Denkmaler der tonkunst in osterreich (DTO): history and editorial program.
As the oldest still-active series founded on the idea of musical monuments, the Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Osterreich (DTO: Monuments of Art Music in Austria) has published substantial works of Austria's music history over the period of 120 years. At the beginning of his career, Guido Adler (1855-1941), one of the founders of musicology as an academic discipline, wanted to initiate a new series of musical monuments comprising Germany and all the Habsburg Empire. Hungarian and German scholars who intended to establish their own national series resisted Adler's plan of an international project. Thus the first appearance of Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst in 1892 propelled Adler to resize his project, and to found a purely Austrian series.
Several factors happily coincided. Two volumes of works by emperors from the Habsburg family who composed music, edited by Adler in 1892 and 1893, (1) preceded the founding of DTO. The edition guaranteed the support of the ruling family, even for the subsequent and much bigger project. Adler directed the music historical department of the International Exhibition for Music and Theater (Internationale Ausstellung fur Musik- und Theaterwesen) that took place in Vienna in 1892. (2) As director, he initiated extended research on musical sources in the Habsburg Empire, thus anticipating the business of DTO. Further, the Austrian Ministry of Religion and Education intended to edit the Trent Codices that had been transferred to Vienna not long before. Certainly a national musical series would provide the ideal forum for such a plan. With sensitivity and diplomacy, Guido Adler managed to make DTO a part of the Austrian cultural policy, and to provide it with an official mission. In the late years of the Habsburg Empire, Adler's project corresponded with the strategy of the Austrian government to use musical heritage in order to create and boost national identity. To add even more emphasis to the enterprise, Adler managed to attract prominent composers such as Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler, and Richard Strauss to become one after another members of the editorial board (Leitende Kommission) established to support Adler, who was the head of publications (Leiter der Publikationen) in his decisions.
The society (Gesellschaft zur Herausgabe von Denkmalern der Tonkunst in Osterreich) was founded in a constituent meeting in 1893. Music critic and historian Eduard Hanslick (1825-1904) was elected president. The editorial board consisted of Johannes Brahms; the conductor Hans Richter; Joseph Bohm, a reformer of church music and pioneer in early-music performances; Albert von Hermann, a government official, journalist, and composer; DTO's first publisher Carl August Artaria; and finally two of Hanslick's colleagues at the University of Vienna: the historian Engelbert Milhlbacher and the classical philologist Wilhelm von Harte1. (3) One year later, Adler and the editorial board started a continuing series of editions, two volumes a year. After twenty-five years, in 1918, fifty volumes had been published; this was an incredible achievement, unhindered even by the disturbances and troubles of World War I. When the society was founded, Adler was still professor in Prague. The successful establishment of DTO certainly supported his appointment at the University of Vienna in 1898, accomplished against some resistance. (4) Consequently Adler founded the Department of Music at this school.
As an editor, Guido Adler was amazingly active; he himself edited 30 percent of the volumes that appeared in the first twenty-five years. In addition, volumes were edited by a few foreign scholars such as Max Seiffert, Johannes Wolf, and Hermann Abert from Germany, as well as by Josef Mantuani and Eusebius Mandyczewski, two of Adler's Viennese colleagues. The majority of volumes, however, were edited by Adler's students in Prague and Vienna, among them Anton von Webem and Egon Wellesz, remembered today primarily as composers.
Adler retired as a professor of music in 1927. Therefore, and probably also because of the difficult economic situation, the editorial activity was slightly reduced. In the period between the wars, only one volume appeared per year instead of the regular two. (5) Editing only a few more volumes, Adler made way for his students to take over this function even more than before. For the first time, music of the nineteenth century was published in DTO: dances by Joseph Lanner (DTO 65) and the Strauss family (DTO 63, 68, 74). Even today, waltzes by the two brothers Johann and Josef Strauss from the 1860s represent the most recent music published in the series.
