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Deconstructing the Problematic Relationship of Pakistan and United States of America: Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan.

Byline: Syed Nouman Ali Shah and Dr. Gulshan Majeed

Keywords: Pakistan, United States of America, Problematics, interests, mistrust

Introduction

Soon after Pakistan sought independence from Britain it tended to establish friendly relations with the United States of America for her very survival in the International community and to become the part of democracy and capitalism. Pakistan right from the beginning took an anti-communist stance in order to get close to the U.S. To be safer from the expansion of communist Soviets as they tended to dominate the region. Pakistan established friendly relations with the U.S. to form an alliance with United States of America soon after independence, the relation from then is problematic. Pakistan-U.S. relations are mostly based upon mutual trust and distrust. Pakistan aligned with United States of America since its inception and this relationship is more than six decades old but in this relationship neither ally is pleased with the other because most of the time they keep on blaming each other, US blames Pakistan of not concluding the signed deal with her and sometimes Pakistan the same to

U.S.A and tilting towards her arch rival India, this relation comprises of Mutual trust and Mutual distrust. Supporting each other on one side and pulling each other down on the other. However during the Afghan war U.S. extended full cooperation to Pakistan in order to contain Soviet Expansion. Soon after the terrorist attacks on Washington Pakistan accepted all U.S.A demands to fight the menace of terrorism. Pakistan supported America in war against terrorism, earned financial assistance that helped in stabilizing its economy. Whereas during the rule of two military dictators relations amongst the respective states was a combination of trust and mistrust. Further from 2008 onwards the problematic relationship between the two allies persists. The present research speculates the future of the bilateral relationship.

Pakistan threatened by the Soviet Union aligned with United States of America and perceived refuge in aligning with U.S. (Jalal, 2014) Briefs that Pakistan to raise her military and economic capabil ty as to cater with her bitter neighbor India aligned with United States of America. It also signed defense agreements with America "(SEATO and CENTO) in 1954 as well as in 1955". After the wars of 1965 and 1971 with India Pakistan realized that it was all useless to be in any defense Agreement with United States as She refuses to lend any support which disillusioned Pakistan and for not being supported much by United States of America and was exposed to harsh reality of balance of power, tilting in the favor of India.

For balancing the ordeal Pakistan initiated its nuclear program and then met with imposition of harsh economic sanctions and snub from the U.S.A with threats of more severe consequences. Sino-U.S entente was initiated and facilitated by Pakistan when the secret visit of Henry Kissinger was arranged, Pak-U.S. relations resulted in a wave of congenial phase. In 1979 when USSR attacked Afghanistan and United States tended on the way to contain the expansion of communism, the relations between the two States move in into the new phase of cooperation, United States too tended to counter the expansion of Soviets in the landlocked Afghanistan as she was adopting the policy of containment. Furthermore with the reinstatement of Democratic progression in Pakistan the relation between the two moved towards a new era. (Sattar, 2013) The disastrous events of September 11 altered the entire dimensions of Pak-U.S. relations.

When United States of America was hit by terrorists and while fighting with them sought assistance from Pakistan so engaged once again Pakistan in an alliance with herself and considered Pakistan as a means to an end and in this manner Pak-U.S. relations improved and the former achieved the status of major non Nato ally supporting United States of America to accomplish her strategic objectives in Afghanistan. Pakistan gained maximum backing from the United States in retrospect of providing her assistance and allied forces in the war against terror.

"Authors are Ph.D. Scholar and Assistant Professor in Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore-Pakistan".

Literature Review

This portion explains in detail the research work of scholars in the relevant field. The methodology implemented by various researchers and their outcomes have been discussed in detail to place down a background of the present research work.

Schofield (2012) has discussed in detail the labyrinth of Pak-U.S. Relationship in-depth, the study identifies the pros and cons of the complex nature of relationship where soon after independence threatened from soviet expansionist design Pakistan sought safety to be in alliance with the United States. Pakistan relationship with America could not be explained just in the back drop of war on terror alone which United States of America initiated soon after terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001. Pakistan Allied with U.S. During cold war as well as assisted against USSR intervention in Afghanistan in late 1980's. Pakistan sought cover of United States to counter the expanding influence of India as to balance her power in the long run, the refusal of US to assist in 1965 war with India and in 1971 when Pakistan was segregated disillusioned Pakistan.

