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Debussy the man, his music, and his legacy: an overview of current research.

An inscrutable man, born in a working-class family and yet aristocratic in his tastes and values; a self-defining composer who both built on and went beyond the techniques and aesthetics of the times; and an emblem of France, at home and abroad, since his death in 1918--Claude Debussy (b. 1862) and his music have continued to fascinate and elude us. Remaining mysterious, after all, was a personal as well as musical ideal. Did he not once tell a critic, "When will people respect our mystery. even to ourselves?" (1) More than a hundred dissertations have been written, starting with Archibald T. Davison's "The Harmonic Contributions of Claude Debussy" (Harvard, 1908). Recently, new histories have shed light on what French identity meant to Debussy and Debussystes; monographs, largely analytical, have focused on individual works, genres, and theoretical approaches; and three short books have been written for the general public. (2) But since Francois Lesure's "critical biography" of 1994, (3) there has been no new full-scale scholarly examination of the composer and his oeuvre.

The project to understand Debussy and his music--largely collective--began with Numero special consacre a la memoire de Claude Debussy, ed. Andre Suares, Revue musicale 2 (1920). Then came the 1962 centenary, with the founding of the Debussy Museum in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, an exhibition at the Bibliotheque nationale de France, another special issue of Revue musicale, an international symposium, and performances in Paris and abroad.4 Research on Debussy grew more international after an American, Margaret G. Cobb, founded the Centre de documentation Claude Debussy in Paris in 1972, (5) Lesure created the Cahiers Debussy in 1974, publishing its articles in English and French, and American Musicological Society (AMS) sessions on the composer in 1982 and 1985 gave rise to a sense of community among Anglophone Debussy scholars. Since 1985, they have produced seven of the sixteen volumes of the new Debussy Oeuvres completes, and edited seven multiauthored books on the composer (6)--fitting as the composer was quite the Anglophile.(7) Moreover, Debussy has increasingly been a subject of discussion at American Musicological Society/Society for Music Theory meetings since 2004, where special sessions were devoted to him in 2010 and 2012.

So it should not be surprising that, 150 years after Debussy's birth, celebrations have also been collective, communal, and international: four conferences (their proceedings forthcoming), all accompanied by performances, as well as a major exhibition in Paris traveling to Tokyo. (8) Colleagues from around the world have delivered over 150 papers (with few duplications). In the Paris colloque, dedicated to the memory of Lesure (hereinafter, Paris 2012), topics ranged from literary affinities, analysis, and historical performances, to politics, reception, and historiography; in Brussels (hereinafter, Brussels 2011) speakers focused on artistic and literary contexts; in Montreal (hereinafter, Montreal 2012) on Debussy's language and legacy; and in London (hereinafter, London 2012) on music and text. In addition, the 2011 meeting of the Congres Europeen d'Analyse Musicale (Rome) featured a Debussy session (hereinafter, Rome 2011).

This article reviews research over the past decade. Besides these conference papers, recently published are new editions of Debussy's correspondence and his music, related books and articles, and three essay collections: edited by Simon Trezise (2003), by Barbara Kelly and Kerry Murphy (2007), and by Elliott Antokoletz and Marianne Wheeldon (2011). (9) Cahiers Debussy, the major European venue for Debussy scholarship, publishes annually not only articles, but also lists of performances and recordings, as well as of letters and scores selling through auction houses. Finally, the exhibition catalog, Debussy: La musique et les arts (see n. 1)--the fruit of fifteen years of preparation--features six essays, along with images of Debussy's friends, tastes, and influences.

As one might predict, much of this work emphasizes Debussy's excep-tionalism, in terms of his style, his oeuvre, his way of handling outside influences, his manner of working in interdisciplinary contexts, and his impact on others. And when focused on Debussy the man, scholarship continues to build on the biographies of Edward Lockspeiser (10) and Francois Lesure. At the same time, serious attention is now given to earlier biographies, such as by Charles Koechlin (1927) and Leon Vallas (1932), and the unique perspectives of Vladimir Jankelevitch and Andre Schaeffner. When it comes to his music, Debussy's opera Pelleas et Melisande still captures the greatest interest, but recently discovered scores and new editions of unfinished works are introducing us to music previously unavailable. As in 1962, scholars continue to investigate tonality, timbre, and time in Debussy's music, his aesthetic in the context of painting and symbolist poetry, and reception of his music abroad. But interest is also turning to discontinuity and instability in his works, to using Schenker to study form, looking at gestural aspects, studying period recordings, and tracing Debussy's spirit as far as Japan, Brazil, and Mexico. As for his legacy, more than his influence on later avant-garde composers such as Messiaen and Boulez--a focus since the 1970s--it is now the uses and meanings ascribed to Debussy's music in the 1920s and 1940s, together with postmodem concerns like race and politics, that stimulate engagement. Certainly Debussy was a pioneer of modernism; he was also deeply rooted in his times, his reputation linked to the discourses that helped to construct it. Scholars seem to genuinely love Debussy's music, their work infused with passion and enthusiasm. From them, we learn better why Debussy emerged as so important in French culture--some have argued even more so after his death.


For its capacity to shed light on Debussy's life and lay a strong foundation for future research, there is no more important recent publication than the Correspondance: over 3,000 letters, mostly from Debussy and housed at the Bibliotheque nationale de France, plus contracts with his publishers. (11) Other letters continue to surface--Debussy's last ones to his daughter (12) and those frequently appearing in auction catalogs. We now know more about Debussy's ancestors since the seventeenth century (13), but we are still missing Debussy's correspondence with his parents. Robert Orledge has commented on how Debussy's shame about his background may have been responsible for being "selfish, stand-offish, and insecure." Given that he signed at first as "Achille de Buss"--perhaps a result of being "snobbishly billed" as such at his first public concert (14)--and not definitively "Claude" until 1892, it would be fascinating to learn not only his reflections on the Vasnier family and the Villa Medici, but also how he negotiated his shift of class identification.

From the contracts, I was surprised that the first one with Durand in 1889 was for his two pianos/four hands arrangement of Saint-Saens's Introduction et rondo capriceioso, op. 28'5. For this "ADebussy" was paid 100 francs. A few pages later we learn that Debussy received the same amount to arrange Saint-Saens's Les airs de ballet d'Etienne Marcel, 250 francs for his. Second Symphony in 1890, and 150 francs for his Caprice sur des airs de ballet d'Alceste de Cluck in 1891. "It's tough, one's daily bread," he admitted to Robert Godetm especially because during that same year the major publisher Choudens paid him only 200 francs for his own Suite bergamasque. Not wanting to teach, perform, or accept many commissions, unfortunately he died owing Durand 66,235 francs. Nonetheless, as analyzed by Denis Heflin (17) these contracts, together with the archives at Societe des auteurs, compositeurs, et editeurs de musique (SACEM) and Durand, document that Debussy was eventually paid well for his music. His Preludes, book 2, and his Etudes each brought in 12,000 francs. Moreover, in addition to royalties on performances, he received almost as much, in installments, for his unfinished Le diable dans le beffroi (24,000 francs) and for La chute de la maison Usher (25,000) as he got for PeWas (25,666). Heflin thus asks an important question: "What influence did the need for money exert on Debussy's artistic creation between 1909 and 1914?" (18) We know that he would have preferred having a generous patron, someone like Wagner's Ludwig II, but jeux would never have been written without Diaghilev's "persistence and money," and probably many of the other late works as wel1. (19)

