Democracy and Social Responsibility at Secondary Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Democracy and Social Responsibility at Secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was a quite novel study. The objectives of the study were: to explore the democratic environment of classroom at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; to investigate the social environment of classroom at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. All the 302,170 Secondary School Heads, Secondary School Teachers and Secondary School Students were the population for this study. A stratified sample of 1260 was selected randomly. Questionnaire was used as a research instrument for the collection of data. Data were tabularized, evaluated and interpreted. To examine the data, Chi-Square test was used and percentages were used. Outcomes were tested at 0.05 % significance.
It is recommended the teachers and heads may create such environment for the students through which they lean about democracy and social responsibility. It is recommended that proper and target- oriented training should be given to the heads and teachers in order to develop for democracy and social responsibility among the students. The objectives can be achieved through donor agencies.
Keywords: Democracy, Social responsibility, Secondary education
Classroom has two main environments, the social environment and the organizational environment. Former means the communicative patterns which teacher encourages in the classroom. While the latter means the physical or visual demonstration of the classroom. Both are the teacher choices, and teacher can exchange it for the production of right environment in order to achieve the desired objective.
The social environment of a classroom is different from demanding, where important information, opinion and instruction are provided by the teacher, while in social environment teachers role is laissez faire where students have full freedom to give all the valuable information, opinions, and instruction. There is a middle ground between the two extremes in which both the teacher and the students share responsibilities: students are given freedom of choice and winding up with the teacher facilitation. A lot of variations are possible, and the choice of teacher's variations will have evident outcomes relating to the objectives in the classroom.
Group discussions fate might be a huge disaster in a rigid demanding environment, because in this environment, student's opinions are less important than teacher, and teacher talks most of the time while student can't talk and should take up most of the instructional time, that the freedom to express one impulsively is the right of teacher but not theirs. In a more open environment the same attempt at discussion might be a great success, as all the characteristics of a good discussion - freedom of expression, excessive opportunities for students to talk, and openness - are encouraged by the classroom environment.
Teacher creates the social environment; whether authoritarian; laissez fair; or in between, is set by a teacher how he/she sees himself/herself: a teacher is commander-in-chief who carefully controls and sharpens student behavior by systematic procedure and giving the whole learning stimulus or, a teacher is a translator or summarizer of the ideas provided by students? Or, a teacher has equal partnership with students in the solution of problems and creating ideas and the effects of each environment should be considered and how a teacher can create it?
The successful teacher not only conducts eclectic teaching approaches but he also creates a mixed classroom environments. Nevertheless, teacher ability to create a certain environment is less important than teacher ability to change the environment when the objectives and situation demand. Though previous researches in social psychology tried to discover the type of environment most causative to the individual behavior, the results suggest that different environments have both merits and demerits, depending on the planned purpose.1
According to Glasser numerous people have uttered concerns that United States schools are not preparing students to be liable nation neither producing quality products in the workplace nor actively participate in their communities.2 According to these critics belief that actually what happens in the classroom should reflect, the needs of our democratic society.
Glasser raised the alarm of these critics in his book The Quality School. He noted the degradation in the U.S education as far as quality is concerned comparatively with other industrial nations and stated that the main goal of our schools should be quality.3 According to Glasser, only quality can be achieved by applying, a democratic and participatory approach in education. He stated that coercive methods of managing students are nothing but failure.4
Glasser has studied the ideas of business leaders, like Edward Deming, for successful models to education that we can also twist our quality 'products' - knowledgeable students.5
Therefore, his book has the detail how teachers can 'manage' students without coercion and can produce citizens, who are eager and able, to participate in their community and Workplace.
Statement of the Problem
Democracy and Social Responsibility at Secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was a quite novel study.
Objectives for the Study
The study was based on the following objectives:
- To explore the democratic environment of the classroom at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
- To investigate the social environment at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Significance of the Study
This study might be very significant because the researcher studied the new aspect of classroom. This study has opened new vistas in the field of education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as heads, secondary school teachers and students might be in a better position to learn about democracy and social responsibility.
