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DIGITAL LITERACY SKILLS OF THE ASPIRANTS OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS IN THE ANNA CENTENARY LIBRARY, CHENNAI: A STUDY.

1. Introduction

The student or young graduate's ultimate goal is to get good employment. To reach this goal, he/she should have certain skills and competencies in order to fulfill the employer's need. Now-a-days, ICT has assumed a vital role even in day-to-day routine activities. Technologies are widely required capabilities across a broad range of occupation. In the technological era, ICT is the mandatory qualification for most of the jobs. Many advertisement notices specify specific skills required for a particular job. And ICT skills are one among the most demanded basic qualification expected from the young aspirants these days. The job seekers should develop their digital literacy skills to locate, access, retrieve, download and save the digital information in this fast growing competitive world.

2. Study Area

Anna Centenary Library: Anna centenary Library is located in Chennai at Kottururam. It is the biggest public library in Tamilnadu which comes under purview of Department of Public Libraries, Government of Tamilnadu. It is a eight-storey building with fully airconditioned housing. Its collection over 6 lakhs volumes with national magazines, national and international journals for different genre of readers.

Competitive Exam Section: Two separate sections are functioning for competitive exam aspirants. The first section ground floor library resources for competitive exams and the other section is an 'own book reading section/area' where the patrons are permitted to use their own resources. Per day user enrolment is more than 250 in these sections. A good number of users of these two sections clear various competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, IBPS, TNPSC etc.

3. Operational Definitions Key Terms

Skills: "The ability to do something well; expertise in a particular ability"-Oxford dictionary of English.

"An ability to do something well; especially you have learned and practiced it"--Longman.

According to Platonov (2003) "Ability is based on the previously obtained knowledge and skills considered as the quality that implies automatic unconscious performance of separate actions by an individual specifically oriented activities".

Digital Literacy Skills: According to the American Library Association is "Digital literacy skills is the ability to use information and communication Technologies to find evaluate, create and communicate information requiring both cognitive and technical skills."

"Digital/Computer literacy often appears to amount to minimal set of skills that will enable the user to operate effectively within software or in performing basic information retrieval tasks" (Goodson & Mangn, 1996).

"These skills have two levels: Level 1 includes understanding of common ICT terminology, the ability to use basic features of software tools such as word processors and spreadsheets and the ability to save data, copy and paste, manage files and standardize formats within documents. Level 2 includes the use of search engine and databases and ability to make more advanced use of software tools" (Williams et al., 2003).

The skills to access, evaluate, communicate information and produce documents electronically by using computers and communication technologies.

These skills include (1) fundamental knowledge about Microsoft applications for example: Ms Word, Ms Access, Spreadsheets, Power Point etc. (2) using and handling some professional software such as SPSS (3) maintaining in house databases, designing and constructing web pages (4) using databases and conducting online and internet searching and (5) retrieving and downloading the information in the required format.

4. Review of Literature

IDC (2014) examined about 14.6 million jobs posting between April and September 2013 in US. They analysed most required skills for job and they identified Microsoft Office ranked third (3) on the list of most required skills and Microsoft word and Microsoft PowerPoint occupied eleventh (11) and thirteenth (13) rank in the list.

Chien-Huashen (2013) analysed core competencies required for the managerial workforce of small and medium enterprises in Taiwan and identified 11 core and 35 secondary competencies of corporate management labourers. The prime competency is computer competency and the secondary competency is basic computer use, use of Microsoft packages, use of data base programmes and internet usage.

