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DISTRIBUTION OF THE HORTICULTURAL PLANTS IN TOGO ACCORDING TO DECORATIVE PARTS AND MEDICINAL VALUE.

Byline: R.RADJI AND K. KOKOU

Abstract

In Togo more than six hundred species of horticultural plants were identified belonging to approximately 59% of Dicotyledons (49 families 145 genera and 315 species) and 37.37% were monocotyledons. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms accounted for less than 6%. The spectrum of morphological types indicated that herbs accounted for 55% while trees and shrubs were 15%. More than 50% of the species of this flora were exotic. The species distributions were made according to their decorative parts and their place of use. Across the country 55 plantings were recorded and unevenly distributed in cities. Apart from their ornamental use these plants were used for feeding traditional and industrial cosmetics in psychotherapy horticultural therapy and in traditional and conventional medicine preparation. In this study 79 species from 39 families are reported as medicinal plants.

The Apocynaceae and Fabaceae (6 species) the Euphorbiaceae and Liliaceae (5 species) the Arecaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species) were the best represented families.

Key words: ornamental plants medicinal plants parts used Togo.

INTRODUCTION

Concerned with the preservation and the improvement of the wild plants quality and the increase of their yield the human beings have tried earlier to tame over larger or smaller surfaces (Mboh 2001). But beyond this utility concept many people love plants only for their beauty sake. They are also loved because of the scent exhaled by their parts and are used on various occasions births birthdays weddings funerals etc. The ornamental plants beautify the living environment and the flower go along with every moment of emotion (Ake et al 2010; Radji et al 2010). Therefore the production of horticultural products such as cut flowers foliage potted plants bedding plants bulb growing and nurseries have resulted in various industries including the distillery for the production of essential oils the production of substances for the pharmaceuticals dietary supplements and aromatic herbs (and Widehem and Cadic 2005; Viguier 2006).

In an increasingly urbanized environment the need for greenery and flowers is very essential. In sub-Saharan Africa where only 10% of the lands is considered arable the horticultural products are grown mainly by small and medium planters (Radji et al 2010; Wasilwa 2008 Wagner 2005).

This study was conducted to establish a classification of species used in ornamental horticulture in Togo. This classification is established according to their systematic group parts needed in the plants the line of life places of use and especially those used in traditional medicine.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The floristic inventory was conducted in the city of LomACopyright and its surroundings then in the cities of AtakpamACopyright and KpalimACopyright (Figure 1). Apart from these three cities no flower planting was identified in the other cities in Togo. However the study took into account the landscaped areas and the private gardens in public or private administrative institutions. Each planted or landscaped areas or garden was considered as a botanical survey having 55 plantings across the country including 1 in AtakpamACopyright 1 in KpalimACopyright and 53 in LomACopyright and its surroundings.

The species recorded were identified based on the flora (Berhaut 1971-1988 Byrd 1981 Grisvard et al. 1990 and Hessayon 1992.) Further information was collected from those of Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954-1972) Brunel et al. 1984 and Lebrun et Stork 2003. The nomenclature used was that of the mentioned by the authors. Data from the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (2007) and those of the websites of the Index Nominum Genericorum (ING) the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) and the Harvard University Herbaria (HUH) were used for the names of authors and synonyms. The classification of ornamental plants followed that of (Vidalie 1998 and AkACopyright-Assi 2002. The Works of (Radji et al. 2010 1998 Ake-Assi et al. 2010 Porter et al. 2004) allowed clarifying the origin countries of the plants.

In each planting an ethno botanical survey covered therapeutic uses of the identified species. This work was conducted through 279 respondents. The data collected was supplemented with two Traditional Practioners in LomACopyright. They were subsequently brought into line with those that already existed in the reference literature (Ake Assi 2010 2002; Florence et al 2007). The ethno botanical information collected was recorded on sheets of raw data and then was transferred to a database. This was processed and analyzed under RGui 2.7.0 statistical software (Ihaka and Gentleman 1996) to obtain standardized data concerning the key constituents therapeutic properties and uses assigned to each reported species the parts used and the most commonly mentioned methods of preparation. The status of rare species indicated by an index of scarcity RI obtained from the equation of (GACopyrighthu and GACopyrighthu 1980) where ni indicated the number of readings in which the species i was present and N was the total number of readings:

RI = {1 (ni|N)} x 100

RESULTS

Floristic richness: In AtakpamACopyright 123 species distributed in 42 families and 93 genera were identified. In KpalimACopyright 138 species identified were divided into 54 families and 103 genera. In the capital city LomACopyright the number of species identified were 612 divided into 246 genera and 80 families. All the species identified outside LomACopyright estimated at 300 species were at 100% found in the list of the species identified in LomACopyright and its surroundings. However nearly 500 species accounted in LomACopyright were not yet grown in the other cities.

