Printer Friendly

DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL DENTAL ETHICS COURSE WITH ADDITIONAL ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE AND DENTAL STUDENTS' FEEDBACK.

Byline: SHAHINA YASMIN

Abstract

The professional ethics are taught in many dental schools using variable teaching methodologies and courses. Many dental associations, colleges and societies etc. have done commendable work in this field suggesting innovations and highlighting legal aspects. The obligations expected from Muslim Dentists in service to humanity, needs enrichment of knowledge by Islamic perspective in ethics curriculum. The objectives of the study were to share the local experience of teaching Professional Dental Ethics course in Islamic International Dental College, evaluate its effectiveness and improve it through students' feedback. The course was taught to final year students (n= 75) of undergraduate dental program by interactive lectures. The students' feedback was obtained by five point Likert scale using unimanous validated questionnaire.

Out of 75 students, the response rate was 61.3%. The understanding of learning objectives were clear to 47.8% students and 30.4% felt the link between objectives and university mission statement. The contents were considered sufficient and relevant by 45%. More than 70% admitted moderate to outstanding increase in their knowledge and change in attitude. About 54.4% applied the concepts in personal and professional life. The course had measurable impact on ethical development of students. However the deficiencies in the course could be replenished by introducing multiple methodologies and enhancing interest.

Key Words: Ethics, Professional dental ethics, Teaching Dental Ethics, Dental curricula, dental ethics courses.

INTRODUCTION

The knowledge of a profession without being practiced is worthless and practice of knowledge without ethics can have disastrous outcome. The increasing incidence of ethical issues in professional practice aroused the development of global consensus to teach and inculcate ethics. 1 Various local and international studies marked the lack of knowledge regarding medical ethics and law among doctors.2,3,4

Even the postgraduates had less competence to resolve ethical dilemmas because of deficient training.2,5 Mohammed identified the areas that led to dissatisfaction of 52% of patients with physicians and emphasized on appropriate training to sensitize residents.2 The Indian study showed lesser appreciation of healthcare ethics in dental postgraduates than medical counterparts.5 The enhancement in professionals' competency to deal ethical challenges, necessitates compulsory ethical education in under-graduate and postgraduate curriculum3,5 that should include general principles, profession specific contents and contemporary issues. American and Canadian Dental Associations, American College of Dentistry, American Society for Dental Ethics and many others have done commendable work in this regard.

The emphasis on ethics teaching in curricula of dental schools reflects the importance of promoting ethical behavior.

Valuable researches suggested innovations in teaching ethics and highlighted legal aspects.

The drives for ethical action originate from family values, education, religious and cultural background and role models.11 There is increasing awareness about the importance of values, culture, faith and religious principles in ethical issues regarding management of patient with developing modern diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that may be acceptable, conflicting or contradictory. The fundamental ethical theories concerning dentist,15 and western approach could not provide absolute solutions for many ethical dilemmas.16

A combination of theoretical principles that fit best for a particular situation is needed. The religious teachings could fill the gaps and deficiencies. The Judeo-Christian and Islamic teachings provide acceptable conduct drive with right and wrong cut-off points, flexibility range and universal standards of morality with normative and deviant behaviors.1 The centre for bioethics and culture University of British Columbia highlights the association of bioethics and culture.17 The 12th world congress discussed cultural differences in what is considered ethical or moral in the context of religion and regional differences.18 Potter described bioethics as link between present and future, nature and culture, science and values and humankind and nature. He sought greater appreciation for human values in the face of moral dilemmas.19

The declaration of justice served by Allah be tooth for tooth, ear for ear and nose for nose,20 high incentives for excellent performance and severe punishment for misconduct here and hereafter, puts on believing Muslim doctor an additional obligation to ethical practice. Muslims, constituting about one third of world's population, are exposed to changing trends in medical technology that might raise apprehensions and concerns. Muslim patients' religious beliefs have to be addressed in the healthcare setting because of their impact on health related behaviors and practices with implications for many healthcare issues.21 Islamic theology integrates religion, law and medicine. It addresses the concepts and issues related to health and illness, instructions regarding behavior of physician and management of the patient.