The series continued to be supported by influential groups. The archbishop of Vienna, Theodor Cardinal Innitzer, was elected president of the society in 1932. Soon after the annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938, Adler resigned as the head of publication. The National Socialist administration suspended the editorial board and installed musicologist Alfred Orel (1889-1967) as an interim director. Orel--one of Adler's pupils, and a notorious anti-Semite--was associate professor of music at the University of Vienna: he had become a member of DTO's editorial board in 1920. Editorial activity ceased during the war.
Replacing the DTO society, the Gesellschaft fill- ostmarkische Musik-forschung (6) was founded in 1939 (Ostmark being a code for former Austria). The presidency of this society was a subfunction of the full professor of music at the university. Robert Lach, a declared anti-Semite and one of Adler's opponents, (7) had succeeded Adler in the position of professor of music. He took over presidency of the new society in 1939. After he retired in the fall of the same year, his successor Erich Schenk became president (and at the same time head of publications). Only two persons from the DTO board, scholars in the fields of German and his-tory, (8) were appointed members of the new board together with four supporting members (Wirkende Mitglieder) of the former society who had edited several volumes. (9) The series Das Erbe deutscher Musik was founded in 1935 in Germany under the Nazi government. In order to replace DTO, a subseries for the "Alpen- und Donau-Reichsgaue" was initiated, finally publishing only one volume, which appeared in 1942)"
A few weeks before. the war ended, Erich Schenk took steps to reinstate the former DTO Society. Cardinal Innitzer refused to take over presidency once again. (11) Therefore, when the society was re-established in 1946, Joseph Marx (1882-1964), the composer and professor at the Vienna Music Academy, was elected president. In 1947 the first volume after the war appeared (DTO 85, containing keyboard music of Johann Josef Fux). From the editorial board of the Gesellschaft filr ostmarkische Musikforschung a number of members now faced charges of political involvement in the Nazi regime, (12) and could therefore not be elected to the re-established editorial board. Only Erich Schenk (full professor of music), two of Adler's students (Franz Kosch and Leopold Nowak), and a government official (13) provided continuity between the board of the national socialist society and the new board. After Adler's death in Vienna in 1941, Schenk had played a major role in the confiscation of his library. He had joined the NSD-Dozentenbund, the Nazi organization for university professors, without being a member of the Nazi Party. Nevertheless, he passed the denazification process without major problems, and in 1957 was even elected president of the University of Vienna. During the Nazi regime, Schenk had shared the prevailing idea of a great German empire. In contrast, right after World War II, he rapidly adopted the idea of an Austrian nation. (14)
In Schenk's era (1946-74) one or two volumes per year appeared on average, a frequency that was continued into the 1980s. Numerous editions of instrumental music of the seventeenth century and Franco-Flemish music of the sixteenth century contributed to focal areas already established in Adler's time. Only under Othmar Wessely, who led DTO beginning in 1974, was music of the nineteenth century published again. After 1945, music written before 1500 and in the eighteenth century appeared in DTO only occasionally. Schenk and Wessely edited many volumes themselves. Among other editors there were international scholars such as Paul Amadeus Pisk and Paul Neal, two students of Adler who had emigrated to the United States, as well as Milton Steinhardt and Raffaello Monterosso.
In 1999, after Wessely had passed away, Theophil Antonicek was elected head of publications.
OVERVIEW OF THE EDITORIAL PROGRAM
By definition, DTO is geographically limited. Austria is understood in a historical sense as comprising the area of today's Republic of Austria, as well as the different stages of the Habsburg Empire. The editions include composers born or working in Austria, and works dedicated to rulers of the Habsburg family or other dignitaries. Also, sources in Austrian archives of works by foreign composers were published in DTO. Composers from the canon of traditional concert life, however, were principally excluded: their works are published rather in complete editions. In the time period from 1893 to the present, the number of complete editions increased considerably, while the field of music left for a national-edition series like DTO correspondingly diminished. Yet from the beginning, DTO was focused on the study of repertoires and on music lying beyond the canon of great masterworks. It was Guido Adler's aim to closely connect the editions to recent research. A number of volumes emerged from dissertation projects. Adler considered his series as a forum to present new results of research.