Delimitation of the Study
This study was delimited only to Boys Secondary Schools in the Public Sector of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Review of Related Literature Classroom Environment
Classroom environment consists of a wide-ranging diversity of educational perceptions, including; the objects surroundings, the emotional environment twisted from side to side; social contexts; and different teaching mechanism allied with teacher behavior and personality. The study of classroom environment has been regarded very important in different areas of education. Investigators are involved in finding relations between environment builds and its various conclusions; including learning, social relations, meeting, enthusiasm and set dynamics etc. Premature investigators acknowledge: that manners is a utility of people's individual personality; and their atmosphere. Bronfenbrenner's work on environmental contexts; in the educational surroundings, protected a position; in the educational investigation for researches of classroom atmosphere.6
Bronfenbrenner's7 environmental methods Theory includes the enclosed environmental method of micro-cosmos in which human being growth catches place and highlights the significance of family unit, instructors, institutions, and the greater socio-cultural atmosphere on the development procedure. For many time this investigator has developed from investigating merely objective essentials of the atmosphere to more intricate reproductions of psychosocial relations among learners in the classes as well as among the instructor and learners in the schools. Investigations commencement in the middle-1990s has paying attentions on one / many of these dimensions and has connected class atmosphere variables among a range of constructive and negative student outcomes.
Further the large collection of outcomes investigated connected to classroom environment, this has also been of concern to methods because the data formation produces a unit of investigation quandary; finding classroom variables in connection with students learning objectives, researchers have to make a choice whether the statistics would be evaluated at the student Schools or the classroom. The innovations of mathematical methodologies in 1990s have made the researchers capable of managing collected data. That's why researches have been improved and bright to comprise variables together at together.
Different methods such as: study; clarification; and interviews have been utilized to confine features of the classroom environment starting teacher, learner, and witness perception. The earlier Child age cluster which is based at the University level of Virginia, USA; it has a main work that scrutinizes class atmosphere, as a long-established examination scheme of manifold-elements of the class.8
The Physical Environment of Class
Classroom environment has repeatedly focused in earlier investigations', the physical environment has sustained its place of importance in the existing studies; the reason is that; it is manipulated on behavioral and educational results. Present researches of the material atmosphere have examined features; such as classroom work; classroom dimension, and class organization. Studies on classroom compositions observe; class alignment techniques, counting capability alignment of learners; one single-sex classes; and co-operative wisdom groups. Researcher have originate that classes among greatly co-operative groups emerge to have learners with many optimistic perceptions of justice in scouring, stronger classroom structure, and upper degree of social sustain; as well as upper accomplishment ranks.
The primary school environments are inclined; to use mutual strategies more commonly and have upper Schools of instructor participation and sustain than is create in secondary institutions. Investigation on single-sex classes has been extra separated in conditions of educational outcome investigation. Researches about classroom dimension have examined how classroom dimension manipulates student and teacher behaviors. Inside common, minor classrooms are connected among learners who are little harassed and are many commonly on task among less reported performance harms than learners in larger classrooms. Though instructors lean to use related instructional strategies whether teaching to huge or little classrooms, there are few indications to propose that extra classroom time is useless on managerial tasks for bigger classrooms, leave-taking a smaller amount moment obtainable for teaching.
Research has recommended that differentiation in educational results found on classroom dimension is owing to dissimilarities in learner behaviors. Overloaded amenities, too several learners in convinced classrooms, and require of instructors' assistants are 3 main issues mentioned as potentially creating problems due to improved stress level of students and improved teacher-reported occurrences of behavioral problems. These increased stress levels and behavior problems establish in bigger classes are regularly accompanied by inferior level of educational accomplishment. Instructor and learner relations are also of curiosity to many investigators. Number of statement behavioral harms appears to enlarge as classroom mass enlarges.
Various investigators have found that big classrooms having thirty students or extra; most number of students has no responsibility regularly and fewer learners busy with the teacher as compare to child in little classroom of twenty students or less who are busy in working many activities. On the other hand, there may be a communal outlay for students in small classrooms; while other researchers found that smaller classrooms also had elevated rates of children engaging in a social and exclusionary behavior. Whether students are involved in given task or not; can also be motivated by successful class organization directions and stability of instructor implementation.9
The main part of center on institution development is 'Institution Climate /Educational Climate', it states, how instructors relationship are among administrators and with one another. It is contrary to 'Class Climate', which finds the relations with learners among one another, with the instructor and how this results into education. Many apparatus be available conclude "Class Climate" and after that using the outcome as fraction of the complete diagram for institution development. But the mainly complicated quantity instruments heavily rely on the perception and view. Information generates view, figures on teacher's and student's performance; on the other hand, observation is based on the behaviors' in the class and the institution. Formative Class Climate, it is significant to apply in sequence gather from together: view and observation; to shape a complete image of learner success; and too as a result generate a significant institution development diagram.