Jeyshankar, Nachiappan & Lavanya (2018) examined the post graduate students of Alagappa University, applied their Information Retrieval skills in accessing electronic resources. The samples were collected from the 252 of four faculties' postgraduate students of Alagappa University. With the help of filled questionnaire, the collected data was further analysed by using simple percentage, standard deviations and Chi-Square test. This study mainly focused on information retrieving skill among graduate students of Alagappa University. Female respondents are more compare than male students. It aspires to measure the postgraduate graduates' use and access of searching the information using web tools, techniques and resources. The study found that female respondents are high information retrieval skills compared to male. The study also emphasized most of the respondents Searching the electronic catalogue (OPAC) through the author, title and shelf searches." has highest mean score as far as both male and female respondents 4.54 (S.D. 0.789) and male respondents 4.35 (0.957) are concerned.

Danner and Pessu (2013) conducted a survey of ICT competencies among students in teacher preparation programs at the University of Benin, Benin city, Nigeria. They found that there is no significant difference between male and female in their perceived ICT competencies. There is a significant difference in the perceived ICT competencies of the students who had taken computer course.

Jeyshankar & Vellaichamy (2018) conducted the awareness of library rules, use of library services and information access competency of the women faculty members (Mother Teresa Women's University and its affiliated colleges) was investigated for their opinions and experiences about assorted techniques of information access. Data were collected through questionnaire method. Copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 87.59% of population i.e. 254 out of 290 women faculty members in their staff rooms with the permission and assistance of the registrar/principal. They found that 242 (95.2%) respondents agree/strongly agree that 'they can access printed and electronic reference sources'. 235 (92.5%) respondents agree/strongly agree that 'they can read the text and understand the main idea from the text'. 210 (82.7%) respondents agree/strongly agree that 'they can restate the text in their own words and present data accurately'. While 83% (213) of the respondents agree/strongly agree that 'they identified similar information from both print and electronic resources'.

Jeyshankar (2018) analysed the multiple intelligence skills of LIS professionals in working government and private universities in Tamil Nadu. Data were collected through questionnaire method. Totally 441 questionnaire were collected from 114 in traditional, 291 in Professional and 36 in Multi-discipline subjects. The study revealed that the private universities LIS professionals are more compare than government universities. The respondents from Government Universities are better skilled than their counterparts from private universities in all the 17 linguistic intelligence skills. The study suggested that professional bodies / learned societies in the field of library and information science may join hands with universities and other non-governmental organizations to organize various soft skills / multiple intelligence skills training programmes taking a survey beforehand. A well groomed library professional good at many skills is an asset any institution he/she works in. His/her multiple intelligence skills may bring drastic changes and positive impacts both in the library landscape and library services.

Vellaichamy & Jeyshankar (2017) evaluated competencies at Mother Teresa Women's University and its affiliated colleges. They tried to evaluate the information literacy needs; information needs assessment competency and competency of information literacy evaluation. Questionnaire was a data collection tool. A total of 290 questionnaires were distributed among users and 254 duly filled in questionnaires were received, thus resulting into a response rate of 87.59 per cent. Out of 12 institutions, 5 were government, 5 were self-financing and 2 were aided educational institutions. The study showed that 163 (64.2%) respondents are assistant professors and 81 (31.9%) respondents are associate professors while just 10 (3.9%) respondents are professors. Study also reveals that majority of the respondents belong to more than 45 years (33.1%) age group followed by 41-45 years age group constituting 19.3% (49) of the respondents and 36-40 years age group constituting 16.9% (43) of the respondents and 30.8% (78) of the sample are young belonging to either 25-30 or 31-35 years age group.

Jeyshankar, Nachiappan, and Suresh (2016) analysed Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are very useful to connect the people in today's society. The purpose of this study was to investigate the access to and use of social networking sites among the post graduate students of rural colleges in India. The respondents have excellent skills in using social networking sites for sharing and communicating information.

Bobby Goswami Baruah and Hangsingh (2012) conducted a study entitled 'Relevance of the raising job market for Library and Information Professionals versus competencies needed with reference to Indian context'. They revealed that online searching skills, thorough knowledge of internet, computer skills including hardware and software, knowledge of e resources and information storage and retrieval are the highly required competencies.