As mentioned above, a main focus of the 155 volumes that have appeared so far is music of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (15) From the sixteenth century, the Hofkapellmeister of the emperors Ferdinand I and Maximilian II are included with the greatest part of their output; among others, (16) Jacobus Vaet (ca. 1529-1567) is represented by a complete edition in eight volumes (DTO 98, 100, 103/104, 108/109, 113/114, 116, 118, 145). Further, there is an edition of masses and motets by Jacob Handl (or Gallus, 1550-1591) in ten volumes (DTO 12, 24, 30, 40, 48, 51/52, 78, 94/95, 117, 119). Additionally, most of the instrumental music of baroque composers working in Austria was published in DTO: works by Johann Jacob Froberger (1616-1667; DTO 8, 13, 21), Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (1644-1704; DTO 11, 25, 49, 59, 80, 92, 96, 97, 106/107, 127, 151, 153), Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (ca. 1620/23-1680; DTO 93, 105, 111/112), Georg (1653-1704) and Gottlieb Muffat (16901770; the two composers spread among DTO 2, 4, 7, 23, 58, 89). Due to these editions, this music has been received broadly in performances and recordings of the last decades. The Viennese Hofkapellmeister Johann Joseph Fux (1660-1741), who in the meantime is being honored with a complete edition in progress from Barenreiter and Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, is also present in DTO 1, 3, 19, 34/35, 47, and 85 with a fine collection of selected works.
TRENT CODICES: MILESTONES OF SCHOLARLY RESEARCH
The editions of music from the Trent Codices represent important steps in the history of musicological research. This huge complex of sources consists of seven manuscripts from the fifteenth century that contain polyphonic music of widespread provenance. The codices comprise about 1,600 compositions, making them one of the most important group of sources of music in the era of Gilles Binchois (ca. 1400-1460) and Guillaume Du Fay (1397-1474). The manuscripts were written in the Tyrol and in Styria, but the most recent parts copied in Trent where they were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century. Today they are preserved in the Museo Provinciale d'Arte in Trent. Under the auspices of Guido Adler and Rudolf von Ficker, six volumes with selected music from the Trent Codices appeared from 1900 to 1933. One more volume, edited by Flotzinger, was published in 1970. (17)
Adler edited his first selection together with Oswald Koller in 1900. This volume is considered an act of editorial pioneering in a time without much experience in editing music in mensural notation. The edition and the editorial procedures adopted developed into a subject of heated debate. (18) The early volumes represent the early history of scholarly music editing. They are experimental, for instance with respect to the different ways of presenting variant readings, or the attempts to inte.grate the original notational design. In selections Nos. 5 and 6 (DTO 61 and 76), Ficker in a quite unusual way imitates the original form of note-heads in his edition. Dotted lines separate the bars, later the lines are replaced by single dots in every system. As an editor, Ficker always had in mind how to use his transcriptions in modern performances. He himself conducted early performances of medieval music in the 1920s, which made him a trailblazer in the early-music revival movement.
On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the DTO Gesellschaft in 1913, Guido Adler founded the journal Studien zur Musikwissenschaji in order to supplement the music editions of DTO with further scholarly information. In Adler's hands the journal became a core periodical of Austrian and European musicology. After two quite long hiatuses, from 1935 to 1954 and from 1967 to 1976, the journal was reactivated first by Schenk, then by Wessely; it continues to appear today. In a relaunch this year, an editorial board was installed. In the future, the articles will be peer reviewed. Studien zur Musikwissenschaft offers a forum of international research on Austrian studies in music and the theory of music editing.
Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Osterreich also directly or indirectly contributed to the organization of the big conferences in Vienna and celebrating the anniversaries of Haydn (1909), Beethoven (1927 and 1970), and Mozart (1956). In 1991 an international workshop on current problems of music editing was organized with international specialists such as jaap van Benthem and Martin Just as invited speakers.
The DTO Society owns a small library with some valuable rare books, also a relatively large administrative archive and a collection of correspondence. There is also an extended collection of manuscript scores, partly consisting of unique copies of sources that are now destroyed or lost. Under Adler's guidance these scores were prepared for future editions. In addition, from the time of the Vienna Internationale Ausstellung far Musikund Theaterwesen in 1892/93 there exist numerous and detailed catalogs of music archives sent to Adler from throughout the Habsburg Empire.