View is generating by evaluating learner test results; scored earned; audience; physical condition; and relations. Opinion is made by examination; and by document and pencil instruments that calculate "Class Climate" based on association of the class, the approach to learner accomplishment, the approaches to institution; the attitudes toward class fellows; the amount of democratic system qualified in the class; the reception of variety; the variety of knowledge; the independence of the instructor; the competitiveness with learners; the regularity of understanding of regulation infractions and their penalty. Useful administrator, when learners have been asks to give detail about successful classroom managers, reports of researchers' state that these teachers, early in the year set; clear prospect and consequences.
They explain instructors who constantly follow-through among consequences, as opposite to purely intimidating consequences. This individuality is very significant in launching high-quality class atmosphere in stipulations of communal support and shared admiration. Further the quantity of time an instructor uses in education managerial behaviors; impacts the class atmosphere. Investigators have found that learners in classes who have exhausted additional time early on in the institution year, on managerial teaching, noticeably enlarged the quantity of time; learners tired; in student managed behavior afterward in the educational year. Deliberately, as long as managerial instructions, at the produce of the new educational year; is a quality of an effectual class atmosphere manager.10
Psychological Environment of Classroom
Further, the material agreement of a class; a mental atmosphere; is also shaped, which is based on the communication of type players in the class such as teachers and student. In this area, research has flourished; in the early 21st century. Particularly, studies have been concerted on teacher support, learner classroom contribution ratios; and announcement of learning. A lot of instructors associate learner commitment with on-task behavior in connection to contribution in the classroom, naturally; a major concern for teachers. Majority of researchers have established that students verbalize out in the classroom regarding 3 periods as regularly. Although replies differ when learners are asked what contribution consists of, the most ordinary response; and one regularly scrutinized by investigators; is that contribution is defined as the queries; when specially inquire. Learners are not prolific in reacting quickly.
The conception of sensitivity support, as learners has also been widely examined in the class atmosphere literature. Helen Patrick and colleagues11 identify that there is a robust, constructive connection among learners' Institutions of incentive; meeting and their awareness's of the class atmosphere as being within society helpful. The sensitivity of a weather of communal respect is required, in order the learners increase their use of successful study; strategies; and increase feelings of assurance; regarding their aptitude; to productively total coursework. Moreover, when learners discover that they get exciting maintain from their instructors; educational sustain from their examination; they are extra probable to be on task in the class; and use self regulated strategies.
A huge amount of academic investigations has alert on the statement of learning objectives to learners in grouping; with the personality goals; and prospect of learners. A number of classrooms and students are concentrating on achieving grades than mastery over goals; these learners and class are called presentation learning contrary to mastery learning. Many researchers have identified this communal cognitive feature of classes; and found that the class Schools learning objectives can be interlinked to both academic and behavioral results. Learners in classes; where presentation is highlighted; can be engaged in cheating; help- seeking can be avoided; and show lower levels of educational meeting. Distinguish learners, who are in a class; where the center is on improvement and learning; upper Schools of self effectiveness is demonstrated; and having more optimistic effects.
Researchers have found at the individual objective Schools that learners, who are extra paying attention on grades, tend to have upper grades; those learners who are paying extra attention on mastering objectives; lean to employ in frequently in rationally demanding targets and keep in sequence learned for a longer span of point in time.12
Democracy in Education
According to Dewey,13 majority of elements, which is saved by the way; we encircle worried till now through learning whether it can survive in any communal collection. We need to open the differences in the objects, strength; and technique of learning because it is functioning in diverse kinds of population.
Saying that, learning is a securing direction; communal purpose, protecting direction ;and improvement in the undeveloped throughout their contribution in the living of the collection; to which they go; is to say in result that teaching will vary among the excellence of life which succeeds in a group. Chiefly is it true that a civilization which not simply modifies; but which has the perfect of such modify as will advance it; will have dissimilar methods and standards of teaching from one which aims merely at the upholding of its own civilizations. To create the universal thoughts set forth appropriate to our own instructive perform, it is, consequently, essential to come to earlier quarters with the environment of nearby communal life. The propositions of human being Association, civilization are one word, but several things. Men correlate collectively in all kinds of ways and for all types of reasons.
