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Davidisches Psalter-Spiel der Kinder Zions.

Historical Background

The Amana Community is one of the few religious groups of European origin in the United States that is still using the same hymnal which its members brought from Europe in the 1840s, and which by then had already been in use more than one hundred years. Davidisches Psalter-Spiel was first published 1718. (2) 274 years later, the first English-language hymnal was published by the Amana Church Society under the title, The Amana Church Hymnal. (3)

The Amana Church Society had its beginning as Die Wahre Inspirations-Gemeinde (The Community of True Inspiration) in early eighteenth-century Germany. As a Separatist movement outside the established churches it was subject to suppression. (4) This may have been the reason why the first edition of the Psalter-Spiel was published without naming place or publisher. (5)

It is known, however, that one of the persons chiefly responsible for the publication of this hymn book was Johann Konrad Ziegler (1692-1731), a leader in the Pietist revival at the Swiss town of Schaffhausen, who was also that movement's poet and hymn writer. (6) Scholars have therefore assumed Schaffhausen as the place of publication. In the imprint of the second edition of 1729, however, the name of Schaffhausen is given. The third through the seventh editions were published in Germany, the eighth (and last) edition at Ebenezer, New York, in 1854. (7) Apart from the addition of certain hymns, particularly by outstanding Inspirationist leaders such as Eberhard Ludwig Gruber (1665-1728), Johann Friedrich Rock (1687-1749), Johann Adam Gruber (1693-1763), and Christian Metz (1793-1867), and the omission of certain others, the various editions underwent only insignificant changes. The eighth edition went through five reprintings in Amana, Iowa, of which the last was in 1910. (8) It served as the basis for the Amana Church Hymnal of 1992.

Like the Community of True Inspiration itself, its hymnal was formed under the influence of German Pietism, a period lasting from about 1670 until 1750. (9) This was a time of revival led by itinerant preachers and evangelists who traveled the German lands, and of renewal of the German established or state church from within by small groups or conventicles meeting privately for Bible study and devotions.

Among the fruits of the Pietist movement were the creation of a large number of new hymns and the widespread and inspired hymn singing which went hand in hand with it. The Danish hymnologist, Steffen Arndal, gives an excellent exposition of this phenomenon. (10) To the Pietists, who believed that the Kingdom of God was about to become reality, those fruits were a sure sign that this expected time of the church's glory was indeed imminent. In their understanding of the Scriptures, it was God who had initiated and caused this praise to flow forth from human lips. This flowering of hymn singing, which the Pietists witnessed and experienced among themselves and which was also obvious to outsiders, was proof of God's grace and imminent reign on earth. They referred to these new hymns as the Song of the Lamb, or the new song, in contrast to the Song of Moses, which were the hymns of the Protestant Reformation and following periods. In Pietist theology, the earthly and the heavenly singing would ultimately be joined into one.

Distinctive features of Davidisches Psalter-Spiel

At first glance, the Psalter-Spiel does not differ greatly from other German hymn books of its time. It is a large text-only collection, the melodies being indicated in each case by the text incipit of a well-known hymn. A closer examination, however, reveals the strong influence by the leading Pietist hymnals, Geistreiches Gesang-Buch and Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch, compiled and published by Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen (1670-1739). (11) (In these collections, printed melodies with figured bass were provided for the large number of the new "Songs of the Lamb.") Most of the hymns and much of the structure of the Psalter-Spiel were borrowed from Freylinghausen's hymnals. In certain of these features, however, the Inspirationist hymn book expressed its own distinctiveness.

It is of some interest to note that the Inspirationists preferred the Pietist hymn book as their model over Anmuthiger Blumen-Krantz, the hymnal of the Separatist Philadelphian Society with whom they held certain beliefs in common, such as rejection of the established church. (12) On the other hand, they may have been repulsed by the openly hateful and threatening tone against the official church of many Philadelphian hymn texts. This notwithstanding, a large number of the hymns in Blumen-Kranz constitute the only known source for some seventeen percent of the hymns in the Psalter-Spiel of 1718.

The following description and discussion of the Psalter-Spiel is based on its first edition of 1718 only.

