Country of Origin / Country of Destination: The country of origin is a source of migratory flows (regular or irregular), (1) while the country of destination (also known as receiving country) is one that has accepted to receive a certain number of refugees and migrants on a yearly basis by presidential, ministerial or parliamentary decision. (1)
Domestic Work: As per the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention on the Protection of Domestic Workers (ILO Convention 189), domestic work means work performed in or for a household or households. A domestic worker is any person engaged in domestic work within an employment relationship. A person who performs domestic work only occasionally or sporadically and not on an occupational basis is not a domestic worker. (2)
Environmental Migrants: Persons or groups of persons who, for compelling reasons of sudden or progressive change in the environment that adversely affects their lives or living conditions, are obliged to leave their habitual homes, or choose to do so, either temporarily or permanently, and who move either within their country or abroad. (1)
Irregular Migrant: A person who, owing to unauthorised entry, breach of a condition of entry, or the expiry of his or her visa, lacks legal status in a transit or host country. The definition covers inter alia those persons who have entered a transit or host country lawfully but have stayed for a longer period than authorised or subsequently taken up unauthorised employment (also called clandestine/undocumented migrant or migrant in an irregular situation). The term 'irregular' is preferable to 'illegal' because the latter carries a criminal connotation and is seen as denying migrants' humanity. (1)
Irregular Migration: Movement that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries. There is no clear or universally accepted definition of irregular migration. From the perspective of destination countries, it is entry, stay or work in a country without the necessary authorisation or documents required under immigration regulations. From the perspective of the sending country, the irregularity is for example seen in cases in which a person crosses an international boundary without a valid passport or travel document or does not fulfil the administrative requirements for leaving the country. (1)
Labour Migration: Generally defined as a cross-border movement for purposes of employment in a foreign country. (1)
Migrant Worker: According to the United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, a migrant worker is a person who is to be engaged, is engaged, or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a citizen. A 'migrant worker' is defined in the ILO instruments as a person who migrates from one country to another (or who has migrated from one country to another) with a view to being employed otherwise than on his own account, and includes any person regularly admitted as a migrant for employment. (1)
Migration: The movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border, or within a State. It is a population movement, encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever its length, composition and causes; it includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants, and persons moving for other purposes, including family reunification. (1)
Migration Cycle: Labour migration cycle encompasses the preparation period in the country of origin prior to departure of the migrant worker (pre-departure); transit in a third country or location; arrival and period of employment (post-arrival); and return to origin country, whether permanently or temporarily (reintegration). (1)
Migration Health: A specialised field of health sciences, characterised by its focus on the well-being of migrants and communities in countries and regions of origin, transit, destination and return. It has a dual focus, addressing individual migrants' needs, as well as the public health of host communities. (1)
Sexuality: A central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours, practices, roles and relationships. While sexuality can include all of these dimensions, not all of them are always experienced or expressed. Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors. (3)
Temporary Migrant Worker: Skilled, semiskilled or untrained workers who remain in the destination country for definite periods as determined in a work contract with an individual worker or a service contract concluded with an enterprise. Also called contract migrant workers. (1)
For the definitions of reproductive health, reproductive rights, sexual health and sexual rights, see: Ando, MMFA. Definitions. ARROWs for Change. 2009; 18(2 & 3):19.
For the definition of universal access to sexual and reproductive health services, see: Ando, MMFA. Definitions. ARROWs for Change. 2010; 16(1):22.
Notes and References
(1) International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Glossary on migration. Geneva: IOM; 2004.
(2) C189--International Labour Organisation Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189). www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/ en/f?p=1000:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_ CODE:C189.
(3) World Health Organisation (WHO). Defining sexual health: Report of a technical consultation on sexual health, 28-31 January 2002, Geneva. Geneva: WHO; 2006.
Compiled by Maria Lourdes S. Marin, Executive Director, ACHIEVE, the Philippines. Email: email@example.com