The floristic richness on an average was 142.91 57.92 species per planting. The relationship between the floristic richness and the age of the nursery (Figure 2) was defined by the equation y=0.069 x + 0.449 with R = 0.236.

This significant relationship showed that the experience acquired by the planting operator over time especially by taking into account the demands and requirements of customers and the need to meet customer demand was a factor that cauld improve the species richness of horticultural planting.

Preferential species: In 274 the "preferential species" (RI less than 80%) represented 44.77% of the species surveyed. The 15 most common species found in the 55 occurrences were in alphabetical order Aloe vera L. var. chinensis Bougainvillea glabra Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Cordyline terminalis (L.) Kunth. Dieffenbachia amoena Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link. Erythrina indica Lamk. var. picta L. Euphorbia millii Des Moul. var. breonii Ficus bengamina L. Ficus retusa L. Ixora macrothyrsa Murraya paniculata Nerium oleander Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Thunb. Polyalthia longifolia.

With RI = 80% 338 species (55.23%) were "rare" and were listed in less than 10% of the readings. Among them 67 had only one occurrence (RI = 98.18%). This was the case of Calathea makoyana E. Morr. and Boom Cryptostegia grandiflora Br. R. ex Lindl. Davallia bullata Wall. Ex Hook. Echinocereus pectinatus Engelm. Ficus elastica Roxb. var. decora Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Oxalis ovate Ruiz ex Knuth A. Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray Vanda caerulea Griff. ex Lindl. and Zamia furfuracea L.f .

Origin of the plants of the horticultural flora in Togo: More than half (52%) of the horticultural flora species in Togo originated from America against less than 20% from Africa (Figure 3). Outside the America (30%) and Asia (25%) each of the three other continents included 15% of Pteridophyta identified. The Gymnosperms were 53% from the Americas and only 10% are from Africa. Concerning the Monocotyledons the species originated from Africa accounted for only 15% of the total. This percentage was 20% for dicotyledons. Among dicotyledons the plants originating from the Americas included only 54% of the total.

Distribution of the Species according to decorative parts

Decorative Foliage Plants: In this study 311 species grouped into 106 genera and 30 families were grown and used in Togo as ornamental decorative foliage plants. The most representative families were Arecaceae with 18 genera and 22 species and Araceae with 14 genera and 53 species and Acanthaceae with 12 genera and 16 species and the Euphorbiaceae with 5 genera and 31 species.

Decorative look or decorative habit Plants: Twelve families including 34 genera and 69 species were ornamental architecture. The following species were listed as an illustration: Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.)

Table 1.Showing fragrant plants

###1

###Family###Taxa###Part exhaling gasoline

Annonaceae###Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. and Tho ms.###Flowers

Agavaceae###Polianthes tuberosa L.###Flowers

Caesalpiniaceae###Cynometra megalophylla Harms###Leaves

Moraceae###Artocarpus communis J.R. and G. Forst###Fruits

Oleaceae###Jasminum nitidum Skan###Flowers

###Jasminum sambac Ait.###Flowers

Poaceae###Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf###Leaves

Rutaceae###Murraya paniculata (L.) Jacq.###Flowers

Ornamental plants with fruits: In the list of horticultural plants with fruits in Togo three families were recorded. Each accounted 1 genus. The species recorded were Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) L. Hook. f. and Thomson (Annonaceae) Ravenala madagascariensis Gmel. J.F. (Strelitziaceae) and Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier (Combretaceae)

Decorative flowering plants: It was about 166 species from 37 families of Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. This was the case of Allamanda cathartica L. (Apocynaceae) Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae) Guaiacum officinale L. (Zygophyllaceae) Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) Mussaenda philippica A. Rich. (Rubiaceae) and Plumbago capensis Thunb. (Plumbaginaceae).

