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Demotivation in ESL Class at University Level: A Study of Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro.

Byline: Quratulain Mirza, Sahib Khatoon and Shoukat Ali Lohar

Abstract

The research paper was intended to explore Pakistani University ESL learners' perceptions about being motivated and demotivated in learning second language, especially in engineering university. It investigated the causes that affect students' motivation in ESL class, it also examine the factors which students perceive as demotivator in learning second language. This new concept of L2 motivation is given by Dornyei. Demotivated learner is also a motivated learner but because of certain reasons, sometimes one factor has lost his/ her pledge or interest in language learning. These reasons for losing interest can be called demotivation. This study is cross sectional in its design. I used Quantitative method. For Quantitative data, I constructed second language motivational research questionnaire to determine the factors, which might affect students' motivation level for learning English in ESL classes at Engineering University.

The sample size was 30 which were first year students age between 17-20.The data was examined using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS which is frequency test, independent sample T-test, item means and standard deviations.

Keywords: Demotivation, Motivation, English as a second Language (ESL), factors.

1. Introduction

English language has got its own international position all over the world. It plays as basic requirement and top most priority for the student in schools, colleges and universities. Multilingual countries like Pakistan where English is taught as a second language and it is considered as a compulsory subject in schools and universities and students are required to study as it is the pre requisite of the course content. The condition is not so different in Mehran University of Engineering and technology Pakistan where English is taught as a compulsory subject. English is offered to all first year engineering students for one year divided into two semesters. Three credit-hours are allocated in the first semester and same goes to the second semester. The students are required to attend classes for a total three hours per week..Although it is a fact that students have to attend the class because of attendance and need to pass exams in order to move towards next semester.

There are several students who have confrontations towards learning English due to certain factors that's why they fail to learn it in proper way. The achievement rate at the end of the semester 2013 was average like 40% to 50%. In spite of the external reasons and stresses to learn English, Some students took interest in English classes and took active part in classroom activities but after sometimes they lost their interest and many students did not show interest in lessons and looked for tactics for passing examinations with least effort. Based on my own teaching experience, I have observed that lack of motivation or demotivation may be one of the factors that could cause these problems.

Many researchers of L2 teaching and learning have given more emphasis on the motivation of learners or L2 motivation only. But I think L2 motivation is inadequate for non native learners and ESL learning problems. Although, demotivation has been long deserted and its importance in second language learning is identified very recently. Now it is considered as an important factor in L2 learning. Demotives, that is, factors that influence motivation negatively by de-energising action can have a detrimental effect on L2 learning. Therefore, this research paper is based on the investigations of fundamental causes of demotivation in second language learning at Mehran UET. In order to understand the factors of demotivation. This research paper will investigate the reasons that why do students at university level lose their interest or demotivate while learning second language.

2. Hypothesis

Following Hypotheses of this paper are to be analyzed:

Ho There is no significant difference between motivated and demotivated students in terms of their opinion about ESL class at University.

H1 There is a significant difference between motivated and demotivated students' in terms of their opinion about ESL class at University.

3. Literature Review

Motivation is generally known as a vigour that activates learners and stimulates them to execute with determination for explicit aim and objectives. The positive side of "motivation has been broadly studied in the past two decades" (Wang and Malderez, 2006); but, only few researches had dealt with the negative side of motivation-is called demotivation, In the process of language learning, demotivation is a constant and frequent observable fact. Language learning malfunction is recognized to be particularly associated to demotivation (HASEGAWA, 2004). There many language teachers wish to identify that why students lost their motivation in English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom and is teacher himself may cause reduce student's motivation or does teacher play role in reducing students' demotivation and uphold their motivation in learning.'

The demotivated L2 learners can be found in any language class. The number of demotivated L2 learners is quite increased. A "demotivated" learner is someone who was once motivated but has lost his or her commitment/interest for some reason. If we are talking about "demotivation" simultaneously we also talk about "demotives", which are the opposite or negative counterpart of "motives": a motive increase an action tendency whereas a demotive decreases it (Dornyei, 2001, 141).

"Demotivation does not mean that all the positive influences that originally made up the motivational basis of behaviour have been annulled; rather, it is only the resultant force that has been dampened by a strong negative component, and some other positive motives may still remain operational." (Dornyei, 2001, 143).

Dornyei and Ushioda (2011) have considerably contributed to bring alertness of demotivation and enlarged curiosity in this subject matter that has got very little consideration in the field of L2 learning. According to them, demotivation refers to "specific external forces that reduce or diminish the motivational basis of a behavioural intention or an ongoing action" (138-139).