5. Objectives

The study is conducted with the following objectives:

* To analyze the basic knowledge of the respondents about Digital literacy;

* To identify level of knowledge and ability of the respondents in Digital Literacy;

* To identify the internet usage and purposes of the respondents and

* To analyze the skills of the respondents in using ICT Medium / technologies.

6. Methodology

The present study has adopted survey method of research. Questionnaires were used to collect the data from the respondents. The questionnaire contains closed ended questions only. Three and Five point Likert scales were used in framing the questions. The patrons of Anna Centenary Library who make use of the 'competitive exam' Section constitutes the population of the study. The researcher has decided to collect the primary data required for the study from the library users of 'Competitive exam section'. Simple random sampling method is adopted by the researcher to select the respondents. The data was collected from the respondents in the first week of December 2018. Three hundred and twenty five (325) questionnaires were distributed among the respondent in person by the researcher explaining the purpose and infusing the privacy of data being collected. While checking the fullness of the questionnaires, it was found that ten questionnaires were incomplete and so excluded from the purview of the study. The duly filled in 315 questionnaires were used for the analysis. MS Excel and SPSS were used for analysis. The study is limited to the users of Anna Centenary Library, Chennai who make use of competitive (self-study) section only. The open opinion and reply of the respondents on their abilities.

7. Data Analysis and Interpretation

Table 1 describes the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of gender, age, course and subject of study and nativity.

Gender of the Respondents: Out of 315 respondents, a majority of about 70% (219, 69.52%) of the respondents is male and the remaining 30% (96, 30.48%) are female. Thus, more male users than that of female users make use of self-study section of the library.

Age group of the respondents: Slightly more than half of the respondents (162, 51.43%) are less than 25 years of age. While 43.81% (138) of the respondents belong to 25-30 years of age, just about 5% (15) of the respondents are more than 30 years of age. It is inferred that more youngsters make use of self-study section of Anna Centenary Library.

Course of Study: A majority of the respondents who visit the self-study section are Under Graduates (195, 61.90%). One third of the respondents (108, 34.29%) are Post Graduates while just 3.81% of them are M.Phil scholars. Thus, more undergraduates visits the ACL to make use of self-study section than that of PG students and M.Phil Scholars.

Subject of Study: One fifth of the respondents are pursuing 'arts' courses and another one fifth of the respondents are undergoing science courses. About 60% of the respondents are doing professional courses (183, 58.10%). It is deciphered that more students of professional courses prepare for competitive exams that that of arts and science course students.

Nativity of the Respondents: Two third of the respondents (204, 64.76%) are hailed from urban areas and one third of the respondents (111, 35.24%) are hailed from rural areas. Thus, the self-study section of ACL has more urban users than rural users.

Table 2 shows the basic knowledge of digital literacy among the respondents. Out of 315 respondents, three fourth of them have knowledge of the use of shortcut keys (243, 77.14%), scanning of text and images (237, 75.24%) and basic functions of hardware components (237, 75.245). More than half of them have knowledge of various file formats and file format conversion. 42-44% of the respondents don't have knowledge about file format extensions and file format conversions. One fourth of the respondents don't have knowledge of basic functions of hardware components and scanning of text and image.

Table 3 discloses the level of knowledge and ability of the respondents with regard to their digital literacy. Out of 315 respondent, 156 (49%) respondents have high level of skills, 132 (41%) possess moderate skills and 27(8.57%) have low level of ICT skills.