US-Pakistan relations are marked by periods of close collaboration interchanging with the periods of Mutual disbelief and suspicion. "There were certainly highs and lows in the relationship between George W. Bush and Musharraf, but the current Obama administration claims to seek a TRUE bilateral relation with Pakistan without the usage of coercive diplomacy". Pakistan was tagged as "a non-NATO major ally" (Rhode, 2004) in war against terrorism which cost more than it received from her Ally strategies were destroyed which Pakistan has adopted to counter Arch rival India and its expanding dominance in the South Asian region. The alliance of Pakistan in war against terror was entitled as renewed special relationship with US but reality portrays a different picture where "'Post 9/11" Pak-U.S.A. special relation is not as distinctive it is often depicted, it reveals a complex amalgamation of the marvels of war on terror, regional alliances, geo political realities and India-Pakistan arch rivalries.

Further it is explained that why Pakistan-US relationship is often regarded as an combination of trust and distrust including betrayal's from the both sides because each state want to be solid in protecting and maximizing her own national interests. US-Pakistan friendship is vital but survival of Pakistan in the region links her with other stake holders of the region as well where not even rhetoric but practical support was provided by China. Nazar (2011) has unveiled the harsh realities of US-Pakistan relationship by critically evaluating the objectivity of relationship and making it clear that "The US has never helped Pakistan in any war. Indeed, it has stopped the supply of military and economic aid at most crucial times of Pakistan." Further US after allying Pakistan in war against terrorism announce that it is not supporting US interests in the region while moving away from the fact that what we are doing with her?

Continuously enhancing relationship with India to the Next level and keep on reiterating Pakistan to do more. Numerous events makes the picture crystal clear US is involved weakening democratic norms in Pakistan because they believe that military alone could be compelled to secure US interest in the region. Markey (2014) describes the US long standing objectives in this region and strategic importance of Pakistan to fulfilling them. Further it is in depth argued that Pakistan has long standing relationship with America. The Pak-U.S engagement is tragic and often tormented as both of the States have certain commonalities and certain differences. Pakistan friendship with America could also serve to rescue Pakistan from violent consequences, the only way to safeguard America from the perils that persists on Pakistan territory.

U.S.-Pakistan relationship if of regional significance where China-Pakistan and U.S.-India alliance has a pivotal role to play in international arena. Khan (2016) argues that the region of South and South East Asia is of geostrategic importance and the alliances in this region are of geopolitical in nature and the India-U.S. engagement and Sino-Pak alliances have reshaped the magnitude of relationship between Pakistan and America. U.S.-India engagement has weakened the significance of United States alliance with Pakistan because the former wanted to check the expanding economic activity of China and India plays significant role in doing so due to India's animosity with her. Hussain (2016) describes that Pak-U.S. relations in its cyclical pattern of Cooperation and estrangement, the internal and external factors which influence this association throughout the Cold war as well as the Post-Cold war era and the events of post September 11.

Historically Pak-U.S. relations has never been consistent it went through various highs and Lows all because of and differences of National Interests during different periods. The relations between the two nations kept on moving from alliance to enmity. The foremost opinion in Pakistan has been that U.S. attained more during the times of convergence of interests but not so during divergence. "Most allied ally" was the title given to Pakistan. During 1950's, 1980's and after 9/11 2001 Pakistan gained less because U.S. did not supported or assisted Pakistan during her hard times and U.S. Left Pakistan during wars with India in 1965 and 1971. Khan (2010) briefs that Pak-U.S. relationship is flimsy in nature.

The relationship between United States and Pakistan relies upon varied tactical and occasionally ill-assorted calculated benefits, U.S.-Pakistan alliance has gone through various engagements and estrangements and the element including geopolitical and geostrategic elements in compelling the America closer to Pakistan. The geostrategic location that Pakistan bears and the key role to bring it closer in alliance with the States. The United States always came to built alliance with Pakistan to get its vested objectives or to protect United States Global strategic goals or to deal any threat to United States interests directly or indirectly, containment of communism as well as war against terrorism all these goals were impossible to achieve without Pakistan support.

Mushtaq (2014) depicts the picture of Pak-U.S. problematic relations with the inception of Pakistan in 1947, the relationship strengthened when Pakistan signed agreements with America "(SEATO, CENTO)" and she assured of Military assistance and Economic support.