In 1998 Dornyei described an investigation of major demotivating factors ("Teaching and Researching" 150-151). His investigation relates the learner's 'reduced self-confidence' and 'negative attitude towards the L2' as cause of demotivation. But, this debate appears to oppose with his and Ushioda's definition of demotivation. As Sakai and Kikuchi (58) point out, Dornyei gave two internal factors that lessen or weaken motivation to second language Learning. Dornyei carried out interviews and highlighted the role of demotivation in ESL situation (Kikuchi, 2009). He found nine areas that may affect motivation. For this study, he gathered data through semi-structured interviews with participants about 10-30 minutes.

The participants who involved in these interviews were already identified as being demotivated by different reasons like, teachers' attitude, teaching methodology, insufficient facilities provided by schools, large classes, recurrent change of teachers, different level of students, lack of interest or negative attitudes towards foreign language.

Fear of failure in using Language, Course books or teaching material used in language class. (Dornyei, 2001; Sakai and Kikuchi, 2009, 185).

Bednarova (2011) gave his own definition on demotivation. He defined 'Demotivation as the psychological state of a learner. The learner was first motivated and ready to learn language in order to achieve certain objectives but at certain point he was affected by internal and/or external factors that confine his or her complete growth. Bednarova (2011). Because of certain reasons whether internal or external, one can experience demotivation or turn out to be demotivated. Dornyei and Ushioda have produced imaginary examples of a demotivated learner to demonstrate different influences terminating out obtainable motivation (138). They have give first example of a learner who turns out to be demotivated because his/her language group was divided into two groups. It is observed that in every class there is a mix ability of students.

For this reason, the students were divided according to their ability and the student was put amongst less competent ones. The second learner is a person whose motivation to learn a second language is weaken because he/she doesn't understand teacher's explanations and instructions during a lecture in class. At last, they gave the demonstrative example in which the learner himself experiences an awkward or embarrassing situation while speaking in front of a class. Such type of situation sometimes devastated the confidence levels of a learner it can give the negative impact a formerly motivated learner. In brief, it is clear that demotivated learner does not mean that he/ she has never been motivated before, it is just the opposite side of motivation. The learner was actually the motivated one but due to certain reasons or factors he / she lost his or her interest language learning. These factors terminating formerly presented motivation which are known as 'demotives' they are negative complements of motives.

While motives are energising forces to increase the inclination and aspiration to be successful in learning, on the other hand, demotives are de-energizing the inclination and aspiration in learning language. (Dornyei and Ushioda 138-139).

4. Theoritical Framework

Gorham and Christophel (1992) established that teachers' behaviour was perceived as one of the demotivators in class. Contextual and structural factors were also another two main categories of demotivators. There are four sources of demotivation explained by Oxford (1998), firstly, relationship between teacher and student, secondly,the teacher's approach towards the course content or the material used in class or way of teaching, thirdly, different ways or style conflicts between teachers and students, and the environment of the classroom activities. Dornyei explored nine areas that demotivate students. Kikuchi (2009).

Hasegawa (2004) recognized the environment of the classroom activities; the teacher's attitude, his/her personality, his/her way of teaching and the relationship with students; students' language anxiety of learning second language, his/her negative attitude towards English learning; anxiety of using English in class in front of teachers and classmates; anxiety of exams and getting bad grades; and of course, the overall atmosphere of classroom. These are the factors that may affect students' motivation in learning second language and make them reluctant to learn English or to dislike it.

Many researchers of L2 teaching and learning have given more emphasis on the motivation of learners or L2 motivation only. Few studies highlighted this issue, based on these studies; the aim of this study is to identify factors that demotivate students in learning second language in ESL class at university.

5. Methodology

The method chosen for the current study was quantitative analysis and that would be able to produce proves and data of detailed milieus, views and observable fact to maintain the results of examination. Therefore, the study was accomplished by merely taking one single approach as survey study through which students' demotivation in ESL classes had been assessed. Furthermore, the design of the study investigated all facets implied in the research questions. The quantitative method and its analysis can make clear the whole scenario means how and why something has taken place and it can generate complete out comes for example, explain groups generally and vary their tendencies.

Basically, this research is based on exploratory study that seeks to investigate the factors that cause demotivation in ESL class at university.

