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DOES THE RELATIONSHIP OF WORK LIFE BALANCE AND MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP WITH EMPLOYEE JOB ENGAGEMENT EXIST IN BANKS OF LAHORE.

Byline: Abdul Khaliq Alvi, Zahid Hussain, Muhammad Tahir and Muhammad Abubakar Siddque Gondal

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to check the effect of management leadership and work life balance on employee job engagement. Current research has suggested the two hypotheses to check the nature and strength of the relationships. This study is quantitative in nature. For this purpose, primary data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire. Questionnaire was composed of 38items. SPSS-18and AMOS was used for analyze the data. The factor loading of 37 statements are according to the standards and factor loading of one statement was below the standard. This statement was excluded from further data analysis. Both of proposed hypotheses are accepted.

Results confirmed that management leadership is good predictor of employee job engagement as compare to work life balance. In future researches the impact of employee job engagement will be checked on some consequences like OCB, job turnover, employee performance. For more generalizing the results, this study will also held on other sectors like textile sector, hotel industry, education sector etc.

Keywords: Work Life Balance (WLB), Management Leadership, Employee Job Engagement, Banking Sector, Pakistan

1- INTRODUCTION

In recent times, there has been a wide focus of researchers on the term of employee engagement and researchers are paying more attention on the roles of employee engagement for organizational performance and for getting competitive edge [1]. Furthermore, previous studies have proposed that employee engagement is considered as the predictor of employee turnover intentions, work performance, financial capabilities, and customer satisfaction [2]. Researcher [3] describes the noteworthy role of employee engagement but also mention this aspect as the missing link" that is one of the significant dimension of organizational success. Employee engagement is mentioned as a new and emerging area" of 21st century [4]. Thus, employee engagement is visualized as the prominent factor for the success of organizations. However there is a huge gap of empirical studies regarding employee engagement.

But despite of this reality, the investigations of employee engagement are conducted from consulting firms like Tower Perrin and Gallup. But firms of other industries are lacked behind about empirical researches regarding employee engagement. That's why [4] has argued that there is a surprising dearth of research on employee engagement in the academic literature". Researchers [5] also concluded that there has been surprisingly little academic and empirical studies on one of most popular concept i.e. employee engagement" Furthermore, Researcher [4] proposed that there had been little investigation on the dimensions and predictors of the term employee engagement. Despite of the critical factor of the organizational performance, employee engagement was not investigated extensively [6]. And [6] and [2] also commented that there was intensive disengagement among the workers of organizations of modern age.

However, researchers have concluded that employee engagement is supportive factor to predict the employee performance, success of the organizations and financial outcomes [2,3,7,5]. Work life balance is important variable which is consider as new area of research. In previous two decades researchers are done number of researches on this variable and they have focused on this variable due to economic crises, due to increasing business rivalry and organizational restructuring [8,9]. For good commitment level of employees and performance organizations are paid much attention on concept of work life balance [10;11;12]. It is seemed that there is lot of pressure on employees regarding long hours and inflexible working timetables [13].Researches proposed that psychological and physical well-being of employees is very much disturbed due to imbalance of working activities and non-working activities [13; 14; 15; 16; 17].

A study of UK [18] described that the employees who did their extra work in their houses were reported as main sources of emotional exhaustion and stress. And employees were stated that their personal life is negatively affected by imbalance in work life balance and caused in serious health problems [18].It is concluded that work life balance is important issues for employees and organizations. This study is also considered the new emerging variable management leadership as independent variable. Current research is design to check the impact of work life balance and management leadership on employee job engagement.

2- LITERATURE REVIEW Employee Job Engagement

Researcher [20] describes the term employee engagement on the basis of researcher's [19] role behavior speculation. This theory proposes that employee attitudes are formed by the demands and regulations of other employees [20]. Researcher [10] also asserts that employees are likely to attach themselves according to their roles or improving their individual personality with these roles. Researcher [10]defines the term employee engagement as the harnessing of organizational members themselves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances"[10]. He also concludes that harnessing" is assorted according to employee's three kinds of states. These states are termed as meaningfulness, safety, and availability. Engagement is an intense connection between the self and the work role where people fully express themselves physically, cognitively and emotionally at work [10].

Work-life balance

According to [21] Work-life balance (WLB) is defined as the extent to which an individual is equally engaged in -and equally satisfied with - his or her work role and family role". Persons with high level of work-life balance will impart task orientation, logical argument and commitment for tasks allotted to them. Workers with balanced WLB performed the proper and balanced engagement during their personal life and in organizational work [22]. Researchers [23] concluded that implementation of family- friendly arrangements can enhance organizational efficiency. These researchers also proved the optimistic relation between workers performance and rate of efficiency. And these things can create family friendly rules in the organization [23]. Lot of researches also supported the execution of WLB rules in different kinds of organizations and in the different part of the country [21, 25,26].

Work life balance is the pa rt of organizational environment [27]. Researches on WLB have also been conducted in the education sector. [28], conducted his study on Higher Education firms HEFCE (Higher Education Funding Council for England) and UCEA (Universities and Colleges Employers Association in 2003) and described the valuable rules regarding WLB. Researchers [28], describes the relation of WLB with job pressure and burnout. [30] also confirm that turnover of employees is due to extra working hours. These researchers suggest that disagreement among employment and family is effected or restrained through the worker's assistance with organizational customs or by supervisors. Different researchers prove that WLB has greater impact on job fulfillment and loyalty and these can reduce the turnover of the employees [29,30]. Reseacher [31] describes the diverse viewpoint regarding the WLB.

