Dermatoglyphic analysis of fingertip and palmer print patterns of obese children.
Background: Dermatoglyphics is the scientific term used for study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmer region of hand and planter region of foot and toes. Obesity is a multifactorial condition (polygenic and environmental). Factors determining obesity in utero may influence dermatoglyphic patterns.
Objectives: To identify dermatoglyphic patterns in obese individuals and to find out the association between the dermatoglyphic patterns and obesity.
Material and Methods: Three government and three private schools were selected by simple random sampling, with a sample size of 370. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants to elicit the information. Body weight and height was measured and body mass index was calculated.
Results: In 42% obese individuals, there was an increase in the number of arches in thumb, mainly right thumb. Out all obese, 29% showed increase in the ATD angle value. There was presence of additional triradii in 17% of obese individuals. Among all obese individuals, 21% had abnormal endings of the main palm lines whereas 11% had reduced C line.
Conclusion: Dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a marker to detect the obesity. An increased number of arches in thumb may be considered in identifying individuals at high risk for obesity. So, necessary preventive and promotive health measures can be adopted in such identified high-risk individuals.
KEY WORDS: Dermatoglyphics, obese, children
Dermatoglyphics is the scientific term used for study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmer region of hand and planter region of foot and toes. Many articles have been published in medical journals around the world, and dermatoglyphics has been used in such diverse field as pediatric medicine, genetic research, criminology, psychiatry, and anthropology. Different diseases have different finger prints associated with them. It is clear now that in near future, owing the recent advancement in the field of dermatoglyphics, it is possible to predict that an individual is having or will have that disease.
Obesity is a multifactorial condition (polygenic and environmental). Factors determining obesity in utero may influence dermatoglyphic patterns. Dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a marker to detect obesity. Hence, this study was undertaken to detect the any possible relationship between the dermatoglyphic pattern and obesity.
Dermatoglyphics is one of the new and advancing branches of medical science, which studies cornified layer of epidermis and dermal papillae. It is situated and used in the prediction of genetic disorders. 
Patterns of epidermal ridges have a role in diagnosing and delineating certain syndromes of congenital malformation  as well as in establishing twin zygosity  in anthropologic surveys  and in population genetics. 
Each individual's genetic background remains an important determinant of susceptibility to obesity. Discovery of genes involved in development of common forms of obesity, thereby identifying pathways that are casual in patients, will guide clinicians and scientists in designing more effective therapies and in identifying high-risk individuals for early interventions. [6,7]
The aims of this study were to identify dermatoglyphic patterns in obese individuals and to find out the possible relationship between the dermatoglyphic patterns and obesity.
Material and Methods
A list of government and private school was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Three government and three private schools were selected by simple random sampling method. As no such study was carried out previously, so assuming probability of such correlation to be 50%, at 5% error, a sample of 370 was calculated.
A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants to elicit the information. Information on individual characteristics such as age, sex, eating habits, and time spent on television viewing and outdoor games was also collected. Body weight was measured (to the nearest 0.5 kg) with the subject standing motionless on a weighing scale with feet 15 cm apart and weight equally distributed on each leg. Height was measured (to the nearest 0.5 cm) with the subject standing in an erect position against a vertical scale and with the head positioned so that the top of the external auditory meatus is in level with the inferior margin of the bony orbit.
Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms/(height in meter).  Obesity was assessed by BMI for age. The following reference criteria for Asian population were used to calculate BMI:
Dermatoglyphic print was taken by Ink method.
* Subjects were asked to clean their hand with soap and water.
* They were also asked to do dry their hands but to leave some moisture.
* Then one hand of the subject was placed on inkpad of some areas are not uniformly inked, such as hollow of palm; then, some ink with cotton puff was applied.
* Hand of the subject then placed on a sheet of paper from proximal to distal end. The palm was gently pressed between intermetacarpal groove at the root of fingers, and on the dorsal side corresponding to thenar and hypothenar regions.
* The palm was then lifted from the paper in the reverse order from distal to the proximal end. The fingers were also printed below the palmar point by using the finger print method. The fingers rolled from radial to ulnar side to include all the patterns.
* The procedure was repeated with other hand on a separate paper.
* The prints were then subjected to a detailed dermatoglyphic analysis with the help of a magnifying hand-lens and ridge counting was performed with the help of a sharp needle. The details were noted on the same paper with help of a pencil.