Half this Correspondance covers 1907-18, with frequent letters to not only his wife Emma, but also such friends as Andre Caplet, Jacques Durand, Desire-Emile Inghelbrecht, (20) Robert Godet, Louis Laloy, (21) Victor Segalen, and Igor Stravinsky. Scholars are now able to flesh out lesser-known relationships with Alfred Cortot (Paris 2012), Alfredo Casella (Montreal 2012), Paul Dukas, (22) Francisco de Lacerda (Montreal 2012), and his Belgian friends (Brussels 2011). (23) Interestingly, given all the hype some have given to their differences, Debussy seems not to have been preoccupied with Saint-Saens. His name appears only once more in this 2,350-page tome, in discussion with Jacques Durand about Saint-Saens's pedaling of Chopin's music. Debussy remarks, "with all due respects to his advanced age ... Saint-Saens seems to have forgotten that pianists are bad musicians, for the most part, and cut music up into unequal parts, like a chicken." (24)

Besides facsimile editions of the Images pour piano, 2e serif, (Centre de documentation Claude Debussy, 2008) and Chansons: Recueil de melodies dediees a Marie-Blanche Vasnier (Centre Debussy, 2011)., particularly significant are new volumes of the Debussy collected edition, especially Eiko Kasaba's edition (with Pierre Boulez) of Le martyre de saint Sebastien (Oeuvres completes, ser. VI, vol. 4 [2009])--the symphonic fragments due out later this year--and David Grayson's piano-vocal edition of Pelleas et Melisande (ser. VI, vol. 2 [2010]), the full score announced for 20l5. (25) Ka.saba has been working on Le martyre for three decades. (26) The new edition could not come at a better time, given recent scholarly interest in the work by Denis Herlin, Ralph P. Locke and Peter Lamothe. (27) Christophe Grabowski's volume of piano pieces (ser. I, vol. 4 [20041) presents three unknown piano works--a cabaret-style waltz, contrapuntal piece, and "Les soirs illumines par l'ardeur du charbon," a refrain from Baudelaire's "Le balcon," which Debussy set to song; Marianne Wheeldon comments on these "private occasional pieces." (28) We also now have Richard Langham Smith's realization of Rodrigue et Chimene (ser. VI, vol. 1 [2003]), a duo, performed in Montreal (Montreal 2012), and Orledge's edition of unfinished stage works by Debussy: Le roi Lear, Le diable dans le beffroi, and La chute de la maison Usher (ser. VI, vol. 3 [2006]). these analyzed by David Grayson (29) along with Debussy's other stage works. Richard Langham Smith, (30) Roy Howat, (31) and Grayson (London 2012) have explained their working methods--not obvious given that Debussy left some works incomplete. What does one do when an editor has text but no music, or a piano score with minimal indications of orchestration? Orledge has written extensively on the problems of reconstruction (32) and supervised a remarkable 2006 staged performance of La chute in Austin, apparently not heard since reconstructions by Carolyn Abbate (Yale, 1977) and Juan-Allende Blin (Paris, Berlin, 1979). Although he admits to appearing "responsible for slightly more than half the music" and uses the English translation in his piano-vocal score, Orledge has claimed to have based his edition on "the Debussyan origins of virtually every bar" even if Debussy left so few indications about the orchestration. Albeit with its "different tonal and structural plan," what we hear makes numerous sonorous allusions to Pelleas--Orledge has justified this by pointing to the importance of destiny in both librettos. At the same time, while arguing against any move to the neoclassical style of the late sonatas, he has reproduced passages of bitonality. (33)

In their enthusiasm to hear and make available as much of Debussy's music as possible, Debussy scholars have begun to study minor unfinished works as well. Wheeldon (AMS 2009) has examined the layers librettists and critics added to his Ode a la France after he died. (34) Unfortunately I was not able to compare Orledge's realization of Diane au hois, performed in Montreal, (35) with Smith's in London. To mc, Orledge's version of Debussy's Poenze pour violon et orchestre (1910-14) planned for an American tour with the violinist Arthur Hartmann--excerpts of it shared in Paris (Paris 2012)--was more than a "reconstruction" and less convincing than La chute. The Premiere suite (1889), recently analyzed by Jean-Christophe Branger, (36) was premiered in a version for four hands in Paris in 2008, and in a version orchestrated and completed by Philippe Manoury at the Paris conference 2012. This collaboration suggested why Debussy's music still appeals to contemporary composers. (In contrast, at the Paris conference, a concert of works explicitly written in response to Debussy's preludes produced, for the most part, less satisfying results.) Also hearing in Paris the 1909 revision of the Fantaisie for piano and orchestra (1890), not published until 1920 and recently analyzed by Mark DeVoto, (37) helped me understand why, after writing Faun, Debussy might want to rethink this work. The most exciting performance in Paris was Jean-Efflam Bavouzet's Jeux for solo piano, which allowed listeners to hear not only what the dancers rehearsed to, but also how Debussy thought orchestrally, even at the keyboard.

Intriguing newly discovered sketches and drafts are stimulating reflection on how Debussy worked. Paolo Dal Molin has studied Debussy sketches found on a train stub (38) and, with jean-Louis Leleu, sketches for settings of Mallarme poems, purchased by the Bibliotheque nationale de France in 2005, excerpts from it beautifully reproduced in Cahiers Debussy 35 (2011). Matthew Brown has devoted most of his book Debussy's Iberia (39) to showing how sketch studies reveal both Debussy's working methods as a form of problem-solving and his compositional strategies related to continuity and closure. Along with the five early songs discussed at the 2012 AMS/SMT conference and at Paris 2012, Herlin spoke about forgotten songs dispersed in collections from Washington. DC to Stockholm, including .a Rondel chinois (1881), comparing them with those written for Mme Vasnier; Marie Rolf'analyzed (and, with a colleague, performed) an early draft of "CoBogue sentimental," never published, showing "Debussy's decisions as he refined his original vision." At the London conference 2012, she revisited this song in the context of the Fetes galantes in which it was published, tracing the move away from Wagner and the emergence of a new compositional direction.


When it comes to the works, Pelleas et Melisande dominates current research: the subject of a monograph, recent publication of an analysis by Charles Koechlin, (40) more than five essays in the collected volumes cited herein, six conference papers, and a new collective study: Pelleas et Melisande: Cent ans apres: Etudes et documents, ed. Branger, Herlin, and Sylvie Douche (forthcoming from Symetrie). Some have expanded on previous research, such as Barbara Kelly on Pelleas reception, (41) Rolf on symbolism as "compositional agent," (42) and Gianmario Borio on music and drama (Paris 2012), the latter and Richard Langham Smith (43) now emphasizing the influence of Maeterlinck rather than Wagner. From Maeterlinck's comment in Le tresor des humbles, "True life is made of silences" and "silence is the refuge of our souls," I have suggested we revisit silences in the opera (44) for, as Debussy wrote to Pierre Logs on 17 July 1895, "Silence is a beautiful thing and, God knows, the blank measures in Pellias are evidence of my love for this kind of emotion." (45) New perspectives abound on the meaning of the main characters, their voices, and the original singers. While I compared Melisande to Mignon and Ophelie, rooting the work in French tradition ("Melisande's Charm"), Annegret Fauser suggested what she shared with Javanese dancers at the 1889 Exhibition. (46) Particularly original is Elliott Antokoletz's psychoanalytical portrait of these characters in his book written in collaboration with his wife, a psychologist, (47) and his related article. (48) Here Antokoletz explored how the pentatonic-whole-tone conflict in the score mirrors Melisande's existential state, and how the transformational function of music both reflects the unconscious and enacts its fate. Like Antokoletz's focus on trauma, Brown (Paris 2012) has analyzed how the music creates "both terror and suspense." Underlining the impact of performance on meaning, Charles Timbre11 (49) referred to Debussy's desire for singer-actors, and David Grayson (50) looked at the casting choices for Pelleas over the years, and the problem of a role clearly conceived for a tenor but whose notes were often lowered. Likewise, Michela Niccolai (London 2012) in analyzing the original production, Guy Cogeval (51) in reviewing productions since 1902, and Richard Langharn Smith (52) in pointing to recent performances of the play that stressed the characters' symbolic nature, have argued that performers and producers too have advanced our understanding of Debussy's opera.