For Quantitative data, I constructed second language motivational research questionnaire to determine the factors that affect students' motivation level for learning English in ESL classes at Engineering University. The questionnaire of the study was based on 10 items which have been developed on the basis of studies mentioned in the literature review. I distributed the questionnaire among 30 students who completed their first semester. The assessment was also done by the teachers. Therefore I had evaluated the results of students and selected the target population for the research and it was drawn from first semester students.In view of fact that random sample was not practicable in this situation that's why I had applied non random sampling as I planned to obtain the participants who were in second semester. The participants who were involved in this study had already got the exposure of English for 4 months. Hence, the sample size of the study was 30.

The age of participants was 17-20 having different English proficiency level. The level of participant was based on their first semester English paper results which were scrutinized critically.

6. Procedure

I collected the data in the month of September 2013.The Participants were already recognized by their teachers as being specifically demotivated and motivated. Those students were asked to fill the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained demographic information about participants and 10 items about the factors that may cause demotivation. For rating the items I used following Dornyei (2003), Likert scale and rating options as (e.g., strongly agree=5 and strongly disagree=1; agree=4; neither agree nor disagree=3; Disagree=2).

Following Components of Demotivation discussed in the Questionnaire:

Statements of factors in the Questionnaire

###Questions

###*###The boring part of English Class is grammar.###Q.1, 6, 7

###*###The topics of Syllabus are lengthy.

###*###The lessons of English are mostly exam oriented.

###*###I don't like English because of exam anxiety.###Q. 2, 5, 8, 10

###*###I usually get low marks in exam.

###*###My past school experience resulted in lack of self confidence.

###*###I feel inferior to my classmates for my English ability.

###*###My teacher talks all the time in class.###Q. 3,4,9

###*###My teacher speaks too much English.

###*###My teacher encourages me to participate in class

7. Reliability of Questionnaire

Questionnaires are quantifiable equipments and they must have significant reliability (Dornyei, 2003, p 110), yet in case where there are non availability of resources and chances for main validations, Keeping in view the critical thought that at least the reliability of major aspect of questionnaire which is 'internal consistency' should be checked. (ibid, 2003).

The Internal consistency of questionnaire is measured by Cronbach Alpha. The Alpha value is between 0 and 1. The Alpha value should be at least 0.70. If the value is 0.60 or less that means that the questionnaire has low reliability (ibid, 2003, p112). As it is already mentioned that the questionnaire is self administered and it has been prepared on the basis of previous researches. Hence, the reliability of questionnaire is 0.68 see table:

Cronbach Alpha value of the Questionnaire

###Reliability Statistics

###Cronbach's Alpha Based

###Cronbach's Alpha###N of Items

###on Standardized Items

###.681###.684###10

8. Limitations of the Study

The current study is limited because it is conducted at one specific university the Participants, data, and findings are also from the same educational institute. The semi-government sector Mehran UET. Therefore, the results cannot be generalized to all ESL university students in Pakistan. And not even teachers who identified demotivated learners particularly in ESL classes. This may affect the sampling strategy of any research. The research sample was drawn from first year students and have also completed their 4 months of English class. This study determined significantly students' L2 motivation not motivation in general. Therefore, the major limitation of the study is its sample size.

9. Scope of the Study

The previous researches on demotivation were conducted in different language learning context and scenario but the literature review has given sufficient knowledge about causes of demotivation or the factors which are functioning as demotivators in L2 learning. The findings might not be appropriate, applicable and delegated for Pakistani context and Pakistani ESL learners at university level. Thus, the major rationale of the study is to discover the causes that why students become demotivated while learning second language.

The findings of the study will be helpful for language teachers because it gives little addition to the opposite side of motivation (demotivation) in L2 learning. As there is not much work done in this subject that's why the findings of the current study may help Pakistani researchers to develop a homogenized or standardized scale for demotivation.

The perception and identification the factors of demotivation can suggest applicability and useful practical implications with the help of which the researchers can improve their experiences in L2 learning and teaching. Therefore, the study gives the understanding of problems which students are facing while learning second language and it encourage university students to be more active and overcome their fears of using English inside and outside the class.