Title-Page

The titles of most German hymn-books were either kept in very general terms or they indicated the principality for which a given hymnal was issued as its sole official hymnal. A privately published hymn-book would display on the title-page the name of the compiler or the publisher. The title of the Inspirationist hymnal is noteworthy not least for the fact that it ignores the need for anonymity in its publication. The references to "King David" and to "Zion" clearly put this hymnal in the context of Inspirationist / Pietist theology as it relates back in time to the royal prophet, and forward to the heavenly Jerusalem. These two concepts are linked by the symbol of the psaltery, an instrument of praise both for King David and the newly awakened "infants in wisdom" (Sauglinge der Weifiheit) as they are referred to on the frontispiece.

Preface

The preface to the Pietist hymn book, Geistreiches Gesang-Buch, was written by Freylinghausen, the son-in-law of the "Father" of Halle Pietism, August Hermann Francke (1663-1727). It presents, first, a treatise on the history and theology of song and, secondly, a precise and detailed outline and instruction concerning the individual's way to salvation.

The preface to Davidisches Psalter-Spiel, on the other hand, while incorporating some general Pietist views, is mainly a brief exhortatory homily on the specifically Inspirationist understanding of hymns and hymn singing, and the belief that the eschaton was already present. It points out that the signs of the times are before everyone's eyes, especially the ever more closely approaching evening glow (Abendschein) and the blessed shower of hymns and songs (Liedersegen) permeated with fragrant incense which the Lord God has given to his church. This outpouring of song is like the spiritual manna of his word.

These signs are leading the "infants-in-grace of wisdom" (Gnaden-Sauglinge der Weifiheit) to the assurance that the Higher Jerusalem and her triumphant choirs have already begun to imbue the Lower Jerusalem with greater power in order to prepare it for the new and complete victory song at the coming of her king. There is an expectation of an in-breaking spiritual spring, of urgency, and immediacy. In Zion, the hours of mourning and lamentation are hastening to an end, the perfect song of victory and jubilation and power from the Lord God is being held in his very own right hand, so that he might soon pour it into the believers' hearts, tongues, and hands.

Throughout, polemical utterances and dire prophecies against "the sated ones" (die Satten)--the nominal Christians--and their errant ways are placed in sharp contrast to the glorious prospect awaiting the true Christians.

The Psalter-Spiel was compiled for the spiritually-minded or "thirsty ones" (die Durstenden) with a dual purpose. First, so that they would test these specific signs of the times and, secondly, that they would add out of their own experience what grace and power of heavenly refreshment God's eternal love and wisdom had imparted to them even through song. In order to achieve this, the greatest possible diligence had been applied in--among other things--selecting pure, spiritual songs, and also correcting all ambiguous expressions so that the hymnal would be of blessed use both for individuals in their personal devotions as well as for the worship of congregations. The Psalter-Spiel was intended to provide spiritual nourishment for those who have been lamenting the rifts and schisms of the church.

The preface is preceded by two Scripture quotations:

"O praise the Lord, Sing to the Lord a new song, sing his praise in the assembly of the faithful; let Israel rejoice in his maker and the sons of Zion exult in their King. Let them praise his name in the dance, and sing him psalms with tambourine and harp." (Psalm 149:1-3) (13)

"Let the message of Christ dwell among you in all its richness. Instruct and admonish each other with the utmost wisdom. Sing thankfully in your hearts to God, with psalms and hymns, and spiritual songs." (Col. 3:16)

The preface concludes by quoting the first ten verses from the nineteenth chapter of the Revelation of John.

The Structure of Davidisches Psalter-Spiel

The body of the hymns themselves is arranged in the alphabetical order of the first text lines of all hymns. This is complemented by two indexes (Register). The first of these is "arranged according to the main tenets of the true theology and order of salvation" (Register uber die Gesange / nach denen Haupt-Materien der wahren Theologie und Ordnung des Heyls eingerichtet). This general structure and grouping of rubrics with their headings was borrowed from Geistreiches Gesang-Buch with its "economy of our salvation" (Oeconomie unserer Seligkeit), but omitting the rubrics for Marian and other saints' days, as well as for baptism, and shifting the location of certain others in order to reflect Inspirationist theology. This resulted in fifty-two rubrics, six fewer than in the Pietist hymnal. Within each grouping, the hymns are listed in alphabetical order of first lines. The second index is an alphabetical listing of all hymn texts by their first lines, thus repeating in compact format the contents of the hymnal.

The following shows the sequence of the rubrics grouped under headings borrowed by this author from the preface of the Pietist hymnal. These are given in brackets with the number of hymns in each rubric in parentheses, which reflect the importance given to individual rubrics but not necessarily the actual content of the texts that had been fitted into their respective rubrics. The three rubrics with the largest number of texts are "Of the desire for God and Christ" (56), "Of spiritual battle and victory" and "Of denial of self and the world" (39); "Of the mystery of the cross" and "Of the praise of God" (34).

["Christ, the foundation of our salvation" (Christus, der Grund unseres Heils)]:

1. Of the coming of Christ in the flesh (8).

2. Of the coming of Christ to judgment (4).

3. Of the incarnation and birth of Christ (20).

4. New-Year's hymns (7).

5. Of the transfiguration of Jesus in his manifold names, offices, and favors (20).

6. Of the suffering and death of Jesus Christ (26).

7. Of the burial of Jesus Christ (3).

8. Of the resurrection of Christ (22).

9. Of the ascension of Christ and his sitting at the right hand of God (10).

10. Of the Holy Ghost and his manifold gifts and workings (12).

11. Of the divine nature and attributes of God, or, the holy trinity (14).

12. Of the holy angels (4).

["The means by which God restores us to communion with him"

(Die Mittel, dadurch uns Gott zu seiner Gemeinschaft wiederum bringen will)]:

13. Of the benevolence (Leutseligkeit) of God and Christ (27).

14. Of the works of creation and the divine love and glory reflected therein (12).

15. Of divine providence and government (12).

16. Of the inner and the outer word (12).

["The discipline which you must follow if you desire to partake of Christ and the salvation earned by him" (Die Ordnung, darein du dich begeben must, so du anders an Christo und der von Ihm erworbenen Seligkeit Theil nehmen willst)]:

17. Of the true and the false Christendom (13).

18. Of human misery and damnation (22).

19. Of the true repentance and conversion (23).

20. Of the true faith (12).

21. Of Christian life and conduct (26).

["The disciplines and virtues of a Christian life" (was fur Ubungen und Tugenden das Christliche Leben in sich fass[t])]:

22. Of the true spiritual prayer (7).

23. Of spiritual watchfulness (12).

24. Of spiritual battle and victory (39).

25. Of the true chastity (7).

26. Of denial of self and the world (39).

27. Of the desire for God and Christ (56).

28. Of the love for Jesus (30).

29. Of brotherly and universal love (11).

30. Of the holy supper and love-feast of believers. [In the Pietist order, this rubric followed no. 22, "Of holy baptism"] (9)

31. Of following Jesus (5).

32. Of the mystery of the cross [which is laid upon you] (34).

33. Of Christian resignation (Gelassenheit) (23)

34. Of the true steadfastness (21).

35. Of the heart's complete surrender to God (6).

[Your reward (Lohn) for following these disciplines]:

36. Of divine peace and rest of the soul (20).

37. Of the joy in the holy ghost (20).

38. Of the joyfulness of faith (25).

39. Of the praise of God (34).

40. Of the divine wisdom (21).

["The blessedness of the kingdom of grace and the powerful foretaste of the future eternal life" (die Seligkeit des Reichs der Gnaden und der kraftige Vorschmack des kunftigen ewigen Lebens)]:

41. Of the spiritual marriage [to Jesus] (23).

42. Of the high birth of believers ("Vom hohen Adel der Glaubigeri') (7)

["Because none of that has brought you to your goal, you are being reminded (Weyl du aber bey dem allen gleichwohl noch nicht zum Ziel kommen bist ... so wirst du ferner erinnert)]:.

43. Of the hidden life of the believers (7).

44. Of the lament of Zion (22).

45. Of the hope of Zion (33).

46. Of death and resurrection (26).

47. Of heaven and the heavenly Jerusalem (14).

[Other hymns]:

48. Morning hymns (18).

49. Evening hymns (16).

50. Table hymns (4).

51. In [times of] common distress (In gemeiner Noth).(4)

52. Closing hymn (1).

The Hymns

The first edition of the Psalter-Spiel borrowed its hymns to a great extent from Freylinghausen's hymnals.. Seventy-five percent of its 905 texts are found in the Pietist hymnal, with the majority dating from the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. More than one hundred writers are represented by over six hundred texts, seventy-six of which are by the Radical Pietist church historian and hymn writer, Gottfried Arnold (1666-1714) and eighteen by Martin Luther (1483-1546). Other favorite authors are Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676); the Roman Catholic convert Johann Scheffler, also known as Angelus Silesius (1624-1677); and the Reformed poet, composer, and pastor, Joachim Neander (1650-1680). Lloyd Winfield Farlee, whose master checklist is a useful reference tool, (14) attributes six texts to Eberhard Ludwig Gruber, the only Inspirationist hymn writer represented in the first edition. However, one of the six, Pflichtmassig gelebt | an Gott fest geklebt (15) is a variant of an earlier hymn by Neander. The genuine Gruber hymns are:

   Arbeiter will der Herr | in seinem Weinberg haben
   Herr Jesu, deine Sieben Wort, | die du am Kreuz gesprochen dort
   Jesus ist ja suss und schon, | uber alles zu besingen
   Weil selbst der Herr mein Hirt, | wie soll ich Mangel leiden?
   Wohl auf, zum rechten Weinstock her! | Wohlauf, und bringet Ihm
   die Ehr


By the time of this writing, I have not yet been able to identify some one hundred texts in the first edition as to their authorship or earlier publication. About half of them are also found in Blumen-Kranz. Except for hymn writers from a group's own ranks, one cannot assume that hymn book compilers were aware in each instance of the authorship of a given text. Already existing hymn books tended to serve as sources for new hymn compilations, as seems to be the case here as well.

As the Psalter-Spiel went through further editions, more Inspirationist authors were represented by a larger number of texts, as e.g. E. L. Gruber by a total of thirty-one, his son J. A. Gruber, by nine, Rock by seventeen, and Metz, in the eighth edition, by eighteen.

With any hymnal it is of interest to determine whether there is a core of hymns that occurs throughout its publishing history. In the present case, 519 hymns of the first edition of the Psalter-Spiel were retained throughout, which constitutes a core of sixty percent of the first edition, or approximately forty-one percent of the total number of hymns listed in the Farlee index, an unusually high percentage.

Another area of interest is the presence of texts supporting the group's particular beliefs and practices. For this article, copies were available only of the first (1718), third (1740), seventh (1842), and eighth (1854) editions. However, the numerous texts by early Inspirationist leaders which they contain do not distinguish themselves noticeably from mainline Pietist hymns. The unidentified texts have not yet been examined. Specifically Inspirationist themes or beliefs might also be found in the hymns listed under certain rubrics, such as "Of the hope of Zion," "Of death and resurrection," and "Of heaven and the heavenly Jerusalem." However, the majority of these authors are either Pietists or forerunners of the movement, with a goodly number of Lutheran Orthodox, and only very few Radical Pietists. The famous Millennialist and theologian, Johann Wilhelm Petersen (1649-1727) and the Separatist, Christoph Seebach (1675-1745) each authored one text found under "Of the hope of Zion"; nine further texts in this rubric are by the Halle Pietist, Michael Muller (1673-1704). The eleven hymns under "Of heaven and the heavenly Jerusalem" contain no texts by Radical Pietists, much less, Inspirationists.

It is an often-observed phenomenon that there exists a certain time lag between a given group or denomination's theological stance and its piety as expressed in its hymnal. The Community of True Inspiration is no exception to this. Inasmuch as the Psalter-Spiel borrowed. much of its material from Pietist sources, Inspirationist piety remained in relatively close harmony with Pietist theology. To create a completely new body of hymns bearing the stamp of a particular theological persuasion is, for many reasons, nearly impossible. In the history of German hymnody one could name Martin Luther (1483-1546) or the Harmonist Society under the leadership of George Rapp (1757-1847); (16) and John Calvin (1509-1564) for the Reformed tradition, as hymn writers who have left a legacy of distinctive theology in their texts.

A Psalter-Spiel progeny?

More than 250 years after the first edition of the Psalter-Spiel, the well-known nineteenth-century Brethren antiquarian and historian, Abraham Harley Cassel (1820-1908) of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, mistakenly claimed the Inspirationists as the spiritual forbears of Brethren hymnody. Mistakenly, because Cassel's knowledge was based on fragmentary oral history, easy assumptions, and failure to follow up on the few facts that did exist in his time.

It is true that the Psalter-Spiel, while itself strongly influenced by its Pietist model, in turn left its imprint on the hymnody of the Inspirationists' early contemporaries and rivals in Europe, the Schwarzenau Taufer or Neutaufer, today known as the Church of the Brethren and its several related denominations. (17) This group published its first hymnal in the small Wittgenstein town of Berleburg in 1720. It, too, drew on Freylinghausen's hymnal and borrowed its title, Geistreiches GesangBuch. (18) (Note the phrase in the title: "Aus andern Gesang-Buchern ausgezogen"--selected from other hymn books, a common practice.) The Brethren were undoubtedly also familiar with and probably used the 1718 edition of the Psalter-Spiel in preparation for their own hymnal. This is suggested not only by the relatively large number of its hymns exclusively from the latter, and by the title of the first hymnal published for the Brethren in Pennsylvania some twenty years later in 1744 by the Germantown publisher, Christoph Sauer (1695-1758), under the title of Das Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel (The small Davidic psaltery). (19) The later history of this first Brethren hymnal is, unfortunately, still a mystery. During the decades of early Brethren migration from places of toleration in the Germanies and the Netherlands to Pennsylvania, it seems to have fallen into oblivion. This is borne out by Cassel's response in a letter dated March 20, 1880:

   No. Alexander Mack [1679-1735] or his friends never published a
   hymn-book in Germany. They used a book called Das Davidische
   Psalterspiel [sic]. It was a large book having nearly 1,000 pages,
   and over 1,000 hymns--most of them very long ones.... about 1740,
   the brethren abridged the old big Psalterspiel ... and published it
   under the title of Das Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel.... The
   first edition left the press in 1744.... (20)


It was external features, such as the title and references in the preface that led Cassel to make his assumptions about the relationship between Inspirationist and Brethren hymn books.

The preface to Das Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel states: "There was also consensus about selecting most of those best-known hymns from the well-known larger Psalter-Spiel, whose melodies are most widely familiar, and about issuing it in this format. A great effort was made to do this in the most impartial way...." Cassel's own copy of the 1744 edition has this entry on the front fly leaf: "This is the 3d Ed. of the original Psalterspiel which the Brethren used in Europe and in this Country untill 1744, when Bro. Christopher Sauer published an abridgement of it under the title of 'Das Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel' which passed through at least 13 Ed. And is still used in the German Churches."

The European hymn book of the Brethren was discovered by Don and Hedda Durnbaugh in the course of primary-source research in Europe in 1954. (21) Cassel's misconceptions aside, the Psalter-Spiel clearly left its stamp on Brethren hymnody. Some of the more than forty texts exclusively from it were by E. L. Gruber and J. K. Ziegler. (22)

Das Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel, the hymnal of the Brethren in the American Colonies went through fifteen editions until the mid-1800s. It is said to have been the most widely used German hymn book in the American Colonies during the eighteenth century. It may also be said that, in some measure this Brethren hymnal was heir to the Inspirationist heritage and, moreover, it indirectly kept the memory of the Brethren's erstwhile contemporaries.

Inasmuch as copies of both the Brethren's European hymnal of 1720 and of the 1718 edition of the Psalter-Spiel are extremely rare in this country, it remains for future scholars to find the answer to the as yet unsolved question of what hymnals the Brethren used in Pennsylvania before Das Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel was published for them.

Conclusion

The Inspirationists expressed their theology not so much in the hymn texts themselves as in their hymnal's preface, the aspects under which the hymns were grouped, and what titles were given to those groups or rubrics. However, expressions of Inspirationist piety and devotion are found in the numerous hymn texts by prominent leaders such as E. L. Gruber, J. A. Gruber, Rock, and Metz.

Among the German communitarian groups in North America, the Community of True Inspiration is remarkable not only for its longevity as a society. The history of their hymnal, Davidisches Psalter-Spiel, is testimony to its significant place in their worship even after the dissolution of the communal system and the increasing use of the English language in all aspects of life in the Amana Colonies. In the face of this change, the hymnic heritage of the Community has been preserved in their first English-language hymnal, published at Amana, Iowa, by the Amana Church Society in 1992.

The Amana Church Hymnal is a collection of hymns that are significant to the Society in their original German forms, and English ones that have become familiar to its members. The hymnal consists of two parts: "The Hymns" and "Worship Resources." The former is subdivided into three sections: 169 "Direct Translations [with] Original Melodies," 112 "Lyrics from Different Sources with Psalter-Spiel Melodies," and sixteen "Familiar [English] Hymns."

The worship resources include, in addition to the general Protestant texts--Apostles' Creed and Lord's Prayer--specifically Inspirationist ones, such as their "Basis of the Faith (Twenty-four Rules)" of 1716, and "Profession of Faith," a document originally issued in 1839. Three indexes complete the volume: "Special-Services Hymns," "Correlation with German Psalter-Spiel Titles," and "Alphabetical Index of Hymn Titles [i.e., text incipits]."

It is worth recording the process of producing this hymnal. Eighteen members of the Amana Church Society, both women and men, took part in this project of translating their favorite German hymns into English. Their combined efforts produced approximately ninety translations. A large number had already existed, albeit without source references. Thirty-two of the original texts had been written by the early Inspirationist leaders Eberhard Ludwig and Johann Adam Gruber, Johann Friedrich Rock, and Christian Metz. As is typical for eighteenth-century hymn texts, they are lengthy teaching/preaching hymns, often with awkward phrasing, which makes it difficult for the translators to remain faithful to their intent while rendering them into good, singable English. The translators therefore often resorted to omitting certain stanzas or condensing several into one. Some of the original expressions of blood-of-Jesus piety were toned down. Some poetic conventions could not be replicated in English, such as the intricate acrostic of J-E-S-U-S in E. L. Gruber's "Jesus ist Jesus und schon." ("Jesus is precious and fair"), in which the first letters of the first five stanzas successively spell the name of "Jesus"; the first letters of all lines of the sixth stanza also spell the name of "Jesus" with the last line actually beginning with the name, "Jesus."

   Stanza 1. Jesus ist Jesus ...
   Stanza 2. Er ist mir, ...
   Stanza 3. Selig ist, der ...
   Stanza 4. Unvergleichlich ist
   Stanza 5. So will ich dann

   Stanza 6.
      Jesu! deut' du mir die Hand,
      Einzuziehen meine Sinnen!
      Sei du selber auch das Band,
      Und behalte sie stets innen!
      So werd ich in dir allein,
      Jesu, erst recht frohlich sein! (23)


More important than duplicating form is preserving the theological content of valued traditional hymns. Although specifically Inspirationist teachings or practices are not reflected in this selection of hymns, the great value of The Amana Church Hymnal lies in the preservation of historically important texts rendered into English and thus contributing to the Society's awareness of its long hymnic tradition. These translations having been tested and tried in temporary formats for several years and found worthy of publication, there is no doubt that the Society will be served well by its first English-language hymnal.

Hedwig (Hedda) T. Durnbaugh, native of Austria, is a hymnologist specializing in the congregational song of German immigrant groups in North America.

(1) A paper read before the Amana Heritage Society at Amana, Iowa, September 25, 1995, rev. February, 2015.

(2) Davidisches Psalter=Spiel Der Kinder Zions / Von Alten und Neuen auserlesenen Geistes=Gesangen; Allen wahren Heyls=begierigen Sauglingen der Weissheit / Insonderheit aber Denen Gemeinden des Herrn / zum Dienst und Gebrauch mit Fleiss zusammen getragen ... Im Jahr Christi 1718.--Hereafter referred to as Psalter-Spiel. The title does not refer to a Psalter, but to a musical instrument, a psaltery or lyre, often represented on frontispiece engravings of early hymn books.