Debussy's vocal music has also attracted significant scholarly attention. There were seven papers on songs in Paris, six in London (three on text-into-song, three on text-into-performance), six in Montreal, and one in Brussels. Besides Roger Nichols's look at how Debussy set free verse and prose to music, (53) Adrien Bruschini (Paris 2012) and Paul Dworak (Montreal 2012) have examined the Proses lyriques. Jonathan Dunsby (Paris 2012) theorized vocality. Recordings, in particular, were studied for their tempos, rhythms, diction, and musical expression.54 Mylene Dubiau-Feuillerac (Paris 2012) compared Mary Garden's renditions of the Ariettes oubliees with readings of the poems, and Howat (Paris 2012), like Charles Timbre11 ("Debussy in Performance"), compared recordings of Debussy's songs by Maggie Teyte, accompanied by Cortot, with those of Jane Bathori, who condensed and expanded rhythms as she accompanied herself on the piano--singers also studied by Bergeron. (55) Herlin, Steven Huebner, France Lechleiter, and myself have contributed to two volumes on Debussy's large vocal works written for the Prix de Rome competitions, the 2009 essays accompanied by two compact discs; (56) Rolf (57) showed how three of these prepared later masterpieces.

As for Debussy's instrumental music, Nigel Simeone, (58) in studying his expression marks and performance instructions, suggested what nature meant to the composer, a subject to which Carolyn Potter returned in this same volume drawing a parallel between Debussy's belief in "the freedom of nature and an idealized free tnusic." (59) In a recent article and his book, Debussy and the Veil of Tonality, Mark DeVoto took on "the Debussy sound"--what makes his music distinctive--focusing particularly on "Debussy's heterophonic orchestra." (60) The composer Hugues Dufourt concurred, elaborating thus: "Emancipated from symphonic principles, the Debussyan orchestra turned to a succession of primitive impressions ... instrumental colors, at once radiant and raucous, seem suspended by the slipperiness of the chords" (61) This "simultaneous plurality" reached a culmination in faux, on which papers were presented at both Montreal 2012 and Rome 2011. Studies of Debussy's chamber music have remained minimal, except for his String Quartet. Michael Strasser (62) has shown the influence of Grieg on it; David Code (AMS conference 2004, and his 2007 article (63)) has argued that the quartet blends "ironic traditionalism and radical innovation"; Wheeldon has unpacked Franck's influence on the quartet's cyclic design. (64) In The Art of French Piano Music, the fruit of "more than thirty years of playing, editing, teaching, and talking" about it, (65) Howat goes well beyond Marguerite Long's Au piano avec Debussy. (66) He has not only given suggestions for interpretation, but also shown Debussy's indebtedness to various influences, such as Chopin, Spanish and Russian composers. (67) Generously illustrated with music examples, Debussy's pianistic writing is compared to that of his contemporaries in terms of structure, rhythmic games, tempo, and humor.

Debussy's music continues to stimulate theoretical analysis. Some seek to understand tonality in Debussy's music: Boyd Pomeroy, (68) DeVoto (Debussy and the Veil of Innality), Michael Oravitz (AMS 2008), Brown (Rome 2011), and Vasilis Kallis (Rome 2011). DeVoto (Montreal 2012) has argued that the flexibility of the tonal language allows for complex relationships and quick modulations. Theorists have also been studying modality (Domenico Giannetta, Rome 2011), pentatonicism (Jeremy Day-O'Connell, AMS 2006, and 2009 article), scale networks (Dmitri Tymoczko), and aggregate formations (Mark McFarland, SMT 2004, and 2004 article). (69) Others have been focused on cyclicity and repetition--especially Sylveline Bourion (Montreal 2012, and her new book, Le stvle de Debussy (70))--narrative form (Richard Hoffman and Avo Somer), (71) pacing (Richard Parks) (72) time and meaning (Simon Trezise; (73) Jessie Fillet-up, AMS 2010; and Michel Imberty, Rome 2011). Jean-Jacques Nattiez (Montreal conference 2012) presented a study of "poetic/aesthetic discrepancy" in La cathedrate engloutie. Of particular interest is work on the arabesque--a subject harking back to both Poe and Mallarme--by Caroline POtter, (74) Linda Cummins, Gurminder Bhogal, Ralph Locke, and myse1f. (75) Still others are taking inspiration from such theorists as Kurth (Jean-Louis Leleu, Paris 2012), Schenker (James McGowan, Montreal 2012), Roland Barthes (jean-Claire Vancon)., Bergson on how memory is formed (Brian Hyer, AMS 2010) and Deleuze/Guattari on chaos and ecstasy (Michael Klein, AMS 2006 and 2007 article). (76) Julie McQuinn (77) and Code (AMS 2010) have explored seduction and eroticism in Debussy's music, the problematics of male desire and female subjects.

As the dust jacket of Rethinking Debussy puts it, "the Debussy idiom exemplifies the ways in which various disciplines--musical, literary, artistic, philosophical, and psychological--can be incorporated into a single, highly integrated artistic conception." But for decades, scholars have disagreed about whether Debussy was more influenced by symbolism, particularly through poetry, or impressionism, through painting. Lest ire and Stefan Jarocinski bucked tradition by advocating the former, an idealism fraught with paradox and contradictions, (78) but important to contemporary composers like Boulez. In part because of the choice of poetry Debussy set to song, scholars continue to reflect on the influence of Baudelaire (Helen Abbott, London 2012; Howat, London 2012; Michel Lehmann, Montreal 2012; McGowan, Montreal 2012; and Pasler, Brussels 2011), Verlaine (Dubiatt-Feuillerac and Rolf, London 2012), and especially Mallarme (Geoffrey Wilson, AMS 2008; Joseph Acquisto, London 2012; Imberty, Rome 2011; and Elizabeth McCombie and David Code). (79) By advocating a return to hearing this music with "some of the Baudelairean and Mallarmean depths so often effaced by modernist technocratic methods," Code, (80) as Arnold Whittall put it in his review, seemed to be taking aim at Boulez's "uncompromisingly intense take on Mallarme." (81) But Debussy's literary inheritance goes beyond the symbolists, and Linda Cummins has traced "an aesthetic of the unfinished" as far back as Petrarch. (82) Work has also turned to engagement with Debussy's music (or not) by such writers as Proust (Jean-Yves Tadie, Paris 2012) and Cocteau (Malou Haine, Montreal 2012). We have only begun to study Debussy as a writer, with Deirdre Donnellon's essay (83) the sole study in recent years.