The chi-square test conducted to test whether there is an association between the gender of the respondents and their level of digital literacy skills reveals that there is no association as the p value is more than the significant level of 0.05. The null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4 shows the skill level of the respondents in respect four different software programs included in MS Office Suite. Out of 315 respondents, 105 male and 51 female respondents have high level of skills in using MS Word followed by 54 male members with mediocre skills, 45 male respondents and 39 female respondents with very high level of skills. Just 9 and 6 male respondents possess low and very low level of skills in Ms Word application respectively. Out of 315 respondents, 75 male and 42 female respondents have high level of skills in using MS Excel followed by 78 male and 24 female respondents with mediocre skills and 21 male respondents and 21 female respondents with very high level of skills. But 27 male and 09 female respondents posses low level and 18 male respondents have very low level of skills in MS Excel application. Comparatively, the level of skills of female respondents is better than that of male respondents here. Out of 315 respondents, 09 male and 03 female respondents have high level of skills in using MS Access followed by 42 male and 27 female respondents with mediocre skills and 09 male and 03 female respondents with very high level of skills. But 57 male and 15 female respondent's posse's low level and 75 male and 33 female respondents have very low level of skills in MS Access application. Here both male and female respondents' level of skills is low.

Out of 315 respondents, 99 male and 33 female respondents have high level of skills in using MS PowerPoint followed by 60 male and 90 female respondents with mediocre skills and 30 male respondents and 60 female respondents with very high level of skills. Just 18 and 12 male respondents possess low and very low level of skills in MS Word application respectively. Only the least number of respondents possess very low level skills in MS Power Point Application.

Table 5 shows the purposes for which the respondents use internet. Out of 315 respondents, 60% (189) of the respondents use internet for general browsing frequently, 26.7% (84) of the respondents use internet for browsing internet rarely and 13.3% (42) of the respondents use internet for browsing occasionally. Out of 315 respondents 49% (156) of the respondents are using internet for accessing online e- resources frequently, 31.4% (99) of the respondents are using internet for accessing online e- resources rarely and just 19% (60) of the respondents are using internet for accessing online e- resources occasionally. Out of 315 respondents 46.7% (147) of the respondents are using internet for online applications frequently followed by 33.3% (105) of the respondents who are using internet for online application rarely and 20% (63) of the respondents who are using internet for online applications occasionally. Out of 315 respondents 68.6% (216) of the respondents are using internet for watching coaching classes via YouTube frequently followed by 24.8% (78) of the respondents who use internet for watching coaching classes via YouTube occasionally and 6.6% (21) of the respondents who use internet for watching coaching classes via YouTube rarely. Out of 315 respondents 53.3% (168) of the respondents are using internet for participating in Online Mock test frequently followed by 35.3% (111) of the respondents who are using internet for participating in the Online Mock tests occasionally and 11.4% (36) of the respondents who are using internet for undertaking Online Mock tests rarely.

Table 5 shows the level of internet search skills of the respondents. The overall analysis shows that a majority of 59.1% (186) of the respondents have good skills in internet searching followed by 22.85% (72) of the respondents holding average skills in internet searching and 17.1% (54) of the responding possessing very good skills in internet searching.

The gender-wise analysis shows that 60.3% (132) of male respondents and 56.2% (54) of female respondents have good skills in internet searching followed by 23.3% (51) of male respondents and 21.9% (21) of female respondents holding average skills in internet searching and 15.15% (33) of male respondents and 21.9% (21) of female respondents possessing very good skills in internet searching.

Overall Analysis: Table 7 explains the rate of skills of the respondents with regard to the use of ICT medium / technologies. Half of the respondents (159) possess moderate level of skills in using ICT technologies / Medium like PC, laptop, tab, android phone and external storage devices. While one fourth of them (81, 25.71%) possess high level of skills, 14.29% (45) of them have very high level of skills in using various ICT technologies / medium. Only 8% of the respondents have low level of skills in using various ICT technologies / medium.

The gender-wise analysis shows that 49.31% (108) of male respondents and 53.11% (51) of female respondents possess moderate level of skills in using ICT technologies / Medium like PC, laptop, tab, android phone and external storage devices. followed by 27.40% (60) of male respondents and 21.9% (21) of female possess high level of skills in using ICT technologies / Medium like PC, laptop, tab, android phone and external storage devices. And 12.33%(27) respondents are using very high level skills and 9.59% (21) & 1.3%(03) of male respondents Low and very Low, only 3.12% (03) of female respondents possess low and very low level of skills using ICT technologies..