(3) The Amana Church Hymnal ([Amana:] 1992).

(4) For background on the Community of True Inspiration, consult the following works: Jonathan Andelson, "The Gift to Be Single: Celibacy and Religious Enthusiasm in the Community of True Inspiration," Communal Societies 5 (1985):1-32.

Diane L. Barthel, Amana: From Pietist Sect to American Community (Lincoln, Neb.; London, 1984)

Max Goebel, "Geschichte der wahren Inspirations-Gemeinden, von 1688 bis 1850. Als ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des christlichen Lebens," Zeitschriftfur historische Theologie 24 (1854), 27 (1857)

Ulf-Michael Schneider, Die wahren "Propheten-Kinder. " Sprache, Literatur und Wirkung der Inspirierten im 18. Jahrhundert (Forthcoming, 1995)

Bertha M.H. Shambaugh, Amana. The Community of True Inspiration (Iowa City: Penfield Press, 1988; reprint ed. by the Museum of Amana History and the State Historical Society of Iowa [Iowa City], 1908)

Theologische Realenzyklopadie Bd. 16 (Berlin; New York, 1887), s.v. "Inspirationsgemeinden," by Hans Schneider.

(5) Paul Wernle, Der schweizerische Protestantismus im XVIII. Jahrhundert. Erster Band. Das reformierte Staatskirchentum und seine Auslaufer (Pietismus und vernunftige Orthodoxie) (Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr {Paul Siebeck}, 1923), p. 449. Wernle cites here a variant of the 1718 edition which bears the additional information, "ans Licht gegeben von Einem MitGeNossen Zions in Philadelphia A D 1618" in which "Philadelphia" stands for Schaffhausen and Mitgenosse for Johann Konrad Ziegler. In a footnote, Wernle refers to Max Goebel, op. cit. 24 (1854): 277. However, Goebel's citation does not mention place or year of publication.

(6) Steffen Arndal, "Den store hvide Flok vi see ... " H.A. Brorson og tysk pietistisk voekkelsessang (Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag, 1989), p. 43.--Arndal gives Ziegler's middle name erroneously as "Caspar."

(7) 1740 (Homburg vor der Hohe); 1753 (Frankfurt/M.); 1775 and 1805 (Budingen); 1842 (Giessen); 1854 (Ebenezer, New York)

(8) "Foreword," The Amana Church Hymnal.

(9) For background on Pietist hymnody, see Steffen Arndal, op. cit., p. 31-49, 108-169; English translation by Hedwig T. Durnbaugh, "Spiritual Revival and Hymnody: The Hymnbooks of German Pietism and Moravianism," Brethren Life and Thought 50:2 (Spring 1995): 71-93.

(10) Arndal, ibid., p. 31-33; Durnbaugh, ibid., p. 71-73.

(11) Geistreiches Gesang=Buch Den Kern Alter und Neuer Lieder / Wie auch die Noten der unbekannten Melodeyen / Und darzu gehorige nutzliche Register in sich haltend; In gegenwartiger bequemer Ordnung und Form / samt einer Vorrede / Zur Erweckung heiliger Andacht und Erbauung im Glauben und gottseeligem Wesen herausgegeben von Johann Anastasio Freylinghausen ... (Halle: im Waysenhause, 1704)--Neues Geist-reiches Gesangbuch /Auserlesene, so Alte und Neue / geistliche und liebliche Lieder ... (Halle, im Waysenhause, 1714)

(12) Anmuthiger Blumen-Krantz / aus dem Garten der Gemeinde Gottes; in sich fassend allerhand Gottliche Gnaden--und Liebes=Wurckungen / ausgedruckt in geistlichen lieblichen Liedern : Zum Dienst Der Liebhabere des Lobes Gottes gesamlet. Ans Licht gegeben Im Jahr 1712.--For the Philadelphian Society, see the article in The Brethren Encyclopedia (Philadelphia, PA, and Oak Brook, IL: The Brethren Encyclopedia Inc., 1983): v. 2, p. 1019.