A guy is bothered in a massive amount of different groups, in which his associations may be dissimilar. It is frequently seemed that they have not anything in ordinary excluding; they are forms of connected life. Within all larger social-organization; there are many minor groups: not only following subdivisions, but industrial, scientific, religious, associations. There are supporting parties with differing aims, social sets, cliques, gangs, corporations, partnerships, groups bound closely jointly by ties of blood, and so on in endless variety. In some very old and in many modern states, there is vast mixture of inhabitants of unreliable verbal communications; religions; good codes; and civilizations.
As of this perspective, a lot of a slight following unit, one of our big cities, for example, is a congeries of insecurely linked societies, quite than a comprehensive and permeating society of action and consideration. Contrary to non-progressive institutions, which are inclined to adopt temporary conflict-resolution intervention programs; progressive institutions overtly and unreservedly encourage social and emotional development and conflict-resolution inside their societies. To encourage individual responsibility and autonomy among learners; progressive schools offer learners the space to discover; what is apposite pro-social behavior.14 Those organizations which adopt progressive values can adopt the "Democratic Pedagogy Model"; social-emotional learning approach that allows learners the free speech right, exact to physical and intellectual properties, and accurate to change the activities of the classroom and majority changes the policy.15
In teaching, the standards might be incidental from Hahn's16 account in 2001 that stated, "young people of sizable numbers require for giving additional opportunities; to educate independent are not helpful for democratic principles in particular contexts" when contrast to their peers internationally. Hahn is of the view that American learners are not given sufficient teaching in social equality.17 The International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement (IAEEA) establish in 2001 that majority of 14 year-old students in America were not likely to have had a precise course in management. American In addition, the IAEEA study showed that students' socioeconomic status; and race/ethnicity played a vital role in what they had information about social equality; with African American and Latino learners scoring inferior.18
Method and Procedure
All the 302,170 Secondary School Heads, Secondary School Teachers and Secondary School Students of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa comprised the population for this study.19
A stratified sample of 1260 from Seven Districts was selected randomly. The districts included were: Peshawar, Nowshera, Mardan, Haripur, Dera Ismail Khan, Kohat and Abbotabad. The sample included 70 Secondary School Heads, 210 Secondary School Teachers and 980 Secondary School Students.
The researcher used questionnaire as a research instrument for this study using two options 'Yes' and 'No'. Research instrument was developed after going throughout to related literature, consists of text books, research journals, news articles, reports, magazines etc.
- Questionnaire for the Secondary School Heads of Govt. High Schools.
- Questionnaire for the Secondary School Teachers of Govt. High Schools.
- Questionnaire for the Secondary School Students of Govt. High Schools.
Collection of Data
The researcher visited most of the Govt. High Schools in the selected Districts. While in some Districts data were gathered with the co-operation of three research assistants. Hundred percent data were collected from the seven districts.
Analysis of Data
Data were gathered through research instrument. Collected data were fed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program for analysis. To analyze the data and forget the percentage of every option, frequencies were applied. Chi-square was also used as a statistical test. For treatment, Chi-square as a possibility test was applied for the results.
Analysis and Interpretation of Data
In research analysis, interpretation of data plays a pivotal role, because at this stage the researcher in a position to draw results from the data. In this research the calm data has been interpreted and analyzed through Chi-square as a possibility test.
The Chi-square test is the mainly significant test widely used for statistical data utilized by non-parametric analysis. The opinions of respondents listed in combine table, whereas the (Frequencies) percentage, Chi-square (x2), Degree of freedom (df) and Probability of exceeding the tabulated value of x2P-value at 0.05 level have been listed against the respondents.
Table 1: Our schools are producing productive students
Respondents###Yes###No###Yes %###No %###x2###df P-value
Table 1 show that the question was asked from the students. Out of 980 students, 634 accepted and 346 rejected. The Chi-Square value was 84.637 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. It showed that the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value.
Hence, the statement was supported. The question was asked from the teachers and out of 210 teachers, 183 teachers accepted and 27 rejected the idea. The x2 value was 115.886 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. It showed that the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value. Hence, the statement was supported. The same question was also asked from the secondary school Heads, out of 70 Heads, 58 accepted and 12 rejected the idea. The Chi-Square value was 30.229 while the tabulated value at 0.05 levels is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported.