While in the times of hardship Pakistan needed U.S. and it suspended military assistance to Pakistan in 1965, 1971 and 1975 resulted in a general sense in Pakistan that United States was not an all-weather friend. The United States of America came into a close alliance with Pakistan. The Soviets invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 resulted in making it clear to U.S. that there is commonality of interest between America and Pakistan including to establish peace prosperity and progress in South Asia. Later in 1990's the relationship beard a serious setback and United States Imposed sanctions Presseler Amendment and Glenn Amendment as Pakistan sought to become Nuclear. The mistrust seems to persist on both sides. Akhtar (2012) unveils that Pak-

U.S. relations bears more significance. Since 1947 Pakistan and United States is collaborating with each other in various sectors. United States of America has always assisted and provided support to Pakistan and has been one of the vital ally in receiving assistance. There have been times of mistrust and suspicion. Pak-U.S. alliance has been one of the important element of Pakistan's foreign policy. A democratic and stable Pakistan is important to U.S. goals. After September/11 Pakistan came closer to United States as both joined war on terrorism despite Pakistan has to face domestic outrage and the consequences of supporting U.S. Since emergence of Pakistan there are numerous ups and downs in Pak -U.S. relationship.

Aslan (2018) discusses Pak-USA relations in a different dimension where he unveils that United States of America has backed two military Coup's one 1n 1958 and second in 1977in Pakistan and U.S. also provided a significant economic and military support to the respective rulings of Ayub khan and Zia ul Haq. United States of America policy towards Pakistan during cold war and post-cold war was dominated by

United States. Entanglement with Pakistan military, as U.S. sooner or later recognized martial governments in Pakistan and worked with them at the cost of failing the civilian parties and institutions. Further it has also been unveiled that the foreign policy objectives and goals involved when the U.S. backed in the establishment of military rule. Sattar (2013) says that Pak-U.S. relations passed through setbacks when the former sought to balance the power in South Asian region by building nuclear enrichment facility for peaceful and defense purposes. Further Pak-U.S. relations soured when the latter imposed sanctions on Pakistan in 1977 and 1978 Symington and Glenn amendments cut of economic aid to Pakistan and imposed other restrictions upon Pakistan alone and India Left uninterrupted in its nuclear program as U.S. was keeping a check on China through India. The relationship between the two relaxed when Zia took over and USSR invaded in Afghanistan in December 1979.

After 9/11 2001 Pak-U.S. relationship transforms into renewed phase of cooperation as United States needed support of Pakistan in America's Global war against terror, Washington dismantled sanctions, resumed military sales and revived economic assistance. The relations disrupted in 2011 again when U.S. national claimed an embassy personnel killed two Pakistani people in Lahore. Fair (2010) elaborates Pakistan became a crucial friend of U.S. in its battle against Al Qaeda. Pakistan provided America logistic and strategic support the U.S. "to use its air space, granted overland access to Afghanistan and employed its army, police and paramilitary groups to capture al Qaeda members" United States awarded Pakistan with some $11 billion in assistance between September 11 2001 and till the end of 2008. The United States of America established alliance with one man and his institution President and General Musharraf.

Almost After the eight years of U.S. aid to Pakistan no impact this amount of money could have made and influenced Pakistan's military Ruler to launch an effective and workable counterterrorism policy. U.S. supported strong man to pursue her interests. The United States engagement from 2001 to 2008 eight years dedicated to back a military dictator (Musharraf). Americas has not backed the growing of civilian democratic government in Pakistan while backing martial law. The United States has not invested in building a civilian government in Pakistan. In this manner all the civilian institutions received limited amount of aid as compared to military. Kheli (1982) enunciates Pak-U.S. relations and briefs it as the study of influence in International Relations. It depicts clearly that hardly any allied States experienced such fluctuations from friendship to animosity and collaboration to retaliation as that of Pak and America.

Since 1980's each has reason to explore anew the possibility of cooperation but each is keenly mindful of the serious dilemmas and pitfalls that impede the reestablishment of trust and meaningful ties. The cold war Politics had binded Pakistan and U.S. in an alliance together. The United States for Containment of Soviets expansion and Pakistan for its security and survival received large quantities of weapon from U.S. the United States and Pakistan were unable to agree on the main enemy or on the steps needed to consolidate their friendship and domestic considerations changed their attitude toward each other. Haqqani (2013) says Pakistan as problematic for America and United States have repeatedly been called Pakistan as America's most problematic Ally.