FUTURE EDMON PLANS
By 1987 the DT6 Society was supported financially by Austria's federal government on a regular basis, which made possible continuous work on editions. Thereafter the funding of volumes became more difficult. In the relatively small European markets the publishers need financial aid. In cooperation with the publisher it is my job to raise money for every single volume. We normally apply for support to national funds or regional administration offices. Our society consists only of voluntary members. Today the head of publications, a position the author has shared with Theophil Antonicek since 2007, rarely chooses future editors. Normally, scholars themselves offer editions directly to DTO. Central selection criteria are the importance of representing a broad variety of genres and historic eras in our program, hut also the creation of new focuses or the consolidation of existing ones.
In the upcoming years two volumes of sacred music will be published, one with two oratorios by the Viennese Hofkapellmeister Antonio Bertali (ed. Tassilo Erhardt), and another with a Mass in C for double choir (1799/1804) by Antonio Salieri (ed. Jane Schatkin Hettrick). In addition, three volumes with secular music of the eighteenth century will appear: harpsichord music by Gottlieb Muffat (Componimenti musicali, 1739), in a new edition by Alexander Opatrny of the compositions first published in DTO 7; Ignaz Holzbauer's German opera Hypermnestra (1741), which had its premiere in the Vienna Karntnertortheater (ed. Lawrence Bennett); and finally quartets and quintets for strings by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (ed. Oldfich Pulkert). The current editorial board and the heads of publication consider it their mission to continue their activities in the spirit of Guido Adler. Still, we focus on repertoires that are unexplored and need further investigation. We want to stimulate new research on this music, either while preparing new volumes or as a result of our editions. If possible, we also want to profit from the competence of scholars who have already studied such repertoires, and offer them a forum to present their insights in the format of a critical edition. Adler developed his enterprise while creating his own school of editors. In our globalized world, it is our effort to involve more and more scholars from all around the world, thus leaving behind the local circles from which Adler gathered his team. After 120 years, the DTO Society still has plenty of work left to be done.
Being the oldest edition series founded on the idea of musical monuments and still active, the Denkrnaler der Tonkunst in Osterreich (DTO: Monuments of Art Music in Austria) has published important works of Austria's music history over the period of the last 120 years. More than 150 volumes of the series comprise critical editions of music from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century. The DTO Society was founded in 1893 on the initiative of Guido Adler, one of the pioneers of modern musicology, and the first professor of the discipline at the University of Vienna. Adler was chief editor for many decades until the society was suspended by the Nazi regime during the World War II. Eduard Hanslick served as the society's first president. Among the members of the editorial board we find famous scholars and artists such as Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler, and Richard Strauss. This article summarizes the history of the DTO Society, gives an overview of the past editions, and portrays a few volumes that turned out to be milestones in musicological research. Plans for future editions are also discussed.
Martin Evb1 is professor of music history at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, and head of pnblications of DTO. His research is ionised on aesthetics and music theory in the early twentieth century. editions 01 early music. and Inqri.m mucitui dir riglurcnill century.
(1.) See Musikalisehe Werke der Kal.ser l'erdinand W., Leopold I., dad Joseph 1., ed. Guido Adler, 2 vols. (Vienna: Artaria, 1892-93), often referred to as "Kaiserwerke."
(2.) Theophil Antonicek, Die Internationale ilussiellumg Ifir Musik- und Theaterivesen Wien 1892 (Vienna. 2013). available online at http://www.dtoe.at/Infos Ausstellungt892.php (accessed 20 November 2013).
(3.) Find detailed information on the early members of the DTO Gesellschaft online at "Biographien von DTO-Mitgliedern," http://www.dtoc.at/Infos/Personen.php (accessed 20 November 2013).
(4.) Theophil Antonicek, "Musikwissenschall in Wien -Jur Zeit Guido Adlers," Studien zur Musik-wissenschaft 37 (1986): 165-93.