Table 2: Students are given the opportunities to participate in deciding major issues of the classrooms
Respondents###Yes###No###Yes %###No %###x2###df###P-value
Table 2 indicates that the question was asked from the students. Out of 980 students, 556 responded in positive and 424 responded in negative, the test was applied. The Chi-Square value was calculated 17.780 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. It showed that the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value. Hence, the statement was supported. The question was administered to the teachers and out of 210 teachers, 177 agreed and 33 disagreed to the idea. The test was applied on the data for obtaining the statistical results; the x 2 value was calculated 98.743 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported. The same question was also administered to the Heads and out of 70 Heads, 47 Heads responded in positive and 23 responded in negative. The statistical test was applied on the data.
The Chi-Square value was calculated 8.229 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. It showed that the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value. Hence, the statement was supported.
Table 3: Students are allowed to participate in minor issues of the classrooms
Respondents###Yes###No###Yes %###No %###x2###df###P-value
Table 3 shows that the question was asked from the students. Total participants were 980 students, 601 students replied 'Yes' and 379 replied 'No', the Chi-Square value was calculated 50.290 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported. The question was administered to the teachers and out of 210 teachers, 171 agreed and 39 disagreed to the idea. The Chi-Square result was found 82.971 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported. The same question was also administered to the heads and out of 70,65 Heads with the percentage of 92.85 said 'Yes' and 05 Heads with the percentage of 7.15 said 'No'. The x 2 value was calculated 51.429 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported.
Table 4: Students have the sense of social responsibilities.
Respondents###Yes###No###Yes %###No %###x2###df###P-value
Table 4 indicates that the question was asked from the secondary school students. 727 out of 980 students accepted and 253 out of 980 students rejected. The test was applied for getting the results. The Chi-square value was calculated 229.261 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported. The question was asked from the teachers and total participants were 210. 125 teachers replied in positive and 85 teachers replied in negative. The Chi-square value was calculated 7.619 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported. The same question was also asked from the secondary school heads and 46 out of 70 replied in positive and 24 out of 70 replied in negative. The statistical test was applied for the result. The Chi-Square value was calculated 6.914 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. It showed that the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value. Hence, the statement was supported.
Table 5: Our classroom curriculum instills democratic values in students
Table 5 shows that the question was asked from the students. Out of 980 students, 684 secondary school students responded in 'Yes' and 296 secondary school students responded in 'No'. The Chi- Square value was calculated 153.616 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported. The question was administered to the secondary school teachers and out of 210 secondary school teachers, 152 replied in 'Yes' and 58 out of 210 secondary school teachers replied in 'No'. The statistical test was applied for the obtaining the results. The x 2 value was found 42.076 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841. Hence, the statement was supported. The same question was also asked from Principals/Head Masters. Total participants were 70, 44 responded in 'Yes' and 26 out of 70 responded in 'No'. The test was applied on the data. The Chi-Square value was found 4.629 while the tabulated value at 0.05 level is 3.841.
It showed that the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value.
Hence, the statement was supported.
The results proved that our schools produced productive students. According to Jeff,20 school environment is providing multiples types of facilities, in which, formal and informal teaching, use of library, laboratory, co-curricular activities, etc are included. In that way, institution is providing productive students towards society. The results are supported by author's views.
The results indicated that students were given opportunities to participate in major issues of their classrooms.
According to Melissa,21 in the classroom environment involves different types of problems, a teacher must look towards the students at the start of the class. And if there is some major problem, then he must solve it, students' views or participation regarding major issues can solve problem effectively. The same idea is supported.
The results indicated that students were also allowed to participate in the minor issues of the classroom. According to Bridgett,22 effective classroom strategies are necessary to the achievement of any teacher. Teachers must know how they handle the minor issues of the classroom While there are some major problems that can explode in the classroom, such as fighting, there are also minor distractions - such as chatting, students getting out of their seats without authorization and gum-chewing - that if not held properly could take the entire class in problematic situation. When handled properly, with the help of students minor problems can be extinguished rapidly. The results are significant.
The results indicated that students had the sense of social responsibility. According to the Sheldon,23 students like to learn about social responsibility, that is why they have the sense of society and the social responsibility, the teacher's role in this is very important, because teacher is the key personality who uses to inject. The results from the data are in support of the views of Sheldon.24
The results indicated that curriculum instilled democratic values in the students. According to Bayview,25 Curriculum Compacting is a program designed to meet the requirements of the student. It ensures that students who have mastered concepts in precise subject areas or units of study are receiving training and assignments. Students' mastery of concepts is determined by investigative assessments. Parents will be advised when a student demonstrates a need for Curriculum Compacting and the adaptation necessary to the normal program. Curriculum must inject democratic values in the students. The results support the views of the Bayview.26
The findings of the study revealed the following conclusions:
- Majority of the respondents were of the view that schools were producing productive students. Productive learners were the outgrowth of society.