Pak-U.S. relationship is as old as Pakistan itself but the relationship between the two has never been friction free. Even in its zenith throughout 1950's and 1960's, the USA-Pakistan corporation was far from an cooperation constructed on mutual beliefs and benefits, instead Pakistan and its ally both of the two allies were always anxious with countering diverse enemies and expecting diverse hopes from their association. Pakistan's intention to establish an alliance with United States has been driven by its struggle to secure herself from much bigger enemy India while America poured money and arms as to protect Asia from communist dominance. Further if we explain the alliance of America and Pakistan we will come to know that it is an amalgamation of idealistic expectations, fake promises and greater misperceptions. Clark (2008) claims that Pak-U.S. engagement is deceptive in nature.

Pakistan's nuclear ability is the result of the deception of the leaders and the agencies of the United States to their motherland the United States. The intelligence mechanisms traced backed since the initiation of the program but snubbed by the respective governments in the U.S. as it wanted a buffer state against Communism, as the Soviets attacked Afghanistan and captured Kabul as well as threat was prevailing that the red army might reach Iran where an prime USA ally has in 1979. After U.S. initiated Global war on terror from 2001 Pakistan and United States relations has been more than that of congenial one because Pakistan offered unwavering support to U.S. to attack Afghanistan.

Cohen (2004) discuses that Pak-U.S. engagement is a combination of converging and diverging interests sometimes Pakistan has been regarded as "the most allied" of American allies whereas most of the time as a democratically liability, Pakistan was repeatedly thought up by the United States as a ideal for the Islamic world, although no other Muslim state considered it as such. The relationship between the two reached its lowest point with the attack of a mob of students who burned the American embassy in Islamabad in 1979. Pakistan was viewed as an irritation in a comparison with emerging India. The September/11 attacks led to reestablishment of Pak-U.S. cooperation as Bush government sought Pakistani support in a war in Afghanistan. Pakistan and America relation has been discontinuous and episodic, depending upon respective sides diverging National interests. RIEDEL (2011) is of the view that Pakistan and the United States have been sealed in a deadly encirclement for decades.

The relationship between Pakistan and America is mesmerizing yet mixed up story, moving through the phases of alliance and hostility. The relations between the two is confusing and spreading distrust. The United States on numerous instances facilitated the foes of democracy in Pakistan and sponsored in the growth of the very enemies it is fighting now in the region. He further unravels the torturous relationship between the two prolonged allies. Ali (2013) explains the role that Pakistan has played in the global war against terrorism including its repercussions upon Pakistan. The global war on terror has posed grave consequences upon the society and political milieu and ravaged the economy of Pakistan. The U.S. policy of drone attacks in the remote areas of Pakistan have headed towards the inculcation of animosity and against the U.S. and resulted in breeding of anti-Americanism and regional extremism. The Post September/11 era led a key change in Pak-U.S. relations.

It is crystal clear that no other State has sacrificed as Pakistan did during its quest to get rid of terrorism. During the war on terror America extended maximum support to Pakistan' s army and during the times of disasters like deadly earth quake of 2005 and 2010 floods it's supported and assisted Pakistan. Further The United States inability to contain the terrorists in Afghanistan have also been linked with Pakistan to do more for United States. Javaid (2011) briefs that Pakistan association with United States of America soon after the 9/11 attacks and highlights the impacts of the engagement, when Pakistan became a leading state in Global War on terror. It has also explained that departure of America from Afghanistan poses serious security concerns for Pakistan. As the militants had infiltrated into Pakistan and carried out terrorist activities in Pakistan. Pakistan had lost a lot while fighting war on terror both domestically and internationally.

The apprehensions of Pakistan concerning the Global war on terror must be completely tackled not only by America but also world at large. Javaid (2011) describes Pakistan-United States alliance soon after 9/11 when the later compelled Pakistan to provide full time support in her Global war on terror. "Pakistan-United States are in alliance with each other since 1947 with the Inception of Pakistan., the relationship between two has passed through many ups and downs. Coutto (2015) demonstrates that the U.S.-Pakistan Relations throughout the Cold War era has been precarious in nature.

Pakistan moves in into coalition with the U.S. to secure its newly got independence from British Colonial rule. Further Pak-U.S. relations consists upon the preservation and promotion of one's own National

Interest in international political arena. United States of America allied with Pakistan to contain Communists States while Pakistan to get assistance and support to fortify its military and economic sectors and counter its neighbor India.