Tober and Budiani drew these proclamations to inform decisions surrounding the human body and its care in the advent of new technologies and circumstances.22 The human society regards laws as a way of upholding the religion based values.23 The universal ethical system of Islam considers an unethical act as illegal contrary to western concepts. The Islamic approach to resolve the ethical dilemmas is based on one Islamic ethical theory, maqasid-al-shari'at.16 The models of Islamic applied (biomedical) ethics based on the fact that the revelation can be interpreted in various ways, abide the body of sound Islamic ethico-legal principles and rules to be applied to ethical dilemmas in medicine and research.24

Kroeber's study proved a strong relationship between student behavior at dental school and that exercised in practice and suggested the need to address the issue seriousely.25 Although Pakistan medical and dental council directs the institutes to teach ethics and displayed code of ethics document on website,26 but further intensive efforts are required. Lantz's study about the status of ethics teaching and learning in United States Dental schools, recommended curriculum development and research agenda.27 Both Muslim and non Muslim researchers expressed the need to understand and integrate Islamic perspective in health professional ethics. Barbara reflected on the influence of knowledge of Islamic cultural practices over the health care of Muslim patient and highlighted its importance in preventing ethical dilemmas.28

Khan considered the incorporation of Islamic perspectives in ethics curriculum as mandatory in order to address the contemporary issues in Muslim society, to avoid mistakes regarding permissibility and facilitate patients.29

This article aims to:

* share the local experience of teaching Professional Dental Ethics course

* evaluate the its effectiveness through students feedback

* and obtain suggestions for improvement

METHODOLOGY

Professional Dental Ethics course

The Riphah International University (RIU) introduced Professional Ethics courses in line with its mission statement. In 2010, Islamic International Dental College (IIDC), being pioneer in Pakistan, started Professional Dental Ethics course (PDEC) with Islamic perspective in undergraduate program of Bachelors of Dental Sciences. The objective of course was to develop ethically well equipped dental professionals who can meet the upcoming challenges in Dentistry. The contents relevant to Dentistry were included in the outlines designed by Social Sciences department under supervision of the Vice Chancellor Dr Anis Ahmed. The course was taught to Final year BDS class having 75 students for a period of 30 weeks by a weekly interactive lecture. The students were encouraged to ask questions and given appropriate answers.

The course contents were based on the following topics: ethics theories, ethics in Islam, reasons for being ethical (creation of Universe, mankind and purpose), PMDC code of ethics, dental ethics, oath of dental practitioner, dentists relationship with patient and pharmaceutical companies, research ethics involving human subject, use of human remains (dissection, autopsy, transplantation, dental Implantology), professionalism, cosmetic dental surgery, genetic engineering, cloning, oral hygiene, fasting and dental issues, concept of halal-oharam and impact of role model on personality etc.

In addition to dental text books, various research article and books were consulted for preparation of lectures. Relevant Islamic perspectives were described using four Usul-ul-fiqh (Quran, Sunnah, Ijma , Qiyyas). The following books were recommended as reference material. The Holy Quran, Saheeh Bukhari, Ethics of Practice for Medical and Dental Practitioners (PMDC), Ethics hand book for dentists (American College of Dentists), An Introduction to Ethics (William Lille), Biomedical ethics -Philosophical and Islamic perspective (Qaisar Shahzad), Professional Ethics an Islamic Perspective (Dr Iqbal Khan), PIMA publications (Islamic Medical Ethics, Islamic viewpoint on contemporary medical issues,

The Shariaah and organ transplantation etc.), Patient treatment and attendance in the light of Islam (Dr Hafiz Mehmud Akhtar), Organ Transplantation, Euthanasia, Cloning and Animal experimentation - An Islamic View (Abdul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim), Medical Miracles of the Quran (Sharif Kafal-Ghazal), Doomsday and life after death (Sultan Bashir) and Islam men Halal-oHaram (Allama Yusaf alqarzawi) etc.

Assessment was done by following ways. Two assignments on different topics were given during the year to individual and groups of two or three students. Three tests were taken at intervals and sendup paper at the end of year. The marks achieved in all of above were used as internal evaluation criterion. Final assessment was done by theory paper in annual professional examination that required attendance of at least 75% lectures to appear in examination. The papers consisted of multiple choice and short essay questions. The weightage of theory paper was 75% and internal evaluation was 25% in annual examination marks. Pass percentage was 50%. The obtained marks were not included in the final transcript. Passing the course is university requirement for the award of BDS degree.

PDEC is part of a comprehensive strategy adopted at the institution for ethics education. It includes two weeks orientation program in first year, oath taking ceremonies in first and final years as constant reminder till convocation, state of art lectures by renowned scholars, series of courses and discussion of ethical perspectives in different subjects throughout the academic years.

Survey

A survey was conducted to obtain feedback from students of IIDC session 2010-2013. The first part of survey form was unimanous validated questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of five aspects of course i.e. objectives and mission statement, teaching methodology, content, assessment and personal outcome. It had 17 close ended questions with five point Likert scale. The data received from students was recorded and analyzed by SPSS. The second part invited suggestions for improvement regarding five aspects of course i.e. teaching methodologies, addition of necessary content, exclusion of unnecessary content, integration of contents in relevant dental subject and additional reference material.