- Most of the respondents were of the opinion that students were given opportunities to participate in the major issues.
Participating in major problems usually led to social and democratic environment.
- Majority of the respondents were of the view that students participated in the minor issues. Involving the students in minor issues was making them social and democratic.
- Majority of the respondents were of the view that students had the sense of social responsibility. It showed that the learners were moving in positive direction.
- Many of the respondents were of the view that classroom curriculum instilled democratic values. Curriculum was a set of activities for the learners, through which a learner improved his abilities in the society.
On the basis of conclusions, the following recommendations are made.
- The study revealed that the schools were producing productive students. So, it is recommended the teachers and heads may create such environment for the students through which they lean about democracy and social responsibility. The objectives can be achieved through group discussion, group assignment.
- The study revealed that the role of the teachers in properly democratic and social values was pivotal. So, it is recommended that proper and target-oriented training should be given to the heads and teachers in order to develop for democracy and social responsibility among the students. The objectives can be achieved through donor agencies.
- On the basis of the critical analysis of the study procedures in the discussion section of the work, the following recommendations are made for future research in this area: The present study was conducted at secondary school level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The future studies may, therefore, be conducted at College and University levels; in such a case the results may be different. The method of the study was descriptive. In future, observational studies may be conducted. The present study was conducted at secondary school level (Male). In future, the study may be conducted in schools meant for females.
Notes and References
1 R. Lippitt and M. Gold, "Classroom Social Structure as a Mental Health Problem", Journal of Social Issues 15 (1959): 40-58.
2 W. Glasser, The Quality School: Managing students without coercion (New York: Harper and Row, 1990).
6 Urie Bronfenbrenner, "Toward an experimental ecology of human development", American Psychologist 32, no. 7 (1977): 513-531
9 A. Miller and K. Cunningham, "Classroom Environment" (2011). Available at: from http://www.education.com/reference/article/classroom- environment. [Accessed on August 29, 2013]
11 H. Patrick, A. Ryan and Kaplan "Early adolescents' perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement", Journal of Educational Psychology 99, no.1 (2007): 83-98.
13 J. Dewey, Democracy and Education: an introduction to the philosophy of education (New York: the Macmillan Company, 1961), 81-99.
14 P. Ainsa, "Critical pedagogy towards a socio-moral classroom", Journal of Instructional Psychology 38, no. 2 (2011): 84-92.
15 S. J. Basu and A. Barton, "Researcher-student-teacher model for democratic science pedagogy: Connections to community, shared authority, and critical science agency", Equity and Excellence in Education 43, no. 1 (2010): 72-87.
16 C. Hahn, "Student views of democracy: The good and bad news" Social Education 65, no. 7 (2001): 456-459.
18 Stephane Baldi, What democracy means to ninth-graders US results from the international IEA civic education study. (n.p: DIANE Publishing, 2001).
19 EMIS, Government of KPK, Elementary and Secondary Education Department (2013). Available at: http://www.kpese.gov.pk/home/view.cfm?MenuID1. [Accessed on August 25, 2012]
20 D. Jeff, Back to School: The Best Productivity Apps for Any Student, (2013). Accessed on http://www.technologyguide.com/ feature/back-to- school-the-top-apps-to-keep-any-student-productive. [Accessed on August 26, 2013]
21 K. Melissa, How to Handle Discipline Problems with Effective Classroom Management, (2013). Available at: http://712 educators.about.com/od/discipline/ht/class_manage.htm [Accessed on August 26, 2013]
22 B. H. Bridgett, Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Advanced Placement and Honors Courses, University of Southern California (2008).
23 B. Sheldon, Children's Social Consciousness and the Development of Social Responsibility (2013). Available at: http://www.sunypress.edu/Searchadv.aspx?IsSubmit=trueandSearchOption ID=2andtxtAuthorSearch=Sheldon%20Berman. [Accessed on August 26, 2013]
25 G. Bayview, Lower School Grade 5 Curriculum (2013). Available at: http://www.bayviewglen.ca/files/publications//file_link_1375217417_Grade_5_Curriculum_2013_2014.p [Accessed on August 26, 2013]
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|Author:||Irshadullah, Hafiz M.; Inamullah, Hafiz M.; Zahoor-ul-Haq|
|Date:||Mar 31, 2016|
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