Researhers [31] illustrate the term presenteeism" as an overwhelming need to put in more hours or, at the very least, appear to be working ver y long hours". These researchers conclude the three facts are closely related with presenteeism. (1) Managers must offer moral help and coaching to the workers of the organization. (2) Managers must be seen, their organization as like their own business. (3) For better results, it is necessary for the managers spend lots of time in their organization. Management Leadership Management leadership referred as leaders set service standards by their own behaviors' and management style" [32].

Different studies prove that management leadership is critical for organizations and there is positive association among management leadership and employee's job commitment [33]. Researchers [34] concluded that management leadership was given much importance by different previous scientists. According to Researchers [35,36], good managers are closely linked with the wants and desires of the subordinates. They always try to support them in all conditions. These helpful manners of managers can cause employee's job satisfaction [37]. Managers set good work atmosphere with the help of their management leadership [32]. That's why leadership style is a significant constituent for generating and continuing an efficient job orientation [34]. But, different researchers conclude that there is not significant association between leadership behavior and worker satisfaction [38,39].

Hypothesis

Workers with balanced WLB performed the proper and positive level of engagement during their personal life and in organizational work [40]. Different studies prove that management leadership is critical for organizations and there is positive association among leadership actions and employee's job commitment [33]. There are some further critical variables which are predictors of employee engagement. For example, human resource practices might have impact on employee engagement [4]. Management leadership is one of the important HR practices. On the basis of avove discussion, current study has proposed the following hypothesis.

H1: The influence of management leadership on employee job engagement is positive.

H2: There is positive influence of work life balance on employee job engagement.

4-DATA COLLECTION

Validity of scale and reliability of data

Table No1: Factor Analysis

Item Statement###Factor###Cronbach

###Loading###Alpha

WLB1###1.000

WLB2###1.080

WLB3###.878

WLB4###1.035

WLB5###-.455

ML1###.936

ML2###1.027

ML3###1.073

ML4###.969###0. .613

EE1###1.000

EE2###1.094

EE3###1.141

EE4###1.054

EE5###.938

###EE6###.999

###EE7###1.000

###EE8###1.348

###Item Statement###Factor###Cronbach

###Loading###Alpha

###EE9###1.444

###EE10###1.353

###EE11###1.427

###EE12###1.403

###EE13###1.000

###EE14###.957

###EE15###.953

###EE16###.883

###EE17###.909

###EE18###.979

Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was used. Respondents for this study were officer level employees of banking sector. Overall 423 questionnaires were distributed. 322 questionnaires were retrieved with the response rate of 76%; out of received 312 questionnaires were selected for final analyses, rest were not complete. This study used the scale of 28statements. This scale is developed with the help of previous articles published in the same area of research. Validity of the scale is checked with the help of factor loading. Factor loading of all 27 items included in the instrument was more than 0.50. Factor loading of only one statement of WLB is less than 0.50.This statement is excluded from the final analysis .Reliability of data is being checked with the help Cronbach alpha. SPSS 16 is making use for performing the test. Data is reliable if the value of crown batch alpha is more than 0.50 [26].

Cronbach alpha of all the instruments is more than 0.605 which indicates that data is reliable and is used for further analysis.

5-RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Correlation Analysis

Table No2

Employ Eng###WLB###ML

Employ Eng###1###.232###.305

WLB###1###.466###

ML###1

Table 2 describes that correlation between employee job engagement, management leadership and work life balance. Employee job engagement, management leadership and work life balance are positively correlated with each other's. Correlation between work life balance and management leadership is strong as compare to the correlation between employee job engagement and work life balance.

Tables No 3 describes the regression analyses about current study. The relationship and effect of independent variable on dependent variable is described with the help of regression analysis. The value of R Square describes the extent of impact that independent variable have on dependent variables.

Regression Analysis

Table No.3

###t###P

(Constant)###2.333###10.648###0.000

WLB###.081###1.895###0.059

ML###.183###4.119###0.000

R Square###.263

###F###91.205###0.000

Durbin-Watson###1.569

This value is accepted when it is greater than 25%. P-value illustrates the actual level of relationship. In the regression analysis if the value of P is less than 0.05, 0.01 or 0.10, then the hypothesis is accepted. These are three levels for the acceptance of the hypothesis. The value of F describes the extent of relationship between dependent and independent variables. Greater the value of F, greater will be the association among variables. The value of AY describes the level of impact of independent variable on dependent variables. The above table No.3 shows the relationship of work life balance and management leadership with employee job engagement. For the relationship of work life balance and employee job engagement the value of AY = 0.081 and value of p=0.059 i.e. less than 0.10. This describe that work life balance has significant positive effect on employee job engagement. It implies that work life balance may cause 8.1 % variation in employee job engagement.

For the relationship of management leadership and employee job engagement the value of AY = 0.183 and value of p=0.000 i.e. less than 0.01. This describe that management leadership has significant positive effect on employee job engagement. It implies that work life balance may cause 18.3 % variation in employee job engagement.

This table also gives the values of t which are non-zero.

6-CONCLUSION

Findings of current study implies that management leadership plays significant role in improving the level of employee job engagement banking sector . On the other hand work life balance has positive significant impact but extant of this relationship is less than as compare to the relationship of management leadership and employee job engagement. This study suggests that top management of banking sector can increase the level of job engagement by applying the concept of management leadership and work life balance. This can result in guarantee loyal and committed employees in banking sector and in a result employee turnover is reduced. Moreover, for applying these concepts efficiency of the organizations and productivity will be increased. In future studies, impact of employee job engagement with some outcome variables like OCB , employee commitment employee productivity will be checked.

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