Fragrant plants: This category included 9 species grown for the scent of their flowers leaves and fruits. They were from 8 families (Table 1).

Ornamental plants with the combination of decorative parts: Depending on the season the characteristics previously described (foliage habit/ look flowering fruit) can be combined to give the plant their ornamental or decorative appearance. It may be the foliage and flowers the case of Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem and Schult. et Plumeria rubra L. both of them were from the Apocynaceae family. We also had the flowers-habit/look association and this was the case of Guaiacum officinale L. (Zygophyllaceae). Finally we noted the association of foliage and inflorescences. This was the case of Nyctaginaceae Bougainvillea glabra Choisy variegata (bougainvillea with variegated leaves) the Oleaceae Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. (variegated privet) and the aquatic plant Victoria regia Lindl. (Nymphaeaceae).

Distribution of ornamental species according to their use: Curbs walkways or paths plants The inventory gave 35 species grouped into 17 families and 26 genera. There were generally decorative trees and shrubs by their leaves and look and seasonally by their inflorescence such as Khaya senegalensis and Delonix regia.

Outdoor garden plants

These were the trees shrubs and herbs potted installed outdoors or put in the ground on lawns. Isolated plants lawn plants bedding ornamental or protective hedges ground cover or coating plants and water decorative plants could also be identified.

Isolated plants: These were 49 species grouped in 34 genera belonging to 21 families. For species to be planted alone in a garden it must offer a spectacle of beauty either by their foliage (Nerium oleander variegatum) or by its look (Araucaria excelsa R. Br Cycas revoluta Thunb.) or by their flowers (Mussaenda philippica Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Polianthes tuberosa L.) or by their fruits (Crescentia cujete L.).

Lawns Plants or ground cover: The Poaceae were mostly used in Togo as lawns plants on preferential basis. In alphabetical order as : Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin Cynodon dactylon Pers Paspalum distichum L. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze. variegatum and Zoysia tenuifolia Trin.

Apart from lawns other plants were used to cover non-grassed surfaces. These included creepers such as Episcia cupreata (Hook.) Hanst. (Gesneriaceae) or twining plants such as Ipomoea quamoclit (Convolvulaceae). Depending on the structure of the plant some species were used as carpets; this was the case in Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch. (Asteraceae) or as wall carpet as case of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae)

Bedding grown ornamental plants: There were 28 species grouped in 18 genera and 15 families. The commonly used species were Acanthus mollis L. Barleria lupulina Lindl. (Acanthaceae) Canna generalis L. H. Bailey (Cannaceae) Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) T. Anders. Turnera ulmifolia L. (Turneraceae) and Yucca aloifolia L. (Agavaceae).

Ornamental hedges: These included 33 species of 18 genera. They were grouped into 14 families. The commonly appreciated species were Clerodendrum inerme (Verbenaceae) for their dense foliage; Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae) for their purple flowers and thorns; Pithecellobium dulce (Fabaceae) mainly for thorns and dense foliage when the plant was young and Pereskia grandiflora (Acanthaceae) for thorns and ease of their cuttings pushing.

Water Ornamental Plants: In this category two families were identified: the family of Pontederiaceae represented by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. and that of Nymphaeaceae with 4 genera Euryale Nelumbo Nymphaea and Victoria.

Indoor garden plants

House plants: These species are placed inside houses and apartments: balconies verandas hallways or inside the offices. 193 species grouped in 44 genera and 17 families were identified as house plants. These covered the genera Pteris (Adiantaceae) Asplenium (Aspleniaceae) Aglaonema Alocasia Caladium Dieffenbachia Monstera and Philodendron (Araceae) Schefflera (Araliaceae) Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) and Licuala Kentia Livistona (Arecaceae).

Cut Flowers: Several species were grown in order to provide useful elements for the preparation of floral bouquets. These bouquets were placed in clay pots or glass jars for home decor. Among the species recorded and identified were in genera Caesalpinia and Melia for inflorescences Alpinia Anthurium Aster Chrysanthemum and Polyanthes and Heliconia for flowers; Alpinia Cordyline Cycas Dracaena Maranta Sansevieria for the leaves and Cyperus for the stem and the leaves.