Chi-Square Test: The chi-square test conducted to test whether there is an association between the gender of the respondents and their level of Skills in using ICT Technologies and medium like PC, Laptop, Tab, Android phone & External storage devices reveals that there is no association as the p value is more than the significant level of 0.05. The null hypothesis is accepted.

8. Major Findings

A majority of the respondents are male. They are less than 25 years of age and pursuing under graduation. Three fourth of them have knowledge of the use of shortcut keys (243, 77.14%), scanning of text and images (237, 75.24%) and basic functions of hardware components (237, 75.245). More than half of them have knowledge of various file formats and file format conversion. 42-44% of the respondents don't have knowledge about file format extensions and file format conversions.

156 (49%) respondents have high level of skills, 132 (41%) possess moderate skills and 27(8.57%) have low level of ICT skills.

105 male and 51 female respondents have high level of skills in using MS Word. 75 male and 42 female respondents have high level of skills in using MS Excel. 57 male and 15 female respondents posses low level and 75 male and 33 female respondents have very low level of skills in MS Access application. 99 male and 33 female respondents have high level of skills in using MS PowerPoint.

60% (189) of the respondents use internet for general browsing frequently. 46.7% (147) of the respondents are using internet for online applications frequently. 49% (156) of the respondents are using internet for accessing online e- resources frequently. 68.6% (216) of the respondents are using internet for watching coaching classes via YouTube frequently. 53.3% (168) of the respondents are using internet for participating in Online Mock test frequently.

A majority of 59.1% (186) of the respondents have good skills in internet searching followed by 22.85% (72) of the respondents holding average skills in internet searching and 17.1% (54) of the responding possessing very good skills in internet searching.

Half of the respondents (159, 50.48%) possess moderate level of skills in using ICT technologies / Medium like PC, laptop, tab, android phone and external storage devices.

9. Suggestions

The following suggestions are put forward by the researcher to improve the digital literacy skills of the respondents.

* Necessary workshops / training sessions / demos / technical classes may be arranged to educate and enrich the knowledge of the respondents in using short cut keys, scanning of images, file format conversions, MS office applications etc to enable them work effectively towards achieving their goals in competitive examinations

* Manuals on the use of basic digital literacy tools may be prepared and distributed by mail / made available in the library website.

* A special library professional may be placed in the competitive exam section to assist the respondents in solving the issues they face in the use of digital tools and resources.

* The respondents with low level of digital literacy may be identified and given special hands on training with or without the financial assistance of Govt. agencies

* Special sessions on imparting skills in the use of MS Access may be arranged.

* Orientation programme may be organized by the library staff to improve the digital literacy skills of the respondents in accessing online resources, applying online jobs and undertaking online mock tests required for competitive examinations.

* The respondents may be given a rudimentary outline on the hardware skills required for handling their laptops, tabs, android phones and external storage devices.

* Videos on the use of various digital literacy skills required for the aspirants of the competitive exams may be uploaded in the library website.

10. Conclusion

Now-a-days, digital literacy has vital role to play not only in job requirements but also to learn or prepare for competitive examinations. Digital literacy is required by the aspirants of competitive examinations to identify access, evaluate and utilize lot of information available in the digital globe. The candidates should be updated. Otherwise, it will become very difficult for them to compete and win in the exam race. To gain the digital literacy skills, the respondents should possess personal interest. The interest becomes habit; habits became practice; the practice becomes skills. To improve knowledge and ability and range of using various ICT tools, the respondents may have to attend some training courses, workshops etc.

11. References

Abas, M. C., & Imam, O. A. (2016). Graduates' competence on employability skills and job performance. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 5(2), 119-125.