Waheed (2017) opines Pakistan-United States relations as the relation of a client to its Patron, where Patron enjoys influence over its client. Pakistan

U.S. relations from its very beginning are dubious in nature. Further Pakistan most of the time in its history is dependent on the assistance and military assistance as well as economic benefits provided by the United States. Approximately since 1947 the U.S. has granted approximately $70 Billion US Dollars but it had little not ultimate control over the policy making affairs of Pakistan. Pakistan blamed United States of America for betraying during the times of need while U.S. believed Pakistan for not fulfilling the status of Most Allied Ally that it has granted to the former for the sake of the containment of the rising communists threats within South Asia. Mian (2012) diagnoses Pakistan alliance with United States of America as more than six decades old. Pak-U.S. relations often claimed as marriage of convenience where both of the stake holders kept on pursuing respective Interests.

Pakistan kept on blaming U.S. for continuous betrayal and previously while being a foremost non NATO ally in the Global War against terror Pakistan border area was attacked by the collation forces and raid on compound in Abbottabad provided evident proof of betrayal. While The United States of America declares Pakistan as duplicitous and blames the government of General Musharraf for diverting the aid granted to crush the enemies of United States of America utilizing it for latter's own interest.

Pakistan-United States of America relations: The beginning

Pakistan sought independence from the British colonized Indian Subcontinent in 1947 and Pak-U.S. relations are as old as the independence of the former. On the one side Pakistan soon after its creation have to face the aggression of very neighbour India which was against its emergence and it ""left no stone unturned" to undo Pakistan. On the second side America was entangled in the precarious Cold War rivalry with Soviet Union, Pakistan established congenial America as the former wanted to contain Indian threat and United States of America tended to contain the expanding dominance of USSR in South Asia so the alliance of Pak-U.S. was marriage of convenience, whereas India remained attached with Non Aligned status. Pakistan signed Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement with America and sought refuge in establishing alliance with United States. Sattar (2013) Pakistan was made friend of America because the later wanted to promote its interests in South Asian region.

In 1954 Pakistan joined of America in its defence pact "SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) and next year in 1955 also became the part of another defence agreement CENTO (Central Treaty Organization)" (Jalal, 2014). Pakistan-united states relations from the beginning bonded in a congenial manner but it could not pass the test of time. In the mid of 1960's U.S. imposed unilateral embargo upon Pakistan while keeping India with opportunity and same was the deal in 1971 (Markey, 2014). Pak-U.S. relations during 1970's were sour as because America was against the Pakistan's objective to procure nuclear technology as it contradicts its nuclear non-proliferation policy. Soon after USSR attack on Afghanistan in 1979 Pak-U.S. transformed into a new phase of cooperation as United States of America tended to disintegrate Soviet Union while establishing congenial relationship with Pakistan along with provision of military and economic assistance.

Waheed (2017) opines that Pak-U.S. relations estranged after the soviets fall in Afghanistan in 1989 and with the beginning of Post-Cold war politics. During the decade of 1990's Pakistan-United States relations faced estrangement because Pakistan was equipping itself with Nuclear Technology with the U.S. disliked. The problematic relation then enters into a new phase of strategic engagement once again when America needed Pakistan's support in Global war against terrorism in Afghanistan. The Global war against terrorism brought the two disenchanted allies together (RIEDEL, 2011). Pakistan-United States commenced soon after the independence of Pakistan and most of the time the strategic partnership of the two passed through the ear of mistrust and suspicion. The relation between the two consists of ups and downs, trust and trust deficit, loyalty and betrayal. Pak-U.S. relations depends upon the convergence and divergence of Benefits of both of the Sates.

The period of Cold war politics (1945-1990) and the unipolar world of 1990's (with the disintegration of USSR) along with the change in Global Political scenario with the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 Pak-U.S. relations passed through numerous trough and crest, the entire alliance has problematics to unveil.

Table 1 Changing Strategic Environment and Pakistan: A Comparative Assessment

Period###State of Cold War###Importance of Pakistan to###Remarks

###Tensions###the US (and the West)

1950s###High###- High###Developments in Middle

###_###- Military alliance###East and Iran

###- Massive military aid

1960s###Detente###- Reduces###China moves closer to Pakistan to

###,###- Low after 1965 sanctions###reduce US influence

###China-Pakistan strategic

###relationship starts

1970s###Mild till 1978 (when Second Cold###- Low, in spite of###- China's support for nuclear

###War###"tilt" in###programme - Strong US non-

###starts)###1971###proliferation pressures

###- Increased pressure

###on non- proliferation

###- US embassy burned

1980s###Intense###- Very high###- China supplies ballistic missiles

###"Frontline state" to fight the

###soviet union in Afghanistan

###- Massive military and

###economic

###assistance

###- Pakistan's nuclear

###weapons programme ignored

1990s###- By 1990 soviet###- Very low###.