10. Findings

Frequency Table

The topics of English Syllabus are too much lengthy

###The topics of English Syllabus are too much lengthy

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Diasagree###6###077.0###077.0###077.0

###Niether agree nor disagree###3###028.0###028.0###105.0

###Total###9###096.0###096.0###096.0

Demotivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###4###014.5###014.5###014.5

###Diasagree###2###014.5###014.5###025.0

###Niether agree nor disagree###2###006.4###006.4###031.8

###Agree###8###030.0###030.0###060.3

###Strongly agree###5###041.8###041.8###100.0

###Total###21###100.0###100,0

The English materials are quite boring

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###4###050.0###050.0###050.0

###Disagree###2###026.0###026.0###076.0

###Neither agree nor dis agree###3###025.0###025.0###100.0

###Total###9###100.0###100.0

Demotivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###4###019.0###019.0###019.0

###Agree###8###030.0###030.0###059.3

###strongly agree###9###057.3###057.3###100.0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

The lessons of English are mostly exam oriented

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###03###025.0###025.0###025.0

###Disagree###02###025.0###025.0###050.0

###Strongly agree###04###050.0###050.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

Demotivated Valid###Neither agree nor disagree###03###009.1###009.1###009.1

###Agree###09###062.5###062.5###100.0

###strongly agree###09###061.5###061.5###100.0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

I don't like English due to exam anxiety

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###02###024.0###024.0###025.0

###Disagree###06###050.0###050,0###075.0

###Strongly agree###01###025.0###025.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

Demotivated###Valid###Neither agree nor disagree###04###018.7###018.7###018.7

###Agree###08###048.8###048.8###068.5

###Strongly agree###08###038.5###038.5###100.0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

I usually get low marks in exams

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###05###050.0###050.0###050.0

###Disagree###04###050.0###050.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

Demotivated###Valid###Disagree###03###006.3###006.3###006.3

###Neither agree nor disagree###02###006.3###006.3###012.5

###Agree###10###062.5###062.5###100.0

###Strongly agree###06###026.5###026.5###038.5

###Total###21###100,0###100,0

My past school experience resulted in lack of self confidence

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Disagree###06###050.0###050.0###050.0

###Agree###03###025.0###025.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

Demotivated###Valid###Disagree###03###006.3###006.3###006.3

###Neither agree nor disagree###03###018.8###018.8###026.0

###Agree###08###050.0###050.0###050.0

###Strongly agree###07###048.8###048.8###100,0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

My past school experience resulted in lack of self confidence

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Disagree###06###050.0###050.0###050.0

###Agree###03###025.0###025.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

Demotivated###Valid###Disagree###03###006.3###006.3###006.3

###Neither agree nor disagree###03###018.8###018.8###026.0

###Agree###08###050.0###050.0###050.0

###Strongly agree###07###048.8###048.8###100,.0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

I feel inferior to my classmates for my English ability

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###06###075.0###075.0###075.0

###Disagree###03###026.0###026.0###098.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

Demotivated###Valid###Disagree###02###006.3###006.3###006.3

###Neither agree nor disagree###02###006.3###006.3###012.5

###Agree###09###038.5###038.5###050.0

###Strongly agree###08###050.0###050.0###100.0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

My teacher speaks too much English in class

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###03###021.0###021.,0###021.0

###Disagree###03###050.0###050.0###075.0

###Neither agree nor disagree###03###025.0###025.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

Demotivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###03###018.5###018.5###018.5

###Neither agree nor disagree###03###018.5###018.5###025.0

###Agree###07###025.0###025.0###050.0

###Strongly agree###08###050.0###050.0###100.0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

My teacher talks all the time in class

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum %

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###04###018.0###018.0###018.0

###Disagree###05###050.0###050.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

demotivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###03###006.3###006.3###006.3

###Disagree###03###006.3###006.3###012.5

###Neither agree nor disagree###07###045.8###045.8###060.3

###Agree###06###037.5###037.5###093.8

###Strongly agree###02###006.3###006.3###100.0

###Total###21###100.0###100.0

My teacher encourages me to participate in class

Motivated or

###Freq###%###Valid %###Cum%

demotivated

Motivated###Valid###Strongly agree###04###075.0###075.0###075.0

###Agree###05###050.0###050.0###100.0

###Total###09###100.0###100.0

demotivated###Valid###Strongly disagree###07###046.8###046.8###046.8

###Disagree###05###018.8###018.8###062.5

###Neither agree nor disagree###05###025.5###025.5###050.3

###Agree###03###018.5###018.5###095.8

###Strongly agree###01###005.3###005.3###100,0

###Total###16###100.0###100.0

###Motivated or###Std.###Std. Error

###N###Mean

###demotivated###Deviation###Mean

The topics of English Syllabus are too###Motivated###9###2.25###.500###.250

much lengthy###Demotivated###21###3.75###1.483###.371

###Motivated###9###1.75###.957###.479

The English materials are quite boring

###Demotivated###21###4.38###.806###.202

The lessons of English are mostly exam###Motivated###9###3.25###1.094###.273

oriented###Demotivated###21###4.56###2.062###1.031

###Motivated###9###2.50###1.732###.866

I don't like English due to exam anxiety

###Demotivated###21###4.19###.750###.188

###Motivated###9###1.50###.577###.289

I usually get low marks in exams

###Demotivated###21###4.44###.892###.223

My past school experience resulted in###Motivated###9###1.50###1.000###.500

lack of self confidence###Demotivated###21###2.63###1.544###.386

###Motivated or###Std.###Std. Error

###N###Mean

###demotivated###Deviation###Mean

I feel inferior to my classmates for my###Motivated###9###1.00###.000###.000

English ability###Demotivated###21###3.56###1.094###.273

My teacher speaks too much English in###Motivated###9###2.00###.816###.408

class###demotivated###21###4.00###1.366###.342

###Motivated###9###1.75###.500###.250

My teacher talks all the time in class

###Demotivated###21###3.75###1.483###.371

My teacher encourages me to participate###Motivated###9###1.25###.500###.250

in class###Demotivated###21###2.19###1.382###.332

Independent Sample T-test

###Levene's

###Test for

###T-test for Equality of Means

###Equality of

###Variances

###95%

###Std.###Confidence

###Mean

###Sig. (2-###Error###Interval of the

###F###Sig.###T###Df###Differ-

###tailed)###Differ-###Difference

###ence

###ence

###Lower###Upper

The topics###Equal

of English###variances###4.342###.050###-1.860###19###.067###-1.50###.765###-3.108###.108

Syllabus###assumed

are too###Equal var-

much###iances not###-3.354###16.510###.029###-1.50###.447###-2.450###-.550

lengthy

###assumed

The###Equal

English###variances###.055###.919###-5.535###18###.001###-2.63###.466###-3.604###-1.646

materials###assumed

are quite###Equal var-

boring.###iances not###-5.054###.519###-4.049###-1.201

###4.232###.007###-2.63

###assumed

The###Equal

lessons of###variances###40.460###.001###-2.404###18###.045###-1.31###.370###-2.502###-2.096

English###assumed

are mostly###Equal var-

exam###iances not###-1.359###2.141###.284###-1.31###,332###1.0432###-4.303

oriented

###assumed

I don't###Equal

like###variances###13.065###.002###-4,592###18###.000###-2.56###.558###-3.735###-1.390

English###assumed

due to###Equal var-

exam###iances not###-9,373###15.000###.000###-2.56###.273###-3.145###-1.980

anxiety

###assumed

I usually###Equal

get low###variances###.590###.452###-6.198###18###.000###-2.94###.474###-3.933###-1.942

marks in###assumed

exams###Equal

###variance

###-8.053###7.141###.000###2.94###.365###-3.797###-2.078

###not

###assumed

My past###Equal

school###variances###4.352###.060###-1.950###18###.066###-1.50###.555###-4.666###-1,334

experience###assumed

resulted in###Equal

lack of self###variances

confidence###.6.847###7.141###.035###-1.90###.539###-2.305###-.695

###not

###assumed

I feel###Equal

inferior to###variances###.507###.486###-4.056###18###.001###-2.38###.586###-3.605###-1.145

my###assumed

classmates###Equal

for my###variances

English abi###-4.842###6.016###.003###-2.38###.491###-3.575###-1.175

###not

lity

###assumed

My teacher###Equal

speaks too###variances###3.600###.074###-1.372###18###.187###-1.13###.820###-2.848###.598

much###assumed

English in###Equal

class###variances

###-1.781###7,134###.117###-1.13###.632###-2.613###.363

###not

###assumed

My teacher###Equal

talks all###variances###1.375###.256###-3.148###18###.006###-1.56###.496###-2.605###-,520

the time in###assumed

class###Equal

###variances

###-4.539###9.291###.001###-1.56###.344###-2.337###-,788

###not

###assumed

My teacher###Equal

encourages###variances###4.506###.048###-3.067###18###.007###-1.69###.550###-2.843###-.532

me to###assumed

participate

###Equal

in class

###variances

###-1.904###3,286###.145###-1.69###.886###-4.373###. 998

###not

###assumed

11. Analysis And Findings

To explore these research hypotheses whether there is a significant difference between the motivated and the demotivated groups in English in terms of their percetion. The Independent sample T-test was carried out. In this study, motivated and demotivated first year students were categorized into two groups of one categorical independent variable and factors were the dependent variables. Therefore, the results showed that there is a significant difference between the motivated and the demotivated groups in learning English in terms of their opinions about the English materials are boring (0.01), dont like English due to exam anxiety (0.00), getting low marks (0.00), feel inferior due to English (0.03), and teacher talks all the time (0.01).