(13) All Scriptural references are from The New English Bible (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976)

(14) Lloyd Winfield Farlee, A History of the Church Music of the Amana Society, the Community of True Inspiration.--Thesis, PhD (University of Iowa, School of Music), 1966.--This is a very valuable resource; however, entries and authors' attributions in its master checklist have been updated and/or corrected where necessary by the present author. In particular, the data from the 1729 edition, which were obtained from a copy at the Religionskundliche Sammlung Marburg/Lahn, Germany, were added. A large number of first occurrences in that edition are texts by E.L. Gruber and Ziegler.

(15) Joseph Th. Muller, Hymnologisches Handbuch zum Gesangbuch der Brudergemeine (Herrnhut: Verlag des Vereins fur Brudergeschichte, 1916) attributes this text to Joachim Neander, published in his Bundeslieder (Bremen 1679) with nine stanzas. It was printed in the present form in the Moravian "Berthelsdorfer" hymnal (1725); later, the original incipit "Pflichtmassig gelebt" was changed to "In Christo gelebt, fest an ihm geklebt' in the Moravian hymnal published at Herrnhuth and Gorlitz by C.G. Marche (1731). Lacking access to Neander's Bundeslieder edition of 1679, comparison could only be made with the five-stanza version under the later incipit in the Moravian hymnal published 1810 at Barby. In my personal copy, authors' names are written in by an early hand; in this case: "Neander." With small changes in stanzas two, seven, and nine, the five stanzas of "Pflichtmassig gelebt' are identical with the corresponding ones of Neander's original nine. This is clearly a Neander text adapted--as was not uncommon--by another hymn writer.

(16) See my paper, "Harmonisches Gesangbuch 1827. Beispiel eines kommunalen Gesangbuches im Amerika des fruhen neunzehnten Jahrhunderts" read at the German Regional Conference of the Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Hymnologie (IAH--International Fellowship for Research in Hymnology) held at Tallinn, Estonia, December 2-3, 1994.

(17) For background on the Church of the Brethren and related denominations, see Donald F. Durnbaugh, ed., The Church of the Brethren. Yesterday and Today (Elgin, Ill.: Brethren Press, 1985).--On their German hymnody, see Hedwig T. Durnbaugh, The German Hymnody of the Brethren, 1720-1903 (Philadelphia: Brethren Encyclopedia, Inc., 1986).

(18) Geistreiches Gesang-Buch / Vor alle Liebhabende Seelen der Warheit / sonderlich Vor die Gemeine Des HERRN in sich fassend Die Auserlesenste und nothigste Lieder / Aus andern Gesang-Buchern ausgezogen /Nebst 100. Neue Lieder / so zum ersten mahl aufgesetzt worden / zum Trost und Erquickung allen wahren Nachfolgern des HErrn JEsu / und in gegenwartiger Form ans Licht gegeben / Zum Lobe GOTTES. (Berlenburg: Christoph Konert, 1720).

(19) Das Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel Der Kinder Zions ... (Germantown: Gedruckt bey Christoph Saur, 1744).

(20) Quoted in The Primitive Christian 1882 (January 31): 67.

(21) European Origins of the Brethren. A Source Book on the Beginnings of the Church of the Brethren in the Early Eighteenth Century, compiled and translated by Donald F. Durnbaugh (Elgin, Illinois: The Brethren Press, 1959), p. 405ff.

(22) The texts by Gruber are "Jesu, wahres Lebensbrot" and "Jesus ist Je-suss." The text by Ziegler is "Sei unverzagt, o frommer Christ." These attributions are corrections of Farlee's data.

(23) With the exception of the second edition (1729), this text appears in all editions of Davidisches Psalter=Spiel. "Jesu" is the vocative of a name ending in "-us"; the use of the appropriate Latin case endings of Latinized given names is common practice in German hymn texts (e.g., Jesu, Jesum; Christi, Christo, Christum).
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Author:Durnbaugh, Hedwig T.
Publication:Communal Societies
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Date:Dec 1, 2014
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