###Union starts to disintegrate###- Sanctions and

###- End of Cold War###arms embargo

###- Afghanistan - experiments###,

###(Mujahideen and later

###Taliban) backfire)

2000s###- 9/11 and the war against###- "Frontline state"###Pakistan's role in creation of

###terrorism - Increasing importance###again, this time###Taliban and Al Qaeda ignored,

###of access to energy resources of###against "global terrorism"###and US engagement with, and

###Central Asia###- Taliban and Al Qaeda###support for, Pakistan increasing

###- Iraq War###escape into Pakistan###,

###Concerns about radical

###Islam

###and Al Qaeda in and from

###Pakistan

Content analysis: The up given table explains the detail analysis of Pakistan America relations. Pak-U.S. alliance came into existence soon after the independence of the former in 1947 and the relationship consists of crests and troughs depending upon the need of the time. From the very beginning during 1950s the relationship was its peaks as Pakistan signed defence pacts and in return got military and economic aid. Further this table depicts the depiction of Pakistan and United States engagement and the respective ups and downs, high and low points of the long mistrusted relationship. The United State assisted Pakistan with military and economic assistance in 1950's and in 1980's. Onwards in 1990's when United States interests waned in the region it cut off assistance and imposed sanctions to impede Pakistan from building its nuclear weapons.

Deconstructing the Problematic Relations of Pakistan and America Deconstructing the problematics of Pak-U.S. relations de/constructs the various dimensions of long standing relation. This research article unveils the numerous problematics of Pak-U.S. relations which resulted in estrangement of the relationship. Pak-U.S. bonded in an alliance for more than six decades but the relation never remain on a smooth path rather passed through ups and downs. International political system is all about getting maximum and giving minimum, national interest is vital and sacred to all other arrangements. Tumultuous nature of Pak-U.S. from a realistic perspective is all about the varying national interest of America in the South Asian region. Pakistan allied with America soon after its independence, from the Pakistan perspective it formed an alliance with U America to secure its newly got independence status while America allied with Pakistan to contain the Soviet Union from expanding.

The problem lied in miscalculation f om both of the sides of partnership which later on identified as betrayal and mistrust. Pakistan signed defence agreements with America for a purpose to get its support against Indian aggression but met with sanctions during the time of need in 1965 and 1971. United States of America betrayed Pakistan along with imposed embargo, mistrust in Pakistan cultivated and later on in 1971 trust deficit increased. Afterwards in 1974 India exploded nuclear devices which was a major issue of concern for Pakistan as India emerged a Nuclear State and Balance of Power tilted towards India, Pakistan under Bhutto's leadership tended to Balance the Power and to build nuclear technology for peaceful purposes but U.S. went against her Ally. Relations between Pakistan and America estranged whenever the former needed the later.

While most of the time during the promotion of American interests in South Asian region further Pak-U.S relations reached at zenith of friendship, loyalty, love and cooperation. During the Soviets invasion of Afghanistan the decade of Pak-U.S. was congenial as U.S. needed Pakistan strategically in defeating the Russians but soon its interest waned the relations estranged. The problem is with the U.S. strategy while dealing with Pakistan whenever U.S. interest waned she betrayed Pakistan and left far behind alone to face the consequences. War on terror and Pakistan-United States relations took the reoccurring pattern of alliance when U.S. needed Pakistan to once again attack Afghanistan came closer to Pakistan.

Pakistan's mistrust raised with the activity of Raymond Davis and when the U.S. initiated the drone strikes on Pakistan surface and the Salala check post massacre, another problem of Pak-U.S. alliance is United States alone withdrawal from Afghanistan and lastly the President Trump administration and its "Do more" policy dealing with Pakistan.