Ornamental plants for therapeutic purposes (Table 3)

Seventy-seven ornamental species belonging to 39 families were inventoried as medicinal plants. The most represented families in number of species were the Apocynaceae and Fabaceae (6 species) Euphorbiaceae and Liliaceae (5 species) the Arecaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species).

Therapeutic application field: The ethno botanical survey revealed that 49% of the identified species were used to heal the digestive system diseases and 17% for skin diseases. The treatment of visual bone urinary auditory parts of the nervous system was represented by less than 7% (Figure 4).

Some species were used to treat many diseases and the use of others required a combination with non ornamental plants.

Parts used: For about43% of the species the leaves were the most solicited parts (Figure 5). They were followed by in descending order the association stem- leaves (27%) the underground parts the bark the flowers the fruits and the entire plants.

Method of preparation and administration: The decoction was the most common method of preparation (47%). It was followed by the poultice (17%) and the bath (13%). The other methods maceration nature fumigation infusion powder represented 23% (Figure 6). Among the methods of administration the most used was the oral absorption (82%).

Related uses of ornamental plants: Even though grown for their beauty many ornamental planted present other utility features also. The following categories were identified: plants for psycho-magical feeding plants used in cosmetics or in industry (Table 3) and toxic plants.

For food plants fruit and leaves (Eugenia malaccensis L. Gomphrena globosa L.) were the most used parts while the wood was very useful as timber (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) in buildings (Acacia auriculiformis L.) and as firewood (Cassia siamea Lam.).

Concerning the human feeding 15 plant species were identified while 3 others were reported for traditional cosmetics and 11 in the agro-food system industrial cosmetics and wood industry (Table 2).

Table 2: Showing related uses of ornamental plants with Scientific name

###Parts consumed###Products obtained

###Food

Artocarpus communis J.R. and G. Forst.###Fruit

Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Vent.###leaves bulb

Chrysophyllum albidum G.Don###Fruit

Citrus maxima ; C. sinensis###fruit (pulp juice) flo wers###beverages jams flavoring; beekeeping

Cocos nucifera L.###Fruit

Cycas revoluta Thunb.###Marrow

###fermented beverages alcohol vegetable

Elaeis guineensis Jacq.###seed sap

###oils

Eugenia malaccensis L.###Fruit

Gmelina arborea Ro xb.###Leaves###food package

Gomphrena globosa L.###Leaves

###fruit (nature dried or###jams marmalades jellies compotes

Mangifera indica L.

###cooked)###alcohol

Pithecellobium dulce (Ro xb.) Benth.###fruit (aril)

Punica granatum L.###fruit (pulp)###jams

Samanea saman (Willd.) Merril.###Clove

Terminalia cattapa L.###Almond

###Cos metic

Bixa orellana L.###Seed###dyestuff

Elaeis guineensis Jacq.###Fruit###palm kernel oil

Lawsonia inermis L.###leaves flowers###dyestuff tincture perfu me toothpicks

###Industrial

Acacia auriculiformis L.###Wood###cabinetmaking

###softwood lumber firewood and charcoal

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.###wood seeds gum###oil tincture lubricants disinfectants

###cosmetics insecticides

Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. and Tho ms.###Flowers###Perfu me

Cassia siamea Lam.###Wood###cabinetmaking firewood charcoal

Catharanthus roseus L.###leaves flowers fruits###drugs

Citrus maxima; C. sinensis###wood branches###woodwork turning and marquetry

Cocos nucifera L.###Fruit###vegetable oil consumption

###palm kernel cake construction bridges

Ealeis guineensis Jacq.###seed fruit; stipe

###straw fencing brush

###frames poles wood making sculpture

Gmelina arborea Ro xb.###Wood

###crates plywood firewood fo r matches

Lantana camara L.###Leaves###sandpaper to polish wood

Mangifera indica L.###green or dried fruit wood###fuel construction tincture black in k

###Psycho-magic

###negative influences and household

Aloe vera###Leaves

###accidents protection

###trunk leaves and stems###protection against negative energies bad

Bambusa vulgaris

###powder###luck brings luck and fortune

Croton zambesicus MA1/4ll Arg.###whole plant###protection hunting evil spirits

Thevetia neriifolia Juss.###Fruit###ordeals divinations

Table 3: Showing horticultural plants used in traditional medicine

Names of Taxa###Parts Used###Method of administration

Acacia auriculiformis###leaves roots###decoction infusion

Acacia nilotica###fruit dried fruit powder fibers gum###extracts decoction

Agave americana###heart of the plant fresh leaves###dyeing

Allamanda cathartica###latex leaves

Allamanda neriifolia###leaves roots flowers milky sap

Aloe butneri###Leaf

###leaves sap pulp gel###gel ointment

Aloe vera

Alternanthera sessilis###leaves###poultice

Areca catechu###powder of dried nuts leaves roots leaves malaria###hot leaf cluster