Current scholars are much less troubled than earlier by the notion of Debussy's music as impressionist "painting in sound," although impressionism was pejoratively used in 1887 to characterize his Printemps and explicitly rejected by Debussy in 1908. Howat defines its "key technique" as a "new awareness of color relationships." (84) Far more can be said not only about its technical meaning, but also its social-political connotations. Martin Kaltenecker, (85) borrowing from German biographies in the 1920s, has defined impressionist as involving organic form and calling on a new way of listening. One could also point to the physics of vibrations, and the effect of the artist's nervous system on the nature of the impressions. In one of his earliest articles (1899), Emile Vuillermoz suggested, "the progressive refinement of our nerves [by this music] leads us to think that this is the path of musical progress." (86) At the same time, Mallarme associated impressionism with working-class vision and ideology, others with the desire for middle-class empowerment, both of little interest to Debussy. (87)

The most important studies in this regard are Debussy: La musique et les arts, and Jean-Michel Nectoux's elegant Harmonie en bleu et or: Debussy, la musique cites autres arts (Paris: Fayard, 2005), both lavishly illustrated. Nectoux began his contribution to the former (88) by examining the images in photographs and descriptions of Debussy's studio in his later years: not impressionist paintings, but Japanese .engravings and various Asian objects. Michel Duchesneau (Brussels conference 2011) and Mary Breatnach (London conference 2012) also took Debussy's interest in Japonisme seriously, specifically the influence of Hokusai, also analyzed in Howat's The Art of French Piano Music. In addition, Nectoux, in both his essay and book, pointed to Debussy's relationship with the sculptors Camille Claudel and Rodin. In the end, Nectoux found Debussy's aesthetic of mystery to be symbolist most of all, with Jean-David Jumeau-Lafond suggesting that the composer shared with Roderick Usher "the search for the bizarre and the peculiar." (89) Yet, impressionists too sought to renew a sense of the mystery of life, using art to explore the fleeting moment and reveal the deep intuitions of the unconscious. Moreover, Debussy: La musique .et les arts' cover image by Henri-Edmond Cross suggests connections to neoimpressionism, with which Debussy shared a certain sense of musical line and return to traditional values (folk songs), while the paintings by postimpressionists Serusier and Nabis here featured point to the intimate connection between form and color in Debussy's later music. What is important, I would argue, is to recognize that Debussy's music changed over time, as did various styles in painting, and cannot be reduced to, one aesthetic or another.

Scholarship on Debussy's relationship to dance continues to focus on convergences and dissonances with Nijinsky (John McGinness, AMS 2004; Samuel Dorf, AMS 2008; and Gianfranco Vinav, Paris 2012), along with other choreographers who have worked with his music (Stephane Sawas, Paris 2012). In addition, three new directions have emerged. First, David Code ("Debussy's String Quartet"), August Sheehy (Montreal 2012), and Francesco Spaminato (Montreal 2012) have investigated the gestural aspects of Debussy's music. Second, among those working on the influence of early music on the composer, Howat (The Art of French Piano Music) has studied the influence of the clavecinistes' baroque dances. Herlin as well as Pasler (Composing the Citizen, and Paris 2012) have discussed the larger context and political meaning of this influence. (90) Third, scholars have taken special interest in "Golliwog's Cakewalk," examined for its complex potential meanings more than as a pastiche of Wagner. Deaville (AMS 2006) contrasted it to the Viennese waltz, Philippe Gumplowicz (Paris 2012) interrogated questions of race, Davinia Caddy and Lindy Smith the Parisian context. (91)

Debussy's attraction to and use of non-Western music has been explored anew by Fauser (Musical Encounters at the Paris World's Fair), Michael Fend (Paris 2012), Howat (The Art of French Piano Music), Locke ("Unacknowledged Exoticism"), and Pasler (Composing the Citizen). (92) But in his entry on Debussy in a recent dictionary of orientalists, (93) Francois Picard, a Chinese music specialist, has argued that Debussy's "supposed exoticism," particularly his use of the whole tone scale and pentatonicism, was a "personal invention," not the influence of Asian music he may have heard. His reasons: "no traditional music studied during the last century by ethnomusicologists has confirmed the supposed existence of whole tone scales." (94)

Political questions continue to permeate scholarship, particularly Debussy's "nationalism." Stridently anti-republican, though the beneficiary of a decade-long Conservatoire education and a state-funded production of Pelleas at the Opera-Comique, in 1909 he nevertheless explained, "I've sought especially to become French .again." "Silent between the opposing camps" during the Dreyfus Affair, Gumplowicz writes, "his cultural nationalism increased until it exploded during the Great War. ... Indifferent to political affiliations, Debussy was ... seeking what would be the quintessence of the nation." (95) But what did this mean? In part, Debussy wished to be seen as Rameau's successor." (96) As discussed below, it took his death for his meaning to come into focus.

Intimately related to all this was Debussy's reception abroad. Michael Christofordis has examined what Albeniz's and de Falla's music meant to Debussy (AMS 2004). Building on perspectives presented in the Revue musicale (1920) and at the 1962 Paris symposium, recent studies of the influence of Debussy's music on foreign composers have turned to Brazilian composers such as Vi11a-Lobos, (97) Takemitsu in japan (Tomoko Deguchi, AMS 2010, and Paris 2012), and American composers. (98) Scholars have also investigated public reception of his music in Belgium (Brussels 2011), Canada (Montreal 2012), Italy (Paris 2012), Mexico (Montreal 2012), Poland (Paris 2012), the U.K. (Paris 2012), and the United States ("Debussy in Daleville," Paris 2012, Montreal 2012). (99) In his study of Debussy at the Proms in London, Michel Rapoport (Paris 2012) showed that before the 1970s, Debussy was way behind Wagner, and, among French composers, less performed than Berlioz, Saint-Saens, and Ravel; jeux was not performed before 1960. Later this changed and he moved ahead of Ravel. In the United States, Tobias Fasshauer has studied Debussy in Sousa's repertoire (Montreal 2012) and Rolf (Montreal 2012) shattered our assumptions about the Marche ecossaise's Scottish origin--in fact it was commissioned by an American, albeit incorporating a bagpiping tune. Sylvia Kahan (Paris 2012, Montreal 2012) and Fauser (Paris 2012) took a close look at the critical reception of Debussy in the U.S. While the former compared it to the American reception of Thomas Ades, the latter argued for Debussy as representing the anti-Germanic ultramodern. Unfortunately, other than the systematic work documenting orchestral music in Lille by Guy Gosselin, richly illustrated with concert programs, (100) scholars have yet to focus on the place of Debussy's music in concert life in France and how this changed over time, nor have they looked at it in various venues, including the radio.


Debussy's legacy, we are learning, is as much the product of the discourse surrounding his music as his musical decisions, and of critics as much as composers. Certainly les apaches, Ravel's circle of friends, did all they could to promote Debussy's music, beginning with attending dozens of the first performances of Pelleas. (101) Barbara Kelly (102) has shown, however, that when Les Six rejected Debussy, Ravel was caught in the middle. Jane Harrison (AMS 2010) has drawn attention to the equally important impact his music had on minor composers who, as it became fashionable, transformed his innovations into normative procedures. Wheeldon (Paris 2012) has suggested that Debussy may even have changed his style in response to the Debussystes in order not to fall into "self-imitation."

