                                     "I think I preferred doing it
                      Observe        because it is fun and doing it;
                      events         it is easier to understand why
                      related to     certain things happened like
                      topic but      this and that; in the discussion,
                      made no        one had to imagine what happened.
                      explanation    We can easily understand when we
                      or mention     can see what we are doing. We
                      of what was    enjoyed when we discovered
                      learned        things. For example, on the lesson
                                     about torque, we learned that
                                     we can determine the mass of a
                                     body using a standard mass and
                                     stick. Before I thought, it was
                                     impossible. The problem we
                                     have is lack of facilities, because
                                     what we can also learn depend
                                     on the available facilities, they
                                     are our guide when we perform.
                                     Better facilities will help
                                     improve our learning."
                                     "I learned when we performed
                                     experiment about the topic,
                                     from your discussions in the
                                     laboratory, we performed and

                                     I learned a lot because it is
                                     actual. I learned more in the
                                     lab because when you discussed,
                                     certain things need to be
                                     illustrated. It is much better
                                     when it is performed."

High     OBSERVED                    "There were times when I
gainers  PHENOMENON                  learned by observing a
         PREDICTED/                  demonstration. For example
         TESTED                      in the demonstration on
         INTERPRETED                 free fall, I predicted that the
                                     heavy object will reach the
                                     ground first, but I was wrong,
                                     they fell at the same time.
                                     So when a coin and a piece
                                     of paper were dropped I
                                     thought they fall at the same
                                     time but again I was wrong.
                      Observe        I got confused, so I solicited
                      events         the ideas of my classmates.
                      related to     Then I learned that there is
                      topic Tried    more air resistance in the
                      to make an     piece of paper that is why it
                      explanation    did not fall straight like
                      or             the others."
                      of what was    "Discussion also helped, for
                      learned        example on our way home
                                     we have to go slow because
                                     we were aware of our kinetic
                                     energy. We can apply what we
                                     learned. When we were
                                     having lunch, when the fork
                                     was raised, we said that the
                                     potential energy is related to
                                     the height. So we discussed
                                     things related to what we did."

High     OBSERVED                    "Performing experiments
gainers  PHENOMENON                  about the topic, also from
         PREDICTED/                  your discussions then we
         TESTED                      performed later. I learned more
         INTERPRETED                 from the actual exercise. For
                                     example, on the friction
                                     exercise, as the weight on the
                                     block was increased the
                                     weight on the other end of the
                                     string was also increased.
                                     The weight on the block
                                     increased the normal force on
                                     the block while increasing the
                                     weight on the other end
                                     of the string increased the
                                     force that pulled the block to
                      Observe        counteract friction. So
                      events         increasing the normal force also
                      related        increases the frictional force."
                      topic Tried    "...the biggest portion of what
                      to make an     I learned was through
                      explanation    the discussions and illustrations
                      or             of the teacher. However,
                      clarification  again, there must be an exchange
                      of what        of ideas between
                      was            teacher and classmates. With
                      learned        the use of illustrations
                                     and through interactions, the
                                     side of the students
                                     can be heard; unlike when
                                     only the teacher is talking.
                                     Interaction is important for
                                     both sides to understand
                                     each other."

                                     "I could say that I understood
                                     if I can compare, describe,
                                     explain, and make the
                                     connections. if I can answer
                                     questions. I study hard so
                                     that I will not be ignorant of
                                     what others might be talking
COPYRIGHT 2013 Liceo de Cagayan University
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Taganahan, Teresita D.
Publication:Liceo Journal of Higher Education Research
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2013
Previous Article:Determinants of Quality Engineering Education in Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines.
Next Article:Private-Public Sector Partnership in Juvenile Delinquency Prevention among the Urban Poor: a Study on Poverty Alleviation.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |