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Demographics and profile: the most cited Black scholars in the Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities.

Introduction/Background

The Black population in the United States is making remarkable progress in many important areas of life, despite the many daily obstacles that members in this group confront. These areas include business, military, politics, entertainment and sports. Another important area where Blacks in the U.S. are progressing in is the Higher Education sector. However, there is still a relative lack of in-depth academic or scholarly examination identifying these sectors where Blacks are flourishing and explanations as to exactly what is going on. In the area of Higher Education in the U.S. and the role of Black Americans in it, the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (JBHE) has made very useful contributions not only to Black America and the Black World (people of Black African descent all over the world), but also the U.S. as a whole and the world, because the study of Black Americans is the study of the U.S., just as the study of the U.S. is the study of the world.

Due to the fact that a substantial proportion of research on Black people tend to highlight negative stories of Black life, It is useful to also follow the model of the late Black scholar J.A. Rogers, whose body of work has influenced many people, to present information showing where Black people are not doing too well, but to also visibly or prominently present or highlight information showing Black people doing well or flourishing (see Kaba 2005, 2008; Kaba and Ward 2009). Joel Augustus Rogers (1880-1966), a Jamaican-born U.S. based scholar, contributed enormously by sharing with the world the great achievements of members of the Black race at a period in history when such information was urgently needed. Asulkile (2006) and Simba (2006) have both written important scholarly articles on the intellectual contributions of J.A. Rogers to the uplift of Black people all over the world.

This current study builds on the work of JBHE focusing on the progress of Black scholars in terms of the influence of their academic or scholarly writings. In early June 2009, JBHE published their 15th issue of a study entitled: "JBHE's Annual Citation Rankings of Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and the Humanities" (2009: 6-8). In the Social Science category a total of 39 Black scholars (38 in the U.S. and 1 in the United Kingdom) were listed showing that each one has had her or his work cited more than 10 times in 2008. The second category is a list of 30 Black scholars in the Arts and Humanities (29 in the U.S. and 1 in the United Kingdom) whose works have been cited 10 times or more in 2008. This current study does not focus on the number of citations of each of the scholars. Instead, it attempts to compile and explain important information pertaining to their demographics and profile.

One would ask: why is such a study relevant? Personally, as a professor who teaches three courses a semester and at least one course during the summer, I am certain that this information is very important to the young students that I teach because not only do I teach them, I also serve as their advisor or mentor and having such a study of these prominent Black professors and scholars ready to share with these young students helps enormously to motivate and inspire them to push themselves very hard to become like them if they intend to enter into the college or university teaching profession. Young people tend to have a clear understanding of what they want to become in life if they see those who look just like them doing what they wish to become.

Another reason why this information is relevant is that the Black World (people of Black African descent all over the world) and the world in general need to know about the research and contributions of these distinguished Black professors and scholars. This is especially the case because in a way, it is a visible example of the need to increase the "Talented Tenth" that the late Black American scholar and Statesman Dr. W.E.B. DuBois advocated for, and thereby these Black scholars as a group are a stand in or representatives of successful Blacks in the United States, including the tens of thousands of other Black professors and scholars in the United States. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as of Fall 2003, of the total 1,174,831 faculty (instruction and research) in degree-granting institutions in the United States, non-Hispanic Blacks accounted for 65,999 (5.6%). (1)

Among these professors and scholars one would find a professor of the current president of the United States, Barack Obama, the only living U.S.-born Black American Nobel Laureate, etcetera. In the conclusion section of an article entitled: "The Black World and the Dual Brain Drain: A Focus on African Americans" Kaba (2007a) notes that: "...today it is evident that not only is Dr. DuBois' dream realized, but one can argue that the talented tenth of Black Americans has multiplied and will continue to multiply in the decades and centuries to come" (p.22). Also, in an article entitled: "The Two West Africas: the Two Historical Phases of the West African Brain Drain" that attempts to explain why West Africa as a region is underperforming in a number of important development indicators when compared to the other four regions of Africa (Eastern, Middle, Northern and Southern Africa), Kaba (2007b) points out that the region has experienced two forms of Brain Drain, Slavery and post World War II elite migration to the West. An estimated 60% of children, women and men brought to the New World and enslaved were from West Africa (Bah, 2005: 79). As a result, Kaba (2007b) points out that: "...among the most influential individuals in the world such as scientists of all kinds, professional entertainers, athletes, politicians, businessmen and women, etc. are people of West African descent who are not in West Africa" (p.77) and that a substantial proportion of them are in the United States. In fact, the names of a number of the professors and scholars in this study were actually listed along with a claim that there is a higher probability that their DNA could be traced to ethnic groups in many nations or countries of West Africa (p.86; also see Nunn, 2007: 17). Also, as of July 2009, my research shows that of the estimated almost 1 billion (997.8 million) people in Africa, their median age was 19.8 years. As of July 2007, there were an estimated 39 million people in the Caribbean and my research shows that at least 65% of them are of sub-Saharan Black African descent. (2)

Moreover, in the United States, young Black females and males are making important progress in college and university enrollment and degree attainment. For example, according to the U.S Census Bureau, as of October 2007, of the 17.956 million students enrolled in colleges and universities in the U.S., Blacks (or in combination with another race) accounted for 2.630 million (14.65%). Of those 2.630 million Blacks, 1.553 million (59%, but 8.65% of all students) were Black females. (3) In 2008, of the 14,000 people in the U.S. aged 18-24 with doctorates, Blacks accounted for 4,000 (28.6%), with Black females accounting for all of them ("Educational Attainment in the United States: 2008," 2009, April 27). It is very important for these young people to be aware of the research of these distinguished Black professors and scholars in this study, because they will be among the next most cited Black scholars in the decades to come.

This study is divided into three parts. Part One focuses on all 58 professors and scholars as a group. Part Two focuses only on those 39 professors and scholars on the Social Science list. Part Three focuses only on those 30 professors and scholars on the Arts and Humanities list. Before presenting the compiled and computed tables and explanations of the demographics and profile of these Black scholars, it is useful to briefly present some of the literature on the issue of citation rankings. Also, a brief methodology will be presented explaining how I compiled and computed the numbers and percentages in the tables.

A Brief Overview of Citation Rankings Studies of Professors and Scholars

There has been a significant increase in the number of scholarly articles focusing on citation rankings of professors and scholars in many different academic fields. A careful observation of these published scholarly articles on scholar citations not just in the U.S. but also abroad shows that a very high proportion of these articles are in the field of economics or business (Bodenhorn, 2003; Cronin and Crawford, 1999; De Rond and Miller, 2005; Johnson, 1997; Liner, 2001; Rupp and McKinney Jr., 2002; Taylor, Fender and Burke, 2006; Tahai and Kelly, 1996; van Ours and Vermeulen, 2007). With the exception of the works of JBHE on this topic, citation articles on Black scholars also tend to be conducted in the field of economics (Agesa, Granger and Price, 2000; Price, 2008). Price (2008), for example, examines how often Black economists cite one another. This means that had JBHE not existed, there would have been very few such studies conducted to highlight the contributions of Black scholars. The citation rankings studies by JBHE are not limited to the Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities alone. For example, JBHE conducted a citation ranking study of Black scholars in the biological and physical sciences in the top 50 highest-ranked research universities in the United States ("News and Views; The Most Highly Cited Black Scientists," 2003).

It is important to point out that there is active debate about the methodologies of these citation studies, or whether they are relevant. Although this is not the focus of this study, it is still important to present some of the arguments for and against citation rankings studies. According to JBHE ("News and Views: Black Scholars," 2001):

Citation rankings have distinct deficiencies and are often criticized for failing to assess accurately the quality of a particular scholar's works.... For instance, in many cases an author will repeatedly cite his own previous works, which obviously greatly increases the total number of citations awarded to a given author. Other critics note that negative citations of a particular article are also included in the compilation of the rankings. For example, let's say a political liberal writes a paper that is highly critical of the affirmative action views of the black conservative scholar Walter Williams at George Mason University. In this article, the scholar may cite Williams a half-dozen or more times, although in each instance he or she may be quite critical of what Williams has to say. However, these negative references to any given article are not material to overall rankings as it has been determined these unfavorable references make up on average only 7 percent of all citations. Even negative citations have statistical value in measuring a person's scholarly worth because they show that one's peers are taking his or her work seriously. It should be noted also that often a scholar--or a scholar's work--is so famous and established for a particular point of view that people no longer cite him or her (p.70).

According to Liner (2001):

In the last 20 years, a wide variety of articles have appeared ranking journals, departments, and authors.... Efforts to rank journal articles, and authors of journal articles, are clouded by the fact that an article in a journal is not just an article in effect. Some articles are read and reread because they have an important impact...Simultaneously, other articles are rarely, if ever, read by anyone other than a journal's reviewers and editor. Other articles cited for the purpose of literature can be cited for their positive or negative contribution. That is, an article may be cited to illustrate an outdated or an outright misleading concept (p.459).

Yet, it has been argued that citation rankings studies are very important. According to Johnson (1997): "All academics want to be cited. There are many reasons for this desire, including the quests for truth, fame or financial rewards. While truth may not be evidenced by citations, the search for truth is marked by discussion and deliberation, the very items that citations measure best. Fame in academic is synonymous with citation." (p.43). According to JBHE ("New and Views: JBHE's Annual Citation Rankings," 2009):

The well-established though controversial practice of citation analysis is based on the premise that it is possible to measure the impact of a scholar, an academic department, or even an entire university by the number of times scholarly research papers are cited by academic peers. In this way, proponents of citation analysis contend, it is possible to rank the world's physicists, chemists, or even black studies scholars by the number of citations their works generate in the research papers of their academic peers. In our current "publish or perish" academic world, the citation-analysis technique, although not as positively regarded as it was several years ago, is still used by deans and department heads as a tool to help them make decisions on academic promotions, compensation changes, and tenure votes. Also, academic institutions and departments commonly broadcast favorable citation rankings of their faculties in appeals for alumni gifts and foundation grants (p.6).

When JBHE (2007) asked Professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. of Harvard University the following question: "Are Citation Rankings really that important?" His answer was: "I think professors in the field of African-American studies have to be more acutely aware of the importance of the citation index. One of the greatest services your journal performs is publishing the citation index. Until you did that, many people in the field didn't even know it existed. But this is what administrators look at, certainly at Harvard. When they are determining raises for individuals faculty, they ask, 'How many citations did you get? What is your influence?'" ("Black Studies at the Crossroads," p.61).

Finally, the names of the professors and scholars in this study did not just appear by chance. A professor or scholar needs a substantial body of work to be in the position to be cited 10 times or more in a year. He or she must have also been in the profession for a substantial period of time. Research by Rojas (2008) and my own unpublished research have illustrated that these Black scholars in this study and those who are not in this study are among the most productive in academia regardless of ethnicity, race or gender, when it comes to the total number of journal, magazine and newspaper articles, book chapters, and books published. For example, Rojas' (2008) study attempts to analyze the journal publication records of 97 tenured and tenure-track professors in Black Studies departments or programs that award doctorates at the following institutions: Temple University, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, the University of California at Berkeley, Yale University, Harvard University, Northwestern University, and Michigan State University (pp.60-62). According to Rojas (2008), the professors in his study had published 655 scholarly journal articles and that: "At least three of these professors published 50 or more articles in journals, with the maximum being 72" (p.62).

As noted above, I have also conducted research examining the publication rates of professors. In two such unpublished studies for my personal understanding or book learning conducted in the fall semester of 2005: (1) "The Scholarly Production and Profile of Ivy League Political Science Professors: Harvard, Princeton, University of Pennsylvania and Yale" (210 total professors) and (2) "The Scholarly Production and Profile of Black Studies Professors: Harvard and SUNY, Binghamton" (35 total professors), I found that all of the professors and scholars in both research studies are very productive in terms of total numbers of scholarly/peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, etcetera, published. Particularly for scholarly/peer-reviewed journal articles published, I was amazed to learn that a Black political science professor, Ali A. Mazrui from Binghamton University, State University of New York (who earned his Doctorate in Political Science in 1966 from the University of Oxford, United Kingdom), had the most number as of 2004 (163 scholarly journal articles, including one article in the American Political Science Review and one article in World Politics). In addition to Dr. Mazrui, the following professors also had at least 100 scholarly or peer-review articles: Bruce M. Russett (Yale, 130); Philip N. Pettit (Princeton, 126); and John E. Roemer (Yale, 101). Let us now briefly go over the methodology.

Methodology

A very careful process was utilized in compiling, computing and explaining the data on the 2009 JBHE's study of the most cited Black scholars in the Social Sciences, and Arts and Humanities in 2008. There were two categories of professors and scholars. The first category consisted of professors and scholars in the Social Sciences, with a total of 39 of them (Table A).

I then decided to focus on their demographics and profile. I conducted extensive research on the professors and scholars by compiling their information from their college, university or personal websites and in many instances printing out their curricular vitae or faculty information, including not only where they are teaching but also the institutions where they attained their terminal or highest degrees.

I then created excel tables and entered all of the names of the scholars on both lists into one table and there were 58 of them (N=58). I created tables for each of the two categories (for the Social Sciences n=39 and for the Arts and Humanities n=30). I also created two tables based on gender or sex: males=37 and females=21. I examined gender differences for both groups combined, for the Social Science and for the Arts and Humanities group.

For all of the tables, I removed the names of all of the professors and scholars and instead focused on where they are currently teaching or conducting their research. How many of them are females and males? What states and regions in the U.S. are these institutions located? What departments are they teaching in? What is the rank of their institutions in the 2009 U.S. News & World Report College Rankings? The study also attempts to find out what institutions did these scholars earned their terminal or highest academic degrees? In what states and geographic regions of the U.S. and countries abroad are these institutions located? In what academic fields did they earn their terminal or highest degrees? What types of academic degrees did they earn? What year did they graduate with their terminal or highest degrees? Finally, are those academic institutions ranked in the 2009 U.S. News and World Report College Rankings? If so, what are their ranks? (The rankings are limited only to the National Universities, including Tier 3 and Tier 4 institutions). There is one instance where a professor is fully employed at a college, but was a visiting professor at another institution for the 2008-2009 academic year. However, this professor is still counted under her original institution of employment for this study. Washington D.C. is utilized in this study as a state equivalent. Let us now go over the numbers.

General Findings

Part One:

Demographics and Profile of the 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities (N=58)

Gender Breakdown of 2009 the JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars

Of the 58 professors and scholars in the 2009 JBHE'S most cited Black scholars in the social sciences and arts and humanities, 37 (63.8%) are males and 21 (36.2%) are females (Table 1).

Current Institution of Employment, 2008-2009 Academic Year of the 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities

There are more than 4,000 degree granting colleges and Universities in the United States. Only one of the professors in this study was teaching outside of the United States. So one would expect that the remaining 57 professors and scholars would be employed at a very large number of colleges and universities all across the United States. However, that was not the case. For example, of the 58 total professors and scholars on both lists, I identified their current institutions for the 2008-2009 academic year for 56 (96.5%) of them. Of those 56 professors and scholars, according to Table 2, I identified 24 colleges and universities, 23 of them in the U.S. and 1 in the UK, where they are teaching or conducting their research. The 1 institution in the UK is the London School of Economics and Political Science. Of the 23 institutions in the U.S., 10 (17.9%) professors and scholars were working at Harvard University (MA); 6 (10.7%) at Princeton University (NJ); 6 (10.7%) at Stanford University (CA); 5 (8.9%) at Yale University (CT); 4 (7.1%) at New York University (NY); 3 (5.4%) at the University of Chicago (IL); 2 each (3.6%) at Columbia University (NY), Duke University (NC), the University of Pennsylvania (PA), and Vanderbilt University (TN); and 1 each (1.78%) at Bard College (NY), Brown University (RI), Georgetown University (DC), Florida State University (FL), Institute for Advanced Study (NJ), Temple University (PA), University of California, Los Angeles (CA), University of California, Santa Cruz (CA), University of Houston (TX), University of Michigan (MI), University of Minnesota (MN), University of Southern California (CA), and Williams College (MA).

These institutions are also among the top ranked colleges and universities in the 2009 (published in summer 2008) U.S. News and World Report College Rankings. For example, according to Table 2, Harvard is ranked # 1; Princeton, # 2; Yale, # 3; Stanford, # 4; the University of Pennsylvania, # 6; Columbia, Duke and the University of Chicago, tied at #8; Brown, #16; Vanderbilt, # 18; Georgetown, # 23; UCLA, #25; University of Michigan, # 26; USC, # 27; NYU, # 33; University of Minnesota, # 61; UC Santa Cruz, # 96; Florida State University, # 102; Temple University, Tier 3; and University of Houston, Tier 4 (Table 2).

2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars Employed at Ivy League Institutions

A substantial proportion of the 56 professors and scholars in Table 2 are teaching or conducting their research at a number of the 8 Ivy League institutions in the United States. For example, according to Table 2, of the 56 professors and scholars, 26 (46.5%) are based at Ivy League institutions: 10 (17.9% of 56) at Harvard; 6 (10.7%) at Princeton; 5 (8.9%) at Yale; 2 each (3.6%) at Columbia and the University of Pennsylvania; and 1 (1.8%) at Brown University. Of the 26 professors and scholars at Ivy League institutions, 8 (14.3% out of 56) are females: 3 (5.4%) at Princeton; 2 (3.6%) at Harvard; and 1 each (1.78%) at Brown, Columbia and the University of Pennsylvania (Table 3).

U.S. States/Countries Where 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars are Employed

With the exception of 1 professor who is appointed outside of the U.S. (United Kingdom), the remaining 55 professors and scholars are employed in 15 states (with Washington, D.C. as a state equivalent): Massachusetts, 11 (19.6% out of 56); California, 9 (16.1%); New York, 7, (12.5%); New Jersey, 7 (12.5%); Connecticut, 5 (8.9%); Illinois, 3 (5.36%); Pennsylvania, 3 (5.36%); North Carolina, 2 (3.6%); Tennessee, 2 (3.6%); Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, Rhode Island, Texas, and Washington, D.C. 1 each (1.78%). Of the 56 professors and scholars, 19 (33.9%) are females: 4 (7.1%) in New Jersey; 3 each (5.36%) in California, Massachusetts and New York; 2 (3.6%) in Connecticut; and 1 each (1.78%) in Illinois, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee (Table 4).

Regional Breakdown of Where 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars are Located

With the exception of the 1 professor based in the United Kingdom, of the remaining 55 professors and scholars, 35 (62.5%) work in states in the Northeast; 9 (16.1%) in the West; 6 (10.7%) in the South; and 5 (8.9%) in the Midwest. Of the 56 professors and scholars, 19 (33.9%) are females: 13 (23.4% out of 56) were employed in the Northeast, 2 (3.6%) in the Midwest, 1 (1.78%) in the South, and 3 (5.4%) in the West (Table 5; also please appendix for breakdown of states in the four geographic regions of the U.S., based on the U.S. Census Bureau classification).

Academic Departments of Employment of the 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars

Before presenting the table and explanations of this section of this paper, it is important to first present a brief literature review of some of the most recent works on the status of Africana or Black Studies in the United States. There has been a significant number of works on the status of Africana or Black Studies in the U.S. in recent years. Some of these publications focus on the different names given to the discipline, while others focus on the status of graduate studies within the discipline, or the preferred scholarly journals of Black scholars in departments in certain institutions, or the historical debates of the need and establishment of Black Studies departments in colleges and universities in the United States (Asante, 2009; Carroll, 2009ab; Fenderson, 2008; Gates, Jr., 2009; Karenga, 2009; Mazama, 2009; Reid-Merritt, 2009; Rojas, 2007, 2008).

Table 6 below shows a pattern or a trend highlighted by Fenderson (2008) in a review of Rojas' book entitled: From Black Power to Black Studies: How A Radical Social Movement Became An Academic Discipline (2007), by pointing out that not only scholars without Black Studies terminal degrees have joint faculty appointments (Black Studies and another department), but that "... most PhD's in Black Studies end up holding joint appointments...in Black Studies and another department ..." (p.52). For this particular paper, I will call this trend the "John Hope Franklin Model" because after the death of Professor John Hope Franklin in early 2009, Gates, Jr. (2009, April 1) wrote an article entitled: "John Hope, the Prince Who Refused the Kingdom," in which he points out some interesting information particularly useful to new and young scholars in academia. Among the useful information presented in the article were that Professor Franklin earned his Ph.D. in History from Harvard in 1941. That by 1969 the Harvard administration asked Professor Franklin to move to Harvard from the University of Chicago, where he had integrated the History department in 1964 to head a new African American Studies department. Professor Franklin requested that if he were to move to Harvard to head such a department, he must be given a joint appointment both at the new department and the History department, where he had already earned his doctorate. So, since in a table that will be presented later in this paper shows that Professor Franklin was the only scholar in this study of most cited Black scholars who earned his terminal degree in the 1940s, I call his request to Harvard for a joint appointment the "John Hope Franklin Model."

This model is illustrated in Table 6. According to Table 6, when I divided the departments into 11 categories, only one had a professor whose appointment is only at a Black Studies department. There were other professors or scholars whose appointments were not joint with a Black Studies department either. According to Table 6, in addition to having a joint appointment with a Black Studies department or program, of the 56 professors and scholars, 10 each (17.9%) were in English/Literature and History departments; 8 each (14.3%) were in the Sociology/Cultural Studies department and Law school; 7 (12.5%) in the Economics department; 6 (10.7%) in the Government/Political Science department; 3 (5.4%) in the Psychology department; and 1 each (1.78%) in African American Studies, Medicine, Philosophy and Religion. Of the 56 professors and scholars, 19 (33.9%) were females: 7 (12.5%) in English/Literature, 4 (7.1%) in Law; 3 (5.4%) in Government/Political Science, 2 each (3.6%) in History and Psychology, and 1 (1.78%) in Economics (Table 6).

Institutions Attended by the 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities

Table 7 below shows a list of higher education institutions attended and where terminal or highest degrees were earned by all 58 of the 2009 JBHE's most cited Black professors and scholars. According to Table 7, these 58 professors and scholars earned their highest academic degrees or diplomas from 31 institutions in the United States and the United Kingdom: 8 (13.8%) from Harvard (MA); 6 (10.3%) from MIT (MA); 4 each (6.9%) from UCLA (CA), University of Michigan (MI), and Yale University (CT); 2 each (3.4%) from the University of Birmingham (UK), University of Cambridge (UK), University of Chicago (IL), London School of Economics and Political Science (UK), New School for Social Research (NY), and Princeton (NJ); and 1 each (1.7%) from Atlanta University (GA), Brandeis University (MA), Columbia (NY), Cornell (NY), Fordham University (NY), Hunter College (CUNY) (NY), Howard University (D.C.), Humboldt University (Germany), London University (UK), Ohio State (OH), Northwestern (IL), Sarah Lawrence College (NY), UC Santa Cruz (CA), University of Maryland (MD), University of Pennsylvania (PA), University of Pittsburgh (PA), University of Utah (UT), University of Virginia (VA), University of Wisconsin (Madison, WI), and Washington State University (WA). Of the 21 (36.2%) females, 5 (8.6%) earned their highest degree from Harvard, 2 (3.4%) from the University of Michigan, and 1 (1.7%) each from MIT, Yale, New School for Social Research, University of Birmingham (UK), University of Chicago, Brandise University, Cornell, Fordham University, Hunter College (CUNY), Humboldt University (Germany), Sarah Lawrence College, UC Santa Cruz, University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Virginia.

In terms of their U.S. News and World Report College Rankings in 2009, according to Table 7, Harvard is ranked # 1; Princeton, # 2; Yale, # 3; MIT, # 4; the University of Pennsylvania, # 6; Columbia and University of Chicago, tied at #8; Northwestern, #12; Cornell, #14; University of Virginia, # 23; UCLA, #25; University of Michigan, # 26; Brandeis University, #31; University of Wisconsin, Madison, # 35; University of Maryland, #53; Ohio State, # 56; University of Pittsburgh, # 58; Fordham University, # 61; UC Santa Cruz, # 96; Howard University, # 102; Washington State University, #116; University of Utah, # 127; New School for Social Research, Tier 3; and Atlanta University (now Clark Atlanta University), Tier 4 (Table 7).

Ivy League Institutions Where 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities Earned Their Terminal or Highest Degrees

There are 17 (29.2% out of 58) professors or scholars who earned their terminal or highest degrees from Ivy League institutions: Harvard, 8 (13.8% out of 58), Yale, 4 (6.9%), Princeton, 2 (3.4%); and 1 each (1.7%) from Columbia, Cornell, and the University of Pennsylvania. Of the 17 professors and scholars who earned their terminal or highest degrees from Ivy League institutions, 8 (13.8% out of 58) are females: 5 (8.6%) from Harvard, and 1 each (1.7%) from Yale, Cornell and the University of Pennsylvania (Table 8).

States, U.S. Regions and Countries Abroad Where 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities Earned Their Terminal/Highest Degrees

States/Countries Where Attended Institutions are Located

Of the 58 professors and scholars, 15 (25.9%) earned their terminal or highest degrees from the state of Massachusetts; 7 (12.1%) in the United Kingdom; 7 (12.1%) in the state of New York; 5 (8.6%) in California; 4 each (6.9%) in Connecticut and Michigan; 3 (5.2%) in Illinois; 2 each (3.4%) in New Jersey and Pennsylvania; and 1 each (1.7%) in Georgia, Germany, Maryland, Ohio, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wisconsin. Of the 21 (36.2%) female professors and scholars, 7 (12.1%) earned their terminal or highest degrees from institutions in Massachusetts; 5 (8.6%) in New York; 2 (3.4%) in Michigan; and 1 each (1.7%) California, Connecticut, Illinois, Germany, Pennsylvania, UK, and Virginia (Table 9).

Regions Where Attended Institutions of the 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities are Located

The majority of the 2009 JBHE's most cited Black scholars earned their terminal or highest degrees at institutions in the Northeast United States, 30 (51.7%); 9 (15.5%) in the Midwest; 8 (13.85) in Europe; 7 (12.1%) in the West; and 4 (6.9%) in the South. Of the 21 (36%) female professors and scholars, 14 (24.1%) earned their terminal or highest degrees from institutions in the Northeast; 3 (5.2%) in the Midwest; 2 (3.4%) in Europe; and 1 each (1.7%) in the South and West (Table 10).

Types and Number of Terminal or Highest Academic Degrees Earned by 2009 JBHE's Most Cited Black Scholars in the Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities

I identified 56 (96.5%) of the 58 professors with highest or terminal degrees earned from institutions attended. Of the 56 degrees, 44 (78.6%) are Ph.D.s, 7 (12.5%) are JDs, 2 (3.6%) B.A.s, and 1 each (1.78%) LL.M, MA, and MD. I identified 19 (33.9%) females with degrees: 13 (23.2%) Ph.D.s, 4 (7.1%) JDs, and 1 (1.78%) each B.A. and MA (Table 11).
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Title Annotation:p. 153-187
Author:Kaba, Amadu Jacky
Publication:Journal of Pan African Studies
Date:Sep 15, 2009
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