Baruah, B. G., & Hangsing, P. (2013). Relevance of the rising job market for LIS professionals versus competencies needed with reference to Indian context. Trends in Information Management, 8(2),54-74.

Danner, R. B., & Pessu, C. O. (2013). A survey of ICT competencies among students in teacher preparation programmes at the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 12, 33-49. https://literacy.ala.org/digital-literacy

Jeyshankar, R. & Vellaichamy, A (2018). An Analysis of Women Faculty Attitudes, Perceptions and Experiences of Information Access Competency. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). 1860.

Jeyshankar, R., Nachiappan, N., & Lavanya, A. (2018). Analysis of Gender Differences in Information Retrieval Skills in the Use of Electronic Resources among Post Graduate Students of Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu. Library Philosophy and Practice, 1.

Jeyshankar, R., Nachiappan, N., & Suresh, M. (2016) Access and Use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) among the Post Graduate Students of Rural Based College of Tamil Nadu, India-A Study. SRELS Journal of Information Management, 53(3), 237-241.

Knobel, M. (2008). Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices (Vol. 30). Peter Lang.

Medeshova, A., Amanturlina, G., & Sumyanova, E. (2016). Development of Training Skills in Students as the Precondition for Educational Competencies. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(17), 9649-9656.

Samani, R., Reavis, J., & Honan, B. (2014). CSA guide to cloud computing: Implementing cloud privacy and security. Syngress.

Shen, C. H., Chou, C. M., Hsiao, H. C., & Lee, Y. J. (2013). Analysis of Core Competency Required for the Managerial Work Force of Small and Medium Enterprises in Taiwan. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 6(03), 111.

Vellaichamy, A., & Jeyshankar, R. (2017). Academic performances by the faculty members of Mother Teresa Women's University and its affiliated colleges: an evaluative study. Library Philosophy & Practice. (e-journal). 1589.

Vellaichamy, A., & Jeyshankar, R. (2017). An Assessment of women faculty members' opinions about information literacy needs, search and evaluation competencies. Library Philosophy & Practice. (e-journal). 1689.

Jeyshankar, R (2018). Multiple Intelligence Skills among Library and Information Science Professionals of Government and Private Universities in Tamil Nadu, India: An Exploratory Study. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). 1859.

Balakrishnan. R (1) and Dr. Jeyshankar R (2)

(1.) Research Scholar, Department of Library and Information Science, Alagappa University, Karaikudi Email: srbalalib@gmail.com.

(2.) Asst. Professor, Department of Library and Information Science, Alagappa University, Karaikudi. Email: jeyshankar71@gmail.com.
Table-1: Demographic Profile of the Respondents

      Description                Respondents      Total     %
Sl.
no     Gender                   Male    Female
                                 219      96      315    100.00
1       Age        Below 25      108      54      162    51.43
                    25-30        102      36      138    43.81
                    31-35        009      06      015    04.76
                    Total        219      96      315    100.00
2     Courses         UG         129      66      195    61.90
                      PG         81       27      108    34.29
                    M.Phil        9       3       012     3.81
                    Total        219      96      315    100.00
3     Subject        Arts        39       24      63     20.00
                   Science       54       15      69     21.90
                 Professional    126      57      183    58.10
                    Total        219      96      315    100.00
4     Nativity      Rural        84       27      111    35.24
                    Urban        135      69      204    64.76
                    Total        219      96      315    100.00

Table 2: Basic knowledge of Digital Literacy among the respondents

Sl.                                 Response
no    Description
                                Yes (%)     No (%)

1.    Basic functions of          237        078
      hardware components       (75.24%)   (24.76%)
2.    File format extension       174        141
                                (55.24%)   (44.76%)
3.    File format conversion      180        135
                                (57.14%)   (42.86%)
4.    Text and image              237        078
      scanning ability          (75.24%)   (24.76%)
5.    Usage of shortcut keys      243        072
                                (77.14%)   (22.86%)