Table 2 Loss of Pakistan in war against terrorism

Year###Civilians###Security Force###Terrorists/Insurgents###Total

###Personnel

2003###140###24###25###189

2004###435###184###244###863

2005###430###81###137###648

2006###608###325###538###1471

2007###1522###597###1479###3598

2008###2155###654###3906###6715

2009###2324###991###8389###11704

2010###1796###469###5170###7435

2011###2738###765###2800###6303

2012###3007###732###2472###6211

2013###3001###676###1702###5379

2014###1781###533###3182###5496

2015###940###339###2403###3682

2016###308###151###623###1082

Total###21185###6521###33070###60776

Content analysis: The up given table explains the in depth analysis of Pakistan-America relationship and the losses Pakistan has beard in becoming the ally of America. Further in the up given table the losses of Pakistan in the global war on terror in the form of Human lives depicts the sacrifices which the Pakistani's has given to secure the world and the Part of its Alliance with America. More than 60000 people lost their lives as Pakistan was main non NATO ally of America. More than 6000 security personnel which include officer rank civil and military lost their lives in war against terrorism. More than 22000 innocent civilian also lost their lives as the result of global war that have nothing to do with war.

Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan:

Pakistan and United States of America relations have a history of mutual trust and mutual distrust, complexes, convergence and divergence, cooperation and coercion, in spite of all the problems and complexities, ups and downs Pakistan faces numerous challenges and has myriad opportunities to be in an alliances America. Challenges that Pakistan phases are given below along with the opportunities for Pakistan:

Challenges:

Pakistan being the frontline State in the war against terror faced security threats which have caused various problems for Pakistan.

* Given the various challenges to Pakistan in her association with U.S. Domestic economic, social problems which gave rise due to insecurity created by Pakistan alliance with U.S. in the Global war against terrorism against Afghanistan.

* Public outrage in the shape of Anti-Americanism once happened in the form of destroying U.S. Embassy in late 1970's and the cases like that of Raymond Davis should be dealt with care in Pakistan for the future promotion of Pak-U.S. alliance.

* Another harsh reality lies in the form of sentiment present among the masses of anti-Americanism which has to be removed.

* It is to make it clear to United States of America that Pakistan always supported her interest so she should also consider the difficulties of Pakistan.

Opportunities for Pakistan:

* Pakistan-U.S. relations are of vital significance for Pakistan as United States of America is a global hegemon and it can assist Pakistan in procuring its goals from International community and most importantly from its neighbor in East India.

* The problematic relationship between the two states is favorable for realigning with America and making sure the calculated significance of Pakistan in the South Asian region.

* Most importantly the Protection of Pakistani

National interest in international Arena

* The study Area of this research primarily concerns with Pakistan and America it will be beneficial for mending the long standing complex relationship of both the States and for initiating new horizons of cooperation and development and mutual progress in Pakistan. Specifically The crisis in Afghanistan.

* Pakistan internal security issues be mended as with Peace in Afghanistan.US-Pakistan relations on the right move can also secure Pakistan National interest world-wide.

* Pak-U.S. relations make clear to India that Pakistan Also has friends in international community.

* Furthermore the need of this particular research work is initial to solve the contemporary issues prevailing between Pak-US relations.

* Moreover a renewed approach will be inculcated in the present analysis of the situation and which will clear the nature of relationship and further allying with each other

Conclusion

Pakistan and American relations have a history of mutual trust and mutual distrust, complexes, convergence and divergence, cooperation and coercion, in spite of all these problems and complexities, ups and downs Pakistan-United States has its own vital significance for both of the States as both the states need each other. Pakistan-America relations grew and faded as the interests of America either completely gained or lost in comparison with its alliance with Pakistan. Mostly Pak-U.S. relationship bases upon mutual trust and distrust. United States has betrayed Pakistan during the times of need and supported its enemy which gave rise to the level of mistrust in Pakistan. The complexity of Pak-American cooperation lies in the contrast of U.S. foreign policy decisions during the similar situations.

The mistrust of Pak - U.S. friendship resulted in seeking of more allies for securing the interests of Pakistan. Further Pakistan engagement with America is of vital significance as United States of America is a global hegemon and Pakistan being a developing State needs U.S. assistance in various matters ("technology, modern military equipment and economic affairs"). Pakistan faces numerous challenges and has myriad opportunities for Pakistan to be in alliances with the United States of America. In spite of all the problems and challenges it is beneficial for Pakistan to ally with America for the protection and promotion of its various interests.

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Author:Syed Nouman Ali Shah and Dr. Gulshan Majeed
Publication:Journal of Political Studies
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Dec 14, 2019
Words:6904
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