After the completion of data entry, statistical analysis was carried out by using Epi Info, version 6.04, software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA).
Analysis of Dermatoglyphic Patterns in Obese Subjects
In 42% obese individuals, there was an increase in the number of arches in thumb, mainly right thumb. Of all obese individuals, 29% showed increase in the ATD angle value. Additional triradii was present in 17% of the obese individuals. Among all obese individuals, 21% had abnormal endings of the main palm lines whereas 11% had reduced C line.
To the best of our knowledge, very few studies have been conducted to assess dermatoglyphic patterns and their possible relationship with obesity in children. Nevertheless, there are several studies available that show the association of dermatoglyphic patterns and prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, which are again the associated comorbid conditions with obesity.
A study was conducted by Gilligan et al.  to search for the major gene effects on palmer pattern ridge count to identify the dermatoglyphic traits in India. Similar results were shown by a study conducted by Kaladze et al.  in which dermatoglyphics were analyzed in 544 children with constitutional exogenous adiposity. The results showed dermatoglyphic changes that included papillary patterns intensified at the expense of loops and twists. Other notable findings of the study include an increase in the ATD angle value, a-b count in boys, presence of additional triradii, abnormal endings of the main palm lines along with a reduced C line, and absence of C triradius in patients with constitutional exogenous adiposity. Similar findings were observed in the relatives of the first-degree of kinship. 
Obesity is considered an epidemic of modern time. The most important factor with which a very effective impact in its control can be seen is to identify persons at risk and more so ever during their childhood. As obesity is multifactorial disease, one such risk factor identification can be through studying dermatoglyphic patterns. This study showed an increased number of arches in thumb, along with presence of additional triradii, reduced C line with increase in the ATD angle value, and abnormal endings of the main palm lines. Children with these patterns may be considered at high risk for obesity. So, necessary preventive and promotive health measures should be adopted.
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Nikha Bhardwaj (1), Pankaj Bhardwaj (2), Vineeta Tewari (1), Mohammed Shakeel Siddiqui (1)
(1) Department of Anatomy, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
(2) Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.
Correspondence to: Pankaj Bhardwaj, E-mail: email@example.com
Received December 25, 2013. Accepted December 25, 2013
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How to cite this article: Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Tewari V, Siddiqui MS. Dermatoglyphic analysis of fingertip and palmer print patterns of obese children. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2015;4:946-949
Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.
International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health Online 2015. [c] 2015 Pankaj Bhardwaj. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Criteria BMI Normal 18.5-22.99 Overweight 23.0-24.99 Obesity [greater than or equal to]25 Table 1: Dermatoglyphic patterns of fingers of obese and normal individuals Finger Thumb Index Middle Obese Normal Obese Normal Obese Normal Arch 48 18 23 11 37 21 Radial 3 4 8 4 5 10 loop Ulnar 26 39 24 43 56 34 loop Whorl 36 34 58 37 15 30 Total 113 95 113 95 113 95 Finger Ring Little Obese Normal Obese Normal Arch 19 20 15 26 Radial 11 8 3 11 loop Ulnar 44 38 58 40 loop Whorl 39 29 37 18 Total 113 95 113 95 Table 2: Lines and angles of palm of obese and normal individuals Parameters Male Obese (mean Normal (mean [+ or -] SD) [+ or -] SD) Left hand ATD angle 43.49 [+ or -] 1.22 38.21 [+ or -] 1.23 Right hand ATD angle 45.29 [+ or -] 1.23 39.99 [+ or -] 1.24 Left hand distance a-d (mm) 59.88 [+ or -] 1.66 48.11 [+ or -] 1.33 Right hand distance a-d (mm) 59.99 [+ or -] 1.71 49.11 [+ or -] 1.61 Parameters Female Obese (mean Normal (mean [+ or -] SD) [+ or -] SD) Left hand ATD angle 44.39 [+ or -] 1.20 42.21 [+ or -] 1.11 Right hand ATD angle 44.29 [+ or -] 1.2 40.99 [+ or -] 1.21 Left hand distance a-d (mm) 59.77 [+ or -] 1.22 47.11 [+ or -] 1.26 Right hand distance a-d (mm) 58.45 [+ or -] 1.44 48.11 [+ or -] 1.55
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Bhardwaj, Nikha; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Tewari, Vineeta; Siddiqui, Mohammed Shakeel|
|Publication:||International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2015|
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