Table 3: Level of Knowledge and ability (skills) in Digital Literacy

                         No of Respondents
Sl.      Level                                     Total      %
no                       Male         Female

1.        High       108 (49.3%)    48 (50%)       156     49.52
2.      Moderate     087 (39.8%)   45 (46.9%)     132     41.90
3.        Low         24 (10.9)      03 (3.1%)      27       8.57
4.       Total        219 (100%)     96(100%)       315     100.00
5.                   Chi-Square Test
6.    Pearson Chi-        Df           Sig.          Result
         Square
         5.599            2            .061       Not Significant

Table 4: Skills of using MS Office applications Vs. Gender of the
Respondents

                       Very High         High          Mediocre
Sl.
no    Applications   M    F    T     M    F     T     M    F     T

1.      MS Word      45   39   84   105   51   156   54    06   60
2.      MS Excel     21   21   42   75    42   117   78    24   102
3.     MS Access     9    3    12   36    18   54    42    27   69
4.     MS Power      30   30   60   99    33   132   60    30   90
         Point

                     Low             Very Low
Sl.
no    Applications    M    F    T     M     F     T

1.      MS Word      09    --   09   06    --    06
2.      MS Excel     27    09   36   18    --    18
3.     MS Access     57    15   72   75    33    108
4.     MS Power      18    --   18   12    03    15
         Point
Note: M = Male; F= Female; T = Total

Table 5: Purpose of Internet usage

                                          Frequently
Sl.   Usage
no                                     M     F     T     %

1.    General Browsing                117    72   189    60
2.    Access online e-resources        93    63   156   49.6
3.    Apply for online application     93    54   147   46.7
4.    Coaching classes listening      147    69   216   68.6
      through YouTube
5.    Online Mock test                111    57   168   53.3

                                         Occasionally
Sl.   Usage
no                                    M    F     T     %

1.    General Browsing                36   6    42    13.3
2.    Access online e-resources       45   15   60     19
3.    Apply for online application    45   18   63     20
4.    Coaching classes listening      54   24   78    24.8
      through YouTube
5.    Online Mock test                84   27   111   35.3

                                            Rarely
Sl.   Usage                                                  Total
no                                    M    F     T     %

1.    General Browsing                66   18   84    26.7    315
2.    Access online e-resources       81   18   99    31.4    315
3.    Apply for online application    81   24   105   33.3    315
4.    Coaching classes listening      18   03   21    6.6     315
      through YouTube
5.    Online Mock test                24   12   36    11.4    315

Note. M = Male; F= Female; T = Total

Table 6: Level of Internet search skills

                      No of Respondents
Sl.   Level                                  Total     %
no                   Male         Female

1.    Very Good   033 (15.1%)   21 (21.9%)    054    17.10
2.    Good        132 (60.3%)   54 (56.2%)    186    59.10
3.    Average     051 (23.3%)   21 (21.9%)    072    22.85
4.    Poor        003 (01.3%)       --        003    00.95
5.    Very poor       --            --        --      --
Total             219 (100%)    96 (100%)     315     100

Table 7: Skills of using ICT Technologies and medium like PC, Laptop,
Tab, Android phone & External storage devices

                            No of Respondents
Sl.     Level                                       Total     %
no                         Male         Female

1.      Very High      027 (12.33%)   18 (18.75%)    045    14.29
2.      High           060 (27.40%)   21 (21.90%)    081    25.71
3.      Moderate       108 (49.31%)   51 (53.11%)    159    50.48
4.      Low            021 (09.59%)   03 (03.12%)    024    07.62
5.      Very Low       003 (01.37%)   03 (03.12%)    006    01.90
Total                   219 (100%)     96 (100%)     315     100
                            Chi-Square Test
        Pearson Chi-        Df           Sig.          Result
        Square
        5.599               2            .061       Not Significant
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Title Annotation:India
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Date:Mar 1, 2019
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