Aristolochia elegans###leaves roots###infusion of leaves roots decoction ointment

Averrhoea carambola###leaves fruit###infusion decoction sap

###tea leaves leaves and barks decoction dry

###barks of trees and roots young growth leaves flowers

Azadirachta indica###leaves powder oily lotion leaves poultice

###stem oil

###flowers fruits

Bambusa vulgaris###leaves stems###decoction

Borassus aethiopum###male inflorescences###extracts

Caesalpinia pulcherrima###leaves bark wood flowers###infusion

Cananga odorata###Flowers roots entire plant###vegetable oil essential oil

###leaf decoctions flowers infusions crushed

Carica papaya###roots leaves flowers infusions seeds fresh latex fruit

###leaves latex

###leaf powder decoction seeds pulp macerated

Cassia alata###leaves roots ramules seeds flowers wood fruit

###leaves infusion of leaves and flowers

Cassia siamea###bark branches stems seeds.###external use

Cassia sieberiana###root###decoction infusion bath

Catharanthus roseus###roots leaves flowers###decoction of leaves crushed leaves cocktail

Citrus limon###leaves fruit (pulp) roots stems and seeds flowers###decoction

Clitoria ternatea###seeds roots leaves flowers with drops###of juice decoction powder

Cocos nucifera###fruit roots milk###decoction fresh milk

Costus speciosus###roots###decoction

Crinum asiaticum###leaves###plaster

Crinum jagus###bulbs

Croton zambesicus###shoots leaves bark roots###decoction infusion bath

Cymbopogon citratus###leaves entire plant###essential oil

Cynodon dactylon###entire plant roots###decoction

Draceana fragans var.

massangeana

Elaeis guineensis###roots sap leaves (palm cabbage) fruit stipe shell###decoction infusion oil

Erythrina indica-picta###bark seeds leaves roots

Euphorbia tirucalli###roots latex branches###juice of boiled roots local uses

Ficus pumila###Leaves

Gmelina arborea###roots leaves bark fruit###infusion decoction

Gomphrena globosa###leaves###infusion decoction

Guayacum officinale###leaves roots###decoction

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis###leaves flowers###crushing leaves decoction infusion

Hippeastrum puniceum###bulbs

Hura crepitans###seeds

Jasminum sambac###Flowers roots flowers###sap of roots crushing leaves decoction

Jatropha multifida. /

###leaves fruits seeds latex###decoction infusion

Adenoropium multifidum

Jatropha podagrica###leaves roots###crushing leaves decoction infusion

Kalanchoe pinnata###leaves###poultice

Lantana camara###leaves roots branches flowers###infusion decoction crushing

###crushing decoction infusion poultice (local

Lawsonia inermis###entire plant leaves roots bark flowers

###use)

Mangifera indica###leaves core bark sap root flowers###decoction of bark leave infusion

###in association with Quisqualis indica ou

###roots leaves fruits flowers roots bark bark associated

Melia azedarach###Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var.

###with fruit

###anthelmicum

Millettia thonningii###leaves###decoction

Murraya paniculata###leaves stems###decoction as toothpick

Nerium oleander###leaf bark flower###powder

Ocimum basilicum###essential oil###use bath

Ocimum gratissimum###entire plant seeds###in soup powder

Peperomia campylotropa###entire plant###in salad raw

Peperomia obtusifolia###leaves###raw infusion

Phyllanthus angustifolius###leaves roots###infusion local use

Pithecellobium dulce###bark roots leaves###decoction toothpick bath

Plumbago zeylanica###all plant###decoction

Plumeria rubra tricolor###bark leaves###local use on contusion decoction of leaves

Portulacca oleracea###seeds leaves entire plant###powder decoction

Punica granatum L.