RESULTS OF SURVEY

Out of 75 students, the response rate was 61.3% (46). The feedback from students about effectiveness of course in the questionnaire is presented in Table 1. CHI-square test was applied to compare the categorical data. The results in Table 2 showed a significant difference between most of the responses* except a few, p value pless than 0.005 and CHI-square value = 15.522. The students gave following suggestions regarding for improvement of course:

Teaching methodologies

Make lecture more interesting, interactive and concise of half hour duration. Improve audio-visuals and show videos. Invite dentist to share clinical experience. Increase the number of tests. Include viva voce. Hold weekly practical demonstrations, student presentations and discussions on case studies or clinical scenarios to develop ability of deal real life situation. Teach the course in third year when clinical interaction starts, because the habits developed at that time are difficult to change in final year.

Addition of necessary content

The course is adequate so no addition required. Add more references from Quran and Hadith, procedures allowed or contraindicated in Islam, clinical dentistry oriented content, emergency protocol for patients and practitioner, routine issues faced by doctors, examples related to students, examples of ethical dilemmas, practical skills and issues of cross infection control. Upgrade to international standards and provide upto-date information.

Exclusion of unnecessary content

No irrelevant content is taught so no exclusion required. Exclude excessive Islamic content, unnecessary details, cloning, genealogy, historical perspective, content not clinically related and some relevant content to decrease the load.

Integration of contents in relevant dental subject

Horizontal integration should be done. Information should be delivered with collaboration of dentist and ethics teacher.

Additional reference material

Ensure availability of reference material. Promote books, articles and internet use. Discourage students' reliance on lectures. Publish text book.

DISCUSSION

Scholarly articles provided guidance in devising and implementing professional ethics curricula.

TABLE 1. FEEDBACK OF 46 STUDENTS REGARDING EVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL DENTAL ETHICS COURSE

mission statement and Learn-###Clearly###Vaguely###Briefly###Super-###Never

ing objectives###fi-cially

1. shared mission statement and###22 (47.8%)###9 (19.6%)###9 (19.6%)###5 (10.9%)###1 (2.2%)

learning objectives

2. linked mission statement to###14 (30.4%)###14 (30.4%)###11 (23.9%)###5 (10.9%)###2 (4.3%)

learning objectives

methods adopted for delivery###Always###Frequently###Sometime###Rarely###Never

3. appropriate teaching meth-###4 (8.7%)###15 (32.6%)###16 (34.8%)###9 (19.6%)###2 (4.3%)

odologies adopted to achieve the

objectives

4. appropriate answers given to###12 (26.1%)###12 (26.1%)###11 (23.9%)###10 (21.7%)###1 (2.2%)

asked questions

5. contents delivered with pas-###19 (41.3%)###16 (34.8%)###6 13(%)###4 (8.7%)###1 (2.2%)

sion and dedication

Contents###Most###Many###Some###Few###None

6. Lecture discussions were rel-###4 (8.7%)###9 (19.6%)###21 (45.7%)###9 (19.6%)###3 (6.5%)

evant to contents

7. relevant to desired knowledge###5 (10.9%)###16 (34.8%)###18 (40%)###6 (13%)###1 (2.2%)

8. sufficient to address profes-###4 (8.7%)###16 (34.8%)###19 (41.3%)###6 (13%)###1 (2.2%)

sional ethical issues

9. motivating and interesting###2 (4.3%)###9 (19.6%)###15 (32.6%)###17 (37%)###3 (6.5%)

Assessment methodology###Most###Many###Some###Few###None

10. MCQ and SEQs helped in###7 (15.2%)###6 (13%)###12 (26%)###10 (21.7%)###11 (23.9%)

further understanding

###Outstanding###Considerable###Moderate###Minor###No

11. Assignments increased inter-###3 (6.5%)###9 (19.6%)###20 (43.5%)###8 (17.4%)###6 (13%)

est and understanding

Personal outcome###Outstanding###Considerable###Moderate###Minor###No

12. acquired knowledge after###0 (0%)###18 (39.1%)###18 (39.1%)###7 (15.2%)###3 (6.5%)

