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DORMAN - technical leaders in gas generating sets and CHP systems.

Modern diesel or gas engine powered generating sets are the basis for producing electricity in a wide range of applications. These engines provide a reliable and efficient source of power that can be operated close to the point of consumption of the electricity, often without the need for sophisticated or complicated installations. These modern engines are designed to gain maximum power output from a given unit of fuel input, the Dorman SE series setting standards for power levels and fuel efficiency that few other engine manufacturers can match. However, even in these advanced engines typically only 30 per cent of fuel input is convertible to electricity, the balance of 70 per cent being lost as heat, primarily through the engine cooling and exhaust systems.

Dorman CHP systems are designed to recover the waste heat lost in the normal operation cycle so that while electricity is being cost effectively produced the |waste' heat may also be utilised. Using Dorman CHP packages it is possible to increase overall thermal efficiency to levels in excess of 80 per centm, a massive increase in the power derived from the fuel consumed and a fundamental change to the economics of power generation.

Economic and Environmental


Fuel costs are fundamental to the viability of many power generation projects and clearly the ability to recover and utilise waste heat offers a substantial economic benefit whether providing heat and power for communities, horticulture or industrial applications. Increasingly the impact, on the environment of power generation is also becoming a concern both from the point of view of maximising efficient use of resources and from minimising impact on the environment. CHP clearly shows major benefits on both points and is being actively promoted in countries where environmental concern is now both a political and economic issue.

Gas engines in particular offer some special benefits. A gas engine converts a higher proportion of energy input into heat output than a comparable diesel engine thus making the gas engine particularly well suited to CHP applications where a higher total utilisation of fuel input may be achieved. Gas engines are well suited to use in environmentally sensitive locations where their low particular emission levels offer a cleaner environment. Dorman Minnox gas engines also now set new standards for low levels of Nox emissions, typically below 200g/GJ. Gas engines will operate on a wide range of gaseous fuels ranging from natural and well head gas to nuisance and waste gases such as landfill gas and sludge gas. In these latter examples both electricity and heat may be effectively generated via a CHP installation from gas that is at best a waste product and in certain circumstances a nuisance that would otherwise have to be disposed of by |flaring off'.

Effective Design

The design of CHP systems is critical both in terms of achieving maximum fuel utilisation and in avoiding problems during operation. As a leading engine manufacturer Dorman are in a unique position to match the heat exchangers to the characteristics of the particular engine to ensure optimum performance. Coupled with a long experience in CHP design and installation, Dorman offer an unrivalled combination of expertise and experience, direct from the engine manufacturer.

Dorman supply a complete power generation and thermal package including engine, matched alternator and integral thermal equipment to recover the heat. The package is supplied as a single unit, mounted on a sturdy base frame for ease of transport and installation. Control panels and switchgear may be base frame mounted or f loor standing.

The thermal equipment includes exhaust gas boiler, water pump, heat exchanger and all necessary controls to ensure the exhaust gas is not over cooled, that water is not over heated, that engine water flow is maintained at design levels and that the whole system is protected against excessive pressure build up.

Detailed Design

The method of heat recovery from the exhaust gases is a crucial feature in achieving high energy efficiencies. Dorman use a water tube design with the exhaust gas passing over the extended surface of the |boiler tubes' in the heat exchanger so that it operates in the same way as a boiler. The design of the Dorman system is such that it is possible to vary the flow of water through the boiler thus making h possible to eliminate the formation of condensate which occurs when the exhaust gases are over cooled and may result in blockages.

Radiators may be exchanged for heat exchangers if a supply of hot air is required in place of hot water. Similarly by special design, steam may also be produced at pressures up to 10 Bar from the exhaust gases Where gas engines are specified safety equipment to British gas code of practice is available. Dorman CHP packages include header tanks, vent valves and pressure safety valves making Dorman CHP systems not only one of the most technically advanced but also one of the safest.

Design installation

To achieve optimum system efficiency it is necessary to ensure a match of the system to the customers specific needs, for example, is the main control to be from the heat load or the electrical load? To determine the correct system design a thorough analysis of the potential site is undertaken to determine the mechanical/electrical uses and the thermal requirements. When such usage patterns are established the system can then be designed.

In most applications, the electrical installation is the prime requirement either for isolated on site electrical supply, for use on site in parallel to national grid, as a standby facility or to export electricity to a national grid system.

According to the requirement, synchronous or asynchronous alternators may be supplied. Dorman CHP systems have modern electronic governing and both electrical and thermal systems can be designed to operate automatically as unmanned installations. Operating conditions calling for low emission levels, sound insulation or special switchgear may all be specified to meet customer requirements. A remote monitoring system is available for continuous 24 hour monitoring of CHP performance with data transmitted via telephone line to a base computer.

All aspects of the CHP package development, from application investigation through system design to final installation, will be undertaken by experienced project engineers. After commissioning the Dorman International Service network is available to ensure that the CHP installation maintains its efficiency and low operating costs throughout its life.

In a wide variety of applications CHP systems can radically change the economics of providing a local electrical supply. In both public and private sectors CHP systems are proving their economic and environmental value providing heat as hot water, air or steam, for a wide variety of domestic, commercial and industrial uses. The heat generated may also be used in power absorption chillers for cooling applications such as refrigeration plants and temperature control in computer centres.
COPYRIGHT 1992 Economic and Industrial Publications
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Copyright 1992 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Title Annotation:Dorman brand
Publication:Economic Review
Date:Apr 1, 1992
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