(5.) In 1919, 1924, 1927, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1937, and 1938.
(6.) In 1942 the society changed its name to Gesellschaft far Musikforschung in den Alpen- und Donau-Reichsgauen.
(7.) Lach "joined the Nazi party in 1933 when it was illegal in Austria," Pamela M. Potter, Most German of the Arts: Musicology and Society .from the Weimar Republic to the End of Hitler's Reich (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1998), 115.
(8.) Dietrich vim Iralik (professor of German) and Hans Hirsch (histoty): for the members of the board, see Elisabeth Theresia Hilscher, Denkmalpfiege und Musihwissenschaft: Einhundert Jahn, Gesellschaft zur Herausgahe der Ton/must in Osterreich (1893-1993), Wiener Veroffentlichungen zur Musikwissenschaft, 33 (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1995), 153-58.
(9.) Robert Haas, Leopold Nowak, Adolf Koczirz, and Franz Kosch.
(10.) Wiener Lautenmusik im 18. Jahrhundert, ed. Adolf Koczirz, Das Erbe deutscher Musik, Ser. 2: Landschaftsdenkmale: Alpen- und Donau-Reichsgaue, I (Vienna: Universal-Edition, 1942).
(11.) Hilscher, 163.
(12. Ibid., 164. Robert Haas, Armin Caspar Hochsteuer, Viktiirllittk, Robert Lath, Friedirch Werner, Wilhelm Ehmann, and Erich Valentin, altogether members of he Gesellschaft fur Mnsiktorschung in den Alpen- und Donau-Reichsgauen, were not elected members of the new board. Dietrich von Kralik was a member of the Nazi Party or one of its sub-organizations. which is why he could not join the new hoard before 1948 when lie WAN oIIirialIv rehabilitated. II jlsrhjer, 170.
(13.) In 1944 Konrad Fhomasherger was made member of the Beira (advisory committee) in order to represent the "Reiclisstanhalier in Wien." After the war he sustained his high position in the ministry and was one of lie founding members of the new editorial board. See Flilscher, 171.
(14.) Matthias Pape, "Eritli Sclienk: En) Osterreichist her Musikwissenschaftlet iii Salzburg, Rostock mid Wien. Musikgeschiclusschreibung zwischen grtillentsclier nod kleinosterreichischer Staatsidee," Mucdtfarselrung 53, no. -1 (2000): 413-31, esp. 11:.4 at id 12, h. 59. Yukiko Sakabe. "Erich Schenk mid der Fall Adler-Bibliothek," Alua-Wissenschaft an ihren Grenzen: Manfred fingerer tun, 50. Cebu ti tag, ed. Dominik Schweiger, Michael Standinger, Nikolaus Urbanek (FranktUrt: New York: Peter Lang, 2004), 383-92. See also Potter, 116.
(15.) Complete contents of vols. 1-155 are listed at the DTO Web site: "Inhaltsverzeichnis der DTO-Bande," http://www.dtoe.at/Publikationen/Banclverzeicianis.php (accessed 20 November 2013).
(16.) Arnold von Bruck, ?1500-1554 (DTO 72 and 99); Pieter Maessins, ca. 1505-1562 (DTO 149); Alard du Caucquier. ca. 1534--ca. 1582 (DTO 123).
(17.) Volume number, publication date, and editors: 14/15 (1900) and 22 (1904), Guido Adler/Oswald Koller; 38 (1912), Adler, 53 (1920). Rudolf Ficker/Alfred Orel; 61(1924) and 76 (1933), Ficker; 120 (1970), Rudolf Flotzinger.
(18.) See Andrea LintInlay, Brandi, "Early Editions of Early Music: The Trent Codices in DT0e," paper presented at the coati (lice Early Music Editing: Principles, Techniques, and Future Directions, 3-5 July 2008, Universiteit Utrecht, Netherlands (published proceedings forthcoming). For the program of this conference, see http://earlymusicecliting.cmme.org/program.html (accessed 20 November 2013).
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|Date:||Mar 1, 2014|
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