After the war, in part because Debussy had stood up to the Germans and written patriotic music, he achieved broad association with Frenchness, so long coveted. Wheeldon (103) and Danick Trottier (104) have looked carefully at hommages to the composer, such as in the Revue musicale (1920), with its eight articles, reports from abroad, and Le tombeau de Debussy--ten commissioned compositions by such composers as Bartok, Ravel, Stravinsky, Satie, Roussel, and Dukas. But not the "usual panegyrics," Wheeldon noticed many "unflattering appraisals" here, tributes that "dwell almost entirely on works drawn from earlier in his career," and a stunning disparity with "the composer's desired legacy" as articulated by the lineage he wished to evoke in his late works. (105) At Montreal and at a conference in Ottawa (October 2011), Wheeldon and Kelly, with their various interpretations, have reignited debates over the meaning of Debussysme in the 1920s, returning to the disagreements between Vuillermoz, Vallas, and Prunieres over what image of Debussy should prevail. (106)

Scholars are also beginning to consider the purposes to which Debussy and his music were put before, during, and after the next war. The historian Pascal Ory, in his paper on cultural memory (Paris 2012), argued that Debussy's posthumous reputation, his music taken to represent the inversion of German attributes, came to be associated with that of France after war. The Debussy cult was never more pronounced than under Vichy when the composer was identified as someone who resisted, and in 1955 as someone who helped liberate the country. (107)

Also fascinating has been new work on Andre Schaeffner. Nicolas Southon has studied his correspondence with Marcel Dietschy, some of the longer letters reproduced in one of his articles. (108) This began with Schaeffner's review of Dietschy's biography of Debussy (see n. 4), and the latter's objection to the former's article on Debussy and Russian music, commissioned by Pierre Souvtchinsky for his two-volume Musique russe (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1953). From Dietschv's perspective, Schaeffner's passion had led to affirmations without substantiation a la Vallas; Schaeffner concurred that Debussy was for him the subject of "adoration" that led him to musicology. If Schaeffner focused on "the intellectual climate, the affiliations, the genius of Debussy," Dietschy was more interested in Debussy the man. Indeed, many chapters of Dietschy's book begin with the composer's relationship with a woman. At the Paris conference 2012, Southon concentrated on Schaeffner--from his objections to Jankelevitch to the vision of the composer Boulez shared in a letter to him, arguing for Jeux as Debussy's masterpiece rather than Pelleas.

Scholars are still dissecting Debussy's influence on Messiaen (Yves Balmer and Christopher Murray, Paris 2012; and Timothy Cochran, AMS 2011). Arnold Whittall (109) has reviewed Debussy's importance for various composers over the years, But Boulez's generation perhaps did most to shape the next era of Debussy's legacy. Jennifer Iverson (AMS 2008, 2011) has analyzed the influence of jeux on Ligeti; Matthew Greenbaum (SMT 2004) Debussyan structures in Wolpe; Klein (SMT 2006) Debussyan temporality in Lutoslawski; and Anne-Sylvie Barthel-Calvet (Paris 2012) Xenakis's take on Debussy. Laurent Feneyrou (Paris 2012) has revisited Jean Barraque's analysis of La mer. Hugues Dufourt (110) represents French spectralists who later built on Debussy's sense of color. A new compact disc of experimental music based on Debussy, including music by Alvin Lucier, was issued in 2003. (111)

Lastly, as elsewhere in American musicology and theory, scholars are now looking at Debussy's place and meaning in popular culture. Fauser (Paris 2012) pointed to Debussy's music in 1940s films, and Clair de lune at the end of the 2001 release Ocean's Eleven, .played while the gangsters face the Bellagio Hotel fountains--an image hard to get out of one's head. Matthew Brown's new book, Debussy Redux, (112) has gone farthest, as engaging as it is imaginative in its analytical choices. The notion of high and low culture, Brown argued, is artificial and exaggerated (as it has long been in France, 1 would add). Schenker is used to tease out similarities between Debussy's music and various popular transformations of it. Included is "Reverie" by the rock band Queen and an analysis of leitmotifs in the film Portrait of Jenny (1943), as compared with those in Pelleas these works sharing a similar dramatic structure. Debussy's influence on Duke Ellington and Chick Corea come to light, but without mentioning Cecil Taylor. Even Martha Stewart's Easy Listening collection does not escape analysis.

With all these reasons to revisit Debussy, his music, and his legacy, we eagerly await the next big Debussy celebration--the centenary of his death in 2018. More critical editions will be out, more letters and historic recordings unearthed, and a new generation of listeners to engage. In original and provocative ways, scholars have plumbed the depths of individual pieces, techniques, and perspectives. What is needed in every domain is the long view, including engagement with how the questions we ask have evolved over time, taken various forms in the work of our predecessors, and might even be revisited in the future. How did Debussy think of genre over the long term, tonality, timbre, and time? How has his influence on successive composers affected how we hear his music as well as theirs? And what are we missing by insisting on Debussy's exceptionalism? As Arnold 'Whittall put it, "the story of 'Debussy now' is, above all, a story of unfinished business." (113)


On the 150th anniversary of Debussy's birth, after four international conferences, this review of research in the past decade focuses on the man, his music, and his legacy. Debussy's opera Pelleas et Melisande and his songs continue to capture the greatest interest, and scholars continue to investigate tonality, timbre, and time; his aesthetic in the context of painting, poetry, and dance; and reception and influence of his music, at home and abroad. The recent publication of 3,000 letters (2005), new critical editions of his music (including unfinished works), and the discovery of sketches, song drafts, and other little-known documents, along with study of historical recordings, have opened new perspectives and laid new foundations for future scholarship. Recent histories have shed light on what French identity meant to Debussy and Debussystes, especially in the 1920s and 1940s. Newest of all is study of Debussy's place and meaning in popular culture.

(1.) "Quand respectera-t-on notre mystere a nous?" in "M. Claude Debussy et la musique sacree." Comoedia. 18 May 1911; quoted by jean-David jumeau-Lafond," 'Du cote de I'ombre.: Debussy symboliste," in the exhibition catalog Debussy: La musique et les arts, ed. Guy Cogeval (Paris: Skira Flammarion, 2012), 57, and n. 2. See also Vladimir jankelevitch, Ddbussy et le mystere de l'instant, De la musique au silence, 2 (Paris: Plon, 1976).

(2.) Victor Lederer, Debussy, the Quiet Revolutionary, Unlocking the Masters Series, 13 (New York: Amadeus, 2007). CD included. Paul Roberts, Claude Debussy, 20th-Century Composers (Loud, York: Phaidon, 2008). David Code, Debussy, Critical Lives (London: Reaktion, 2010).

(3.) Francois Lesure, Claude Debussy: Biographic critique (Paris: Klincksieck, 1994; Paris: Fayard, 2003).