###root (bark) flowers and fruits fruit (peel pulp) leaves###raw in drinks decoction

florepleno

Quisqualis indica###seeds roots fruits

Ruellia tuberosa (R.

###entire plants leaves seeds roots###decoction infusion tea

clandestina)

Setcreasea purpurea###leaf###juice

###flower-heads only leaves only roots only leaves and###chewing infusion chewed and applied as a

Spilanthes oleracea.

###flower heads entire plant###poultice

Strophanthus gratus###seeds###extracts

Tectona grandis###leaves seeds flowers###decoction

Terminalia cattapa###leaves bark###infusion decoction

Thevetia neriifolia###bark latex toxic seeds

Thunbergia grandiflora###leaves###plaster

Thuja occidentalis###oil###skin

Zingiber zerumbet###rhizome###powder juice raw

DISCUSSION

The use of ornamental plants in relation to the living environments had impact on the life and culture standard. In Togo whatever was the life standard of the population the current trend was to have a plant in his place of residence (Radji et al. 2010) and more than 90% of the respondents believed that the contact with plants was beneficial for their well-being (Brethour et al. 2007; Watson 2006; Waylen 2006).

The plants were still the first tank of new drugs. Approximately 75% of drugs were from plants and every year we experience the development of new drugs (Fleury 2008). African countries have a long medical tradition and traditional know-how based on medicinal plants (Scherrer et al. 2005). About 80% of people in developing countries rely on traditional medicines for primary health care (Jiofack et al 2009 2010; CIB-UNESCO 2010; Betti et Mbere 2011; Dibong et al 2011; Ngono et al. 2011) either by cultural tradition or owing to the lack of other alternatives including lack of access to conventional care or due to high cost of conventional drugs Okafor and Ham 1999). The majority of medicinal species of this study were 49% used to treat diseases of the digestive system 49% and 17% for the skin diseases. These results were line with the works of Mehdioui and Kahouadji (2007) which accounted respectively for the same cases i.e 50% and 15%.

The diversity of plant parts from which natural medicines are extracted is amazing. In addition to the leaves and flowers we also use the sap (Aloevera) the bark (Khaya senegalensis) the seeds the fruits the wood (Gaiacum officinale) the walnut (Cocosnucifera) the stem the resin the straw the tuber the bulb and the roots (Chevallier 1996). These parts are used raw dried or filtered in "sodabi" local liquor (Radji et al. 2010). In this study the leaves (43%) are in majority requested and it confirms the works of (Mehdioui and Kahouadji 2007 Poffenberger et al. 2006). If the value of 30% was also found by (Mehdioui and Kahouadji 2007) which appears to be less than 43% of this work other authors have found percentages exceeding 60%. by (Ouattara 2006) who estimated that the sampling of 50% of tree leaves shored not significantly affect its survival.

Furthermore the mostly used preparation method in this study was the decoction (47%). This result very close to 42.30% set by (N'Guessan et al. 2009) which was equal to the 47% found by (Mehdioui and Kahouadji 2007). With regard to the method of drug administration oral absorption was 82%.Similarly studied value were far greater than those reported as 32.35% established by (Ouattara 2006).

Conclusion: In Togo the horticultural flora was rich with 612 species including 20 Pteridophytes 17 Gymnosperms and 575 Angiosperms. The distribution of these species in major taxonomic groups indicated that the dicotyledons were mostly represented with preferential species of the Rubiaceae and Annonaceae families. Among the monocotyledons the highly represented families were the Araceae and Liliaceae. These species were differently distributed according to the continents and over 82% were alien to Africa. These were classified according to the decorative parts and the parts of use. Depending on the presence or absence of these plants and their diversity in housing a social stratification was possible. Among the species identified 77 grouped into 39 botanical families were used as medicinal plants. The most representative families in terms of species richness are the Apocynaceae Fabaceae Euphorbiaceae Liliaceae Arecaceae and Verbenaceae.

This study also revealed that 49% of medicinal species recorded were used to treat the digestive system diseases and 17% to treat skin diseases.

The exploration of the plant world resources including horticultural plants remains valid. The wild destruction of the forests deprived humanity from a vital source of materials for the discovery of new molecules necessary for the development of future drugs. Plant production in ornamental horticulture was it not a panacea for this destruction and in situ and ex situ a preservation of the overexploited species and a scenario of threats and even extinction.

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