However, there is not a significance difference between the two groups in their opinions about whether topics are lengthy or not (0.29), whether lessons are exam oriented or not (0.45), lack of confidence due to past experience (0.66), teacher uses too much English (.187). Teacher encourages me to participate(.007).

The Value of 'P' of each item is given below:

###Items###Value of P

###1###The topics of English Syllabus are too much lengthy###0.29

###2###The English materials are quite boring.###.001

###3###The lessons of English are mostly exam oriented###.045

###4###I don't like English due to exam anxiety###.000

###5###I usually get low marks in exams###.000

###6###My past school experience resulted in lack of self confidence###.666

###7###I feel inferior to my classmates for my English ability###.001

###8###My teacher speaks too much English in class###.187

###9###My teacher talks all the time in class###.006

###10###My teacher encourages me to participate in class###.007

12. Discussion And Conclusion

The hypotheses of the study which are concerned with the nine categories proposed by Dornyei (Kikuchi, 2009), only the classroom material, exam anxiety, effects of old experiences, getting low marks, inferiority due to English ability, teachers' dominating class are the factors which have been observed in this study as demotivators among demotivated students.

As the group statistics shows that the motivated students do not agree that the classroom material is boring with a mean of 2.25, While most demotivated students find the classroom material is boring with a mean score 4.78. Motivated students are quite confident about English exam with mean score2.25 where as demotivated students are affraid of giving exam in English, they feel that they cannot do well in exams with mean score 4.38. The biggest difference between motivated and demotivated is scoring marks in exam. The motivated students are getting good marks with mean of 1.50 where as demotivated students are getting more demotivated beause they are not doing well in exams and getting low marks with mean 4.44. Therefore,this factor seems to be as a demotivator in ESL class. There is no difference in mean score about the lessons are exam oriented or not, both motivated and demotivated students give similar opinions to that statement.

Both groups (motivated m=3.25; demotivated m= 4.56) believe that classes are exam oriented. Hence, this does not seem to be a demotivator.

There are two items of the questionniare which are concerned with Dornyei's theory about the classroom situation such as, the use of too much English in the classroom, and motivating teaching style of teacher do not seem to be functioning as demotivators in ESL class. Both groups motivated and demotivated have same opinion about that.

For the statement regarding teacher encouraging style, both groups have close means. (M= 1.25 and 2.31 ). But, teacher dominated lessons seem to be a little difference between these two groups. (Motivated m=1.75, demotivated m =3.25). This item may affect students' motivation level in class. Therefore, the null can be rejected and the alternate hypothesis can be accepted, concluding that there is statistically significant difference between the mean scores of motivated and demotivated students in ESL class at Mehran University.

13. Recommendations

As far as the limitations of the present study are concerned, the study has been conducted with a very small group of sampling, but examining the reasons of demotivation small sample is not sufficient that's why it is important to examine the demotivators on larger scale with large sampling. In addition, this study is basically designed in cross-sectional way. But this design and sample size are not sufficient to explore how L2 learners change in their attitude over time, it can only be examined by a longitudinal approach. Taking these issues into consideration, it will be essential together more research in the future to extend knowledge about L2 learn-ers' demotivation and obtain practical implications for ESL teachers.

References

* Dornyei, Z. (2001a). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow: Longman.

* Dornyei, Z. (2001b). 'New themes and approaches in L2 motivation research'. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, pp. 43-59.

* Dornyei, Z. (1998). 'Motivation in second and foreign language learning'. Language Teaching, 31, 117-135.

* Dornyei, Z. and Schmidt, R. (Eds.) (2001). Motivation and second language acquisition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

* Dornyei, Z. (2003a). Questionnaires in Second Language Research. London: Lawrence Associates Publishers.

* Dornyei, Z., and Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

* Hasegawa, A. (2004). Student demotivation in the foreign language classroom.Takushoku Language Studies, 107, 119-136.

* Kikuchi, K. and Sakai, H. (2009) Japanese Learners' demotivation to study English: A survey study. JALT Journal. 31(2) 183-204.
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Publication:International Journal of Arts and Humanities
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Dec 31, 2016
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