(4.) These are documented in Claude Debussy: 1862-1962; Livre d'or, Revue musicale, numero special 258 (1964), along with Debussy letters, and articles by Maurice Emmanuel (career ambitions: "Les ambitions de Claude-Achille," 33-40), Francoise Gervais ("Structures Debussystes." 77-88), and Vladimir Jankelevitch ("L'immediat chez Debussy." 89-97), an mg others. Contributors to Debussy et Piambition de la musique an XXe siecle, Paris, 24-31 octobre 1962. ed. Edith Weber, Colloques internationaux du Centre national de la recherche scientilique, Sciences litinulines (Paris: CNRS, 1965). included Edward Lockspeiser ("Quelques problemes de la psychologie de Debussy," 141-50), Stefan jarocinski ("Quelques aspects de I'univers sonore de Debussy." 167-87). Andre Schaeffner ("Debussy et ses rapports avec la peinture," 151-66). Francoise Geryais ("Debussy et In it tonalite." 97-107), Ernest Ansermet (phenomenolory: "Le langage de Debussy." 33-15). jean Barraque ("Debussy ou l'approche d'une organization autogene de in composition." 83-95). Francois Lesure ("Debussy et Edgard Varese." 333-38), Hans-Heinz Stuckenschmich ("L'influence de Debussy: Antriche et Allemagne." 241-61), William Austin ("Quelques connaissances et opinions de Schoenberg et Webern sur Debussy." 319-31), arid Andre Souris (Bachelard: "Poetique musicale de Debussy," 133-39). among others. Vladimir Jankelevitch let lured beture two of the seven concerts organized by the Revue musicale for the centennial. Marcel Dietschy's La passion de Claude Debussy (Neuchatel: Baconniere, 1962) was also published, later appearing in English as .4 Portrait of Claude Debussy, ed. and trans. William Ashbrook and Margaret Cobb (Oxford: Clarendon. 1990; reprint 1994).

(5.) See the center's Web site: (accessed 21 August 2012). On the Centre Debussy's beginnings. see Roy Howat, "Afterword: The Origins of the Oeuvres contpletes de Claude Debussy" in Berlioz and Debussy: Sources, Contexts and Legacies: Essays in Honour ol Francois Lemur. ed. Barbara L. Kell', and Kerry Murphy (Aldershot, Eng.: Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007). 181-92.

(6.) See below, and Richard Langham Smith and Roger Nichols, Mills et Melisande, Cambridge Opera Handbooks (CaMbridge; NeW York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). Debussy Studies, ed. Richard Langham Smith (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997). Debussy in Performance, ed. lames R. Briscoe (New Haven, CI: Yale Uniersity Press, 1999). Debussy and His World, ed. Jane Fulcher, Raid Music Festival Series (Princeton, NI: Princeton University Press, 2001).

(7.) Robert Orledge, "Debussy the Man," in Cambridge' Companion to Debussy, ed. Simon Trezise. bridge Companions to Music (Cambridge; New Vint: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 14-15.

(8.) For the program of the "Colloque international Claude Debussy (1862-1918)," Paris, 2-5 February 2012, see (accessed 21 August 2012); for the program of the colloque international "L'heritage de Claude Debussy: Du reve pour les generations futures." Universite de Montreal. 29 February-3 March 2012, see (accessed 21 August 2012): "Bruxelles on in convergence des arts," colloque international. Brussels. 24-26 November 2011; International Debussy Symposium, "Debussy Text and Idea." Gresham College, London, 12-13 April 2012; and the exhibition. Debussy: La musique et les arts, Musee de I'Orangerie. Paris, 22 February-11 June 2012; and Bridgestone Museum of Art, Tokyo, 14 July-14 October 2012; exhibition catalog cited inn. 1.

(9.) The Cambridge Companion to Debussy, ed. Simon Trezise (2003); Berlioz and Debussy, ed. Barbara L. Kelly and Kerry Murphy (2007); and Rethinking Debussy, ed. Elliott Antokoletz and Marianne Wheelclon (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). See also French Music since Berlioz, ed. Richard Longhorn Smith and Carolyn. Potter (Aldershot, Eng.; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006), and Brian Hart's review of it in Musk & Letters 89, no. 2 (2008): 266-70; and French Music, Culture, and National Identity, 1870-1939, ed. Barbara L. Kelly, Eastman Studies in Music, 54 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2008).

(10.) Edward Lockspeiser. Debussy (New York: Dutton; London: Dent, 1936, 1949, 1980).

(11.) Claude Debussy, Correspondance 1872-19/8, ed. Francois Lesure and Denis Herlin, with additional annotations by George Liebert (Paris: Gallimard, 2005). See .also Arthur Hartmann, "Claude Debussy As I knew Him" and Other Writings of Arthur Hartmann. ed. Samuel Hsu, Sidney Grolnic, and Mark Peters, Eastman Studies in Music, 24 (Rochester, NT: University of Rochester Press; 2004). Readers can consult (accessed 21 August 2012) for letters in U.S. public institutions.

(12.) Jose Eduardo Martins, "Les trois dernieres lettres connues de Chouchou Debussy," Cahiers Debussy, 31 (2007): 77-81.

(13.) Francois Raymond, "Courcelles-sous-Grignon, berceau des ancetres de Claude Debussy: Quelques precisions genealogiques," Cahiers Debussy 33 (2009): 51-60.

(14.) Orledge, "Debussy the Man," 10. The author also comments on some "sinister undercurrents" in Debussy's character, opinions, and relationships with others.

(15.) Correspondance, 69.

(16.) Ibid., 79.

(17.) "An Artist High. and Low, or, Debussy and .Money." trans. Vincent. Giroud, in Rethinking Debussy, 149-202.

(18.) Ibid., 166.

(19.) Ibid..168. See also Robert Orledge, "Debussy, Durand et Cie: A French -Composer and his Publisher (1884-1917)," in. The Business of Music, ed. Michael Talbot, 121-51, Liverpool Music Symposium, 2 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2002).

(20.) See a1so Margaret Cobb, Debussy 's Letters to Inghelbrecht: The Story of a Friendship, annotated by Margaret Cobb. trans. Richard Miller, Eastman Studies in Music. 30 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2005): letters included in the Lesure/Herlin/Liebert edition, but here in a dual-text version.

(21.) Louis Laloy (1874-4944) on Debussy, Ravel, and Stravinsky, trans. and ed. Deborah Priest (Aldershot. Eng.: Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999).

(22.) Simon-Pierre Perret, "Debussy et Dukas: tine amine meconnue," Cahiers Debussy 34 (2010): 5-52.

(23.) A frequent. footnote in the early letters, Edmond Bailly--owner of the Librairie independante, publisher of La damoiselle due. and composer of his own settings of "Apparition" and Chansons de Charles d'Orleans--is the subject of fascinating studies In Denis Heflin ("Le cercle de l'Art independante." in Debussy: La musique et les arts, 76-89), and at Brussels 2011.

(24.) Correspondanee. 1,927.

(25.) The other works-in-progress in the Oeuvres de Claude Debussy. published by Durand. are another volume of works for two pianos/four hands. rd. Noel lee and Edmond Lemaitre (2012): orchestrations. ed. Robert Orledge (2013): the String Trio and Quartet. ed. Roy Howat and Peter Bloom (2013); and two volumes of melodies, ed. Denis Merlin and Marie Rolf (2014). Ms thanks to Denis Herlin or this update.

(26.) See, for example, Eiko Kasaba, "Le martyre de saint Sebastien: Etude stir sa genese," Cahiers Debussy n.s. 4-5 (1980-81): 19-37.

(27.) Denis Herlin, "Le martyre dr saint Sebastien: Du paganisme an sentiment religieux on les arcanes d'un sandale," in Opera et religion sous la Ille republique, ed. jean-Christophe Branger and Alban Ramant, Cahiers de l'esplanade, 4 (Saint-Etienne: Presses de I'Unversite de Saint-Etienne, 2006) 201-26, Ralph P. Locke, "Unacknowledged Exoticism in Debussy: The incidental Music for Le martyre de saint Sebastren (1911)," Musical Quarterly 90, no (2008): 371-415. Peter Lamothe (AMS 2006) on Le martyre in the context of other French incidental music.

(28.) Marianne Wheeldon, Debussy's Late Style. Mnsical Meaning and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 2008). 36-43.

(29.) "Debussy on Stage." in Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 61-83.

(30.) "Taming Two Spanish Origins: Reflections on Editing Opera," in Berlioz and Debussy, 83-102.

(31.) "Aftenword: The Origins if the Oeuvres completes de Claude Debussy," Berlioz. and Debussy, 181-192; The Art of French Piano Music: Debussy, Ravel, Faure, Chabrier (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009) and Montreal 2012.

(32.) "'Destiny Should Allow Me to Finish It': The Problems Involved in the Reconstruction and Orchestration of The Fall of the [louse of Usher (1908-1917)," in Rethinking Debussy, 203-22; and London 2012.

(33.) "Destiny Should Allow Me," 211. 215-217.

(34.) See also her "Debussy's Legacy: The Controversy over the Ode a la France," Journal of Musicology 26, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 304-41; Peter Burkholder's approach to the work (AMS conference 2010); and James R. Noyes, "Debussv's Rapsodie pour orchestra revisited: Musical Quarterly 90, no. 3-4 (2008): 416-45.

(35.) My thanks to Jim Briscoe for his note to me on the Montreal papers and performances.

(36.) "Une oeuvre de jeunesse inedite de Debussy: La Premiere suite d'orchestre," Cahiers Debussy 32 (2008): 5-25.

(37.) Mark DeVoto, Debusssy and the Veil of Tonality: Essays on His Music. Dimension & Diversity. 4 (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon. 2004), 8-19.

(38.) "Line note de service des chemins de fer couverte d'esquisses musicales: Etude de F-Pn, Mus. N.L.a. 32bis [9]," Cahiers Debussy 33 (2009): 61-79.

(39.) Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

(40.) "Etude sur Pelleas et Melisande," Cahiers Debussy 27-28 (2003-4): 29-123.

(41.) Barbara Kelly, "Debussy and the Making of a musicien francais: Pelleas, the Press, and World War I," in French Music, Culture, and National Identity, 58-76.

(42.) "Symbolism as Compositional Agent in Act IV, Scene 4 of Debussy's. Peaks et Melisande," in Berlioz and Debussy, 117-48.

(43.) "'Ajmer ainsi': Rekindling the Lamp in Pelleas." in Rethinking Debussy, 76-95.

(44.) "Melisande's Charm and the Truth in Her Music." in Rethinking Debussy, 55-75.

(45.) "Le silence est une belle chose et Dieu sait que les mesures blanches de Mins temoignent de mon amour de ce genre d'emotion. ..." in Debussy. Correspondance, 262.

(46.) Annegret Fauser, Musical Encounters at the 1889 Paris World's Fair, Eastman Studies in Music. 32 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. 2005). 203-5. On Melisande's voice, see also Carolyn Abbate, In Search of Opera, Princeton Studies in Opera (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 171-81.

(47.) Elliott Antokoletz. with Juana Canabal Antokoletz, Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok: Trauma, Gender, and the Unfolding of the Unconscious (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

(48.) "Music as Encoder of the Unconscious in Pelleas .et Melisande in Rethinking Debussy, 125-45.

(49.) "Debussy in Performance," Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 259-77.

(50.) "Debussy's Ideal Pelleas and the Limits of Authorial Intent," in Rethinking Debussy, 96-122.

(51.) "Looking for Pelleas: Le chel-d'oeuvre de Debussy, aux risque de la scene, entretien avec Stephane Guegan," in Debussy: La musique et les arts, 107-17.

(52.) "Aimer ainsi," and London 2012.

(53.) "The Prosaic Debussy," in Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 84-100.

(54.) In Montreal, Jocelyn Ho examined Debussy's piano rolls (1913), while others looked at recordings by Debussy interpreters.

(55.) Katherine Bergeron, Voice. French melodie in the Belle Epoque. New Cultural History of Music (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. 2010).

(56.) Claude Debussy et le prix de Rome, Flemish Radio Choir/Brussels Philharmonic/various soloists/cond. Herve Niquet, with essays ed. Denis Herlin and Alexandre Dratwicki, Glossa GCD922206, ISBN 9788461347148 (2009), 2 CDs.: see also the essays by these authors in Le concours de prix de Rome de musique (1803-1968), ed. Julie Lu and Alexandre Dratwicki (Lyon: Symetrie, 2011).

(57.) "Debussy's Rites of Spring," in Rethinking Debussy, 3-30.

(58.) "Debussy and Expression," in .Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 101-16.

(59.) "Debussy and Nature," 137-151; 137.

(60.) "The Debussy Sound: Colour, Texture, Gesture," in Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 179-96; 179, 181.

(61.) Hugues Dufourt. "L'insaisis.sable pointe du colons." in Debussy: La musique et les arts, 158-63; 159.

(62.) "Grieg, the Societe nationale, and the origins of Debussy's String. Quartet." in Berlioz and Debussy, 103-16.

(63.) David J. Code, "Debussy's String Quartet in the Brussels Salon of 'La Libre Esthetique,'" 19th-Cen1ury Music 30, no. 3 12007): 257-87.

(64.) Marianne Wheeldon, "Debussy and La Sonate Theme," journal of Musicology 22. no. 4 (Autumn 2005): 644-79. reprinted in her Debussy's Late Style, 80-113.

(65.) The Art of French Thano Music, xiv.

(66.) Paris: juilliard, 1960: English trans. by Olive Senior-Ellis, London: Dent, 1972.

(67.) See also his "Russian Imprints in Debussy's Piano Music," in Rethinking Debusyy, 31-51.

(68.) Boyd Pomeroy, "Titles of Two Tonics: Directional Tonality in Debussy's Orchestral Music," Music Them Spectrum 26, no. I (Spring 2004): 87-118.

(69.) Jeremy Day-O'Connell. "Debussy, Pentatonicism and the Tonal Tradition," Music Theory .Spectrum 31, no. 2 (Fall 2009): 225-61: Dmitri Tyrnoczko. "Scalc Networks and Debussy," Journal of Music Aeon 48, no. 2 (2004): 219-94; Mark McFarland, "Debussy: The Origins of a Method,"Journal ol Music Theory 48, no. 2 (2004): 295-324.

(70.) Sylveline Bouritin, Le style de Debussy: Duplication. repetition el dualite dans les stratrigies de composition (Paris: Vrin. 2011). See also Bourion's essays in Musique et modernia; en France, 19004945, rd. Sylvain Caron, Michel Duchesuean. and Francois de Medicis (Montreal: Presses de I'Universite de wired. 2006); and her "Pow tine grammaire generative de la duplication dans les deniers cycles de melodies pour voix et piano de Debussy." Musurgia: Analyse et pratiques 11. no. 4 (2004): 7-30

(71.) Richard Hoffman. "Debussy's Canope as Narrative Form," College Music Symposium 12 (2002): 103-17; Avo Somer, "Musical Syntax in the Sonatas id Debussy: Phrase Structure and Formal Function." Music Theory Speetrum 27, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 67-96.

(72.) Richard Parks, "Music's Inner Dance: Debussy's Form: Pacing, and Complexity," in Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 197-231

(73.) Simon Trezise. "Drbussy's 'Rhythrnicised Time,' " in Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 232-55.

(74.) "Debussy and Nature." in Cambridge Companion to Debussy. 137-51.

(75.) Linda Cummins, Debussy and the Fragment, Chiasma, 18 (New York: Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006; originally presented as the author's Louisiana State University Ph.D. diss., 2001). Gurminder Bhogal. "Debussy's Arabesque and Ravel's Daphnis et Chloe; (1912)." Twentiech-Century Musk 3, no. 2 (2007): 171-99: see also her forthcoming book on the subject. Ralph P. Locke, Mosical Exoticism; Images and Reflections (Cambridge: New York: Cambridge University Press. 2009), 217-22. Jann Pasler. Composing the Citizen: Music as Public Utility in Third Republic France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), 533-37.

(76.) Jean-Claire Vanoin. "La Rhetorique de Image de Roland Barthes et La soiree dans Grenade de Debussy: Quels mails pout quelle analyse." Musurgia: Analyse et pratiques musicals 12, no. 1-2 (2005); 77-98; Michael Klein. "Debussy's Isle joyeuse as Territorial Assemblage." 19th-Century Musie 31, no. 1 (Summer 2007): 28-52.

(77.) "Exploring the Frolic in Debussy's Music," in. Cambridge Companion to Debussy. 117-36.

(78.) Paster, Composing the Citizen, 524-37.

(79.) Elizabeth McCombie, Midianite and Debussy: Unheard Music, Unseen Text, Oxford Modern Languages and Literature Monographs (Oxford: Clarendon; New York: Oxford University Press, 20031: David Code, "Parting the Veils of Dehussy's Voiles," Scottish Music Review (online) I, no. 1 (2007), and his Debussy

(80.) Debussy, 187-88.

(81.) Music and Letters 92, no. 4 (2011): 669.

(82.) Cummins, Debussy and the Fragment, 21.

(83.) "Debussy as Musician and Critic." in Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 43-60.

(84.) Howat, The Art of French Piano Music, $-4. Ai die same time, Howat has associated the aesthetic. most with Chabrier. who collected the paintings of Renoir and Monet.

(85.) "L'impressionnisme comme forme de vie: Ecoutes allemandes de Debussy dans les annees 1920." in Debussy: La musique et les arts, 136-45.

(86.) Emile Vullermoz, "Limpressionisme en unisique," Revue jeune, 10-25 July 1899,1-6.

(87.) See jann Pasler, "Impressionism," Grove Music Online. (accessed 21 August 2012).

(88.) "Je veux ecrire mon songe.musical. ..." in Debussy: La musique et les arts, 14-31.

(89.) Jumeau-Lafond, "Du cote de l'ombre." 177.

(90.) Denis Herlin, "L'embarquement pour Cythire ou Debussy et le XVIIIe siecle," in Wanda Landowska et la renaissance de la musique ancienne, ed. Jean-Jacques Eigeldinger, 59-73 (Arles: Actes Sud; Paris: Cite de la Musique, 2011). Paster, Composing the Citizen, 496-507,635-40.

(91.) Davinia Caddy, "Parisian Cake Walks," 19th-Century Music 30, no, 3 (2007): 288-317. Lindy Smith, "Out of Africa: The Cakewalk in Twentieth-Century French Concert Music," Nola Bene: .Canadian Undergraduate Journal of Musicology 1 (Fall 2008): 66-82.

(92.) See also Francois de Medicis (Paris 2012) on the integration of folklore in Gigues.

(93.) Francois Pouillon, ed., Dictumnaire des orientalists de ktrigur francaises. (Paris: Karthala, 2008).

(94.) "Debussy," in ibid., 266.

(95.) Philippe Gumplowicz, Les resonances de l'ombre, musique et identites: Du Wagner an jazz (Paris: Fayard, 2012), 164-66. See also David Code's reading of Files against the backdrop of the Dreyfus Affair (AMS 2006); Glenn Watkins, Proof through the Night: Music and the Great War (Berkeley: University of California Press. 2003), with compact disc; Jane Fulcher's view of his wartime pieces as reflections of his inner turmoil in her The Composer as Intellectual: Music and Ideology in France, 1.914-1940 (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); Debussy's response, along with that of other composers, to an interview in the Cri de Paris (1915) in jean-Christophe Branger "1a reponse de Debussy a une enquete du Co de Paris pendant la Grande Guerre," Cahiers.Debussy 35. (2011): 97-108: and Annette Becker (Paris 20.12).

(96.) On Debussy and Rameau, see Ana Suschitzky, "Debussy's Rameau: French Music and its Others," Musical Quarltrly 86, no. 3 (Fall 2002): 398 448; awl Julien Dubruque/Vancon (Paris 2012).

(97.) Ayres de Andrade, "La premiere audition au Bresil de deux oeuvres de Debussy," Cahiers Debussy 31 (2007): 59-75; Manoel Correa do Lago, "Auditions d'oeuvres de .Claude Debussy au Bresil au debut du XXe siecle," Cahien Debussy 32 (2008): 51-87; and Kassandra Harthird (AMS 2010).

(98.) James Briscoe, "Debussy in Daleville: Toward Early Modernist Hearing in the United States." in Rethinking Debussy. 225-58.

(99.) See also Anna Petrova, "La reception de Debussy a Saint-Petersbourg au debut du vingtieme Cabiers Drbrmy 25 (2001 ): 11-63.

(100.) Guy Gosselin, La ysalphanie dans la cue: Lille au XIXe siele (Paris: Vrin, 2011).

(101.) Jann Pasler, "A Sociology of the Apaches: 'Sacred Battalion' for Pellias," in Berlioz and Debussv, 149-66.

(102.) "Ravel after Debussy: Inheritance. Influences and Style," in Berlioz and Debussy, 167-80.

(103.) "Le Tombeau de Claude Debussy: The Early Reception of the Late Works." in Rethinking Debussy, 259-76.

(104.) "La pratique de l'hommage musical chez Debussy," Cahiers Debussy 34 (2010): 53-79, and Montreal 2012.

(105.) "Tombeau de Claude Debussy," 261.

(106.) See also Barbara 1.. Kelly, "Remembering Debussy in Interwar France: Authority, Musicology, and. Legacy," Music awl letters 93, 2 (2012), forthcoming.

(107.) See also Yannick Simon on the Debussy cult under the occupation: "Claude de France. notre Wagner: Le culte de Debussy sous l'Occupation," Cahiers Debussy 30 (2006): 5-26: and Jane Fulcher, "Debussy as National Icon: From Vehicle of Vichy's Compromise to French Resistance Classic." Musical Quar1er4.94, no. 4 (2011): 454-80.

(108.) "Line correspondence entre Andre Schaeffner et Marcel Dietschy: Dialogue et controversies debussystes (1963-1971)," Cahiers Debussy 34 (2010): 81-124.

(109.) "Debussy Now," in Cambridge Companion to Debussy, 278-87.

(110.) "L'insaisissable pointe colons," in Debussy: La musique et les arts, 158-63.

(111.) Replay Debussy, various composers and performers, Universal Classics 472 801-2. (1).

(112.) Matthew Brown. Debussy Redux: The Impart of His Music on Popular Culture, Musical. Meaning and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012).

(113.) "Debussy Now." 287.

Jann Pasler is professor of music at UC San Diego. Recent publications include Writing through Musk: Essays on Music, Culture, and. Politics (Oxford University Press, 2008, Composing the Citizen: Music as Public Utility in Third Republic France (University of California Press, 2009) winner of a 2010 ASCAP Deems Taylor Award; and Camille Saint-Saens and His World (Princeton University Press, 2012), as editor and contributor nor. See
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Title Annotation:Claude Debussy
Author:Pasler, Jann
Article Type:Critical essay
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2012
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