course

13. Felt change in thought pat-###3 (6.5%)###16 (34.8%)###16 (30.4%)###8 (17.4%)###5 (10.9%)

tern

14. Felt change in behavior and###2 (4.3%)###15 (32.6%)###17 (37%)###5 (10.9%)###7 (15.2%)

attitude

15. Tried to find more from dif-###3 (6.5%)###12 (26%)###15 (32.6%)###6 (13%)###10 (21.7%)

ferent resources about it

###Always###Frequently###Sometime###Rarely###Never

16. Discussed ethical issues faced###7 (15.2%)###17 (37%)###14 (30.4%)###4 (8.7%)###4 (8.7%)

with peers

7. Applied learned concepts in###8 (17.4%)###17 (37%)###8 (17.4%)###8 (17.4%)###5 (10.9%)

personal / professional life

TABLE 2. CHI-SQUARE TEST

S No.###Questions###Average###CHI-square###Df###P value As-

###(Mean)###value###ymp. sig

1###shared mission statement, learning###2###27.043###4###0.000

###objectives

2###linked mission statement, learning###2.28###12.913###4###0.012

###objectives

3###appropriate teaching methodologies###2.78###17.261###4###0.002*

4###appropriate answers given###2.48###9.435###4###0.051

5###contents delivery with passion###1.96###26.826###4###0.000*

6###Lecture discussions relevant to contents###2.96###22.261###4###0.000*

7###relevant to desired knowledge###2.59###26.609###4###0.000*

8###sufficient to address ethical issues###2.65###26.626###4###0.000*

9###motivating and interesting###3.22###20.087###4###0.000*

10###MCQ and SEQs help in understanding###3.26###2.913###4###0.572

11###assignment increased interest, under-###3.11###18.130###4###0.001*

###standing

12###acquired knowledge###2.89###15.391###3###0.002*

13###change in thought###2.91###13.783###4###0.008

14###change in behavior###3###18.384###4###0.001*

15###tried to find more###3.17###9.870###4###0.043

16###discuss ethical issues###2.59###15.522###4###0.004*

17###apply concepts###2.67###9.000###4###0.061

The Rest's Four Component Model of Morality requires incorporation of methods for assessing ethical sensitivity; moral reasoning and judgment; moral motivation and commitment; moral implementation outcomes and instructional strategies in curriculum.30 The curricula of professional institutes provide ethics education as individual course, part of large course, training in didactic or clinical settings, online and otherwise. Berk advocated more intensive teaching as separate course on the ground that hiding ethics in curriculum could be perceived as unimportant by student.10

Internationally, dental ethics courses of variable credit hours are offered to students, dentists and dental assistants by individuals, institutions and associations having similar objectives of creating virtuous professional capable of addressing ethical dilemmas.31 The views regarding the time in academic calendar at which ethics course should be taught are also variable. In USA the average of devoted time is 26.5 contact hours27, but problem oriented dental ethics curriculum has 39 contact hours distributed over four years32, compared to 30 hours during final year in our conventional curriculum. The teaching in first year was advocated considering the students to be more receptive to learn ethical beyear reinforced throughout attendance at dental school havior.

Karp suggested that Courses starting in first could support excellent ethical behavior and moral reasoning. Reducing the stress and pressure of being best dental students at the expense of ethical values, should be propagated.11 Lantz identified the needs in ethics education as four general themes i.e.to integrate ethics across the curriculum including carryover into the clinical years; to assess and ensure competence; faculty development and method of instruction.27

Karp verified the synergistic effect of positive role model faculty presenting appropriate behavior and effective ethical teaching, in raising the ethical consciousness of students to highest possible levels.11

The deficiency in teacher education curricula about the moral dimensions of teaching,30 advocates the provision of postgraduate diplomas or masters program in healthcare ethics or bioethics. RIU offers professional ethics and teaching methodology diploma to its faculty. The available faculty elsewhere is generally without relevant degrees or substantial training in teaching ethics.31

The contents of our course were similar to the other curricula. The required competencies27, Kasule's articles,33 publications of Islamic Medical Associations and books mentioned in methodology and many others are worthwhile resources for Islamic perspective.

In view of the suggestions and deficiencies pointed out in our survey, incorporation of extensive modifications in various aspects was decided. Although the majority of students acknowledged the passion in delivery of content, further attempts at making them more relevant, interesting and motivational were required to enhance learning of all students. The teaching methodologies suggested in research studies like interactive approach promoting student introspection, research; case based and problem based learning, storytelling to create optimal setting for student reflection, observation of real life situations, videos, small group discussions, role playing and workplace practice11,10 etc. were similar to suggestions in survey. Jenson experienced that the discussion of ethical dilemmas led to clarify the beliefs and values and understand peers' thoughts. 34 When conducted in skillful manner, discussion improved reasoning through problems.

Teaching the framework of ethical decision making and examining ethical dilemmas enabled the students in managing ethical problems on their own.10 In future, various teaching methodologies, presentation and discussion of scenario based structured assignments, role playing, ethical decision making framework, viva voce, OSCEs and OSPEs etc. would be employed for PDEC. The ethics teachers and scholars are being approached to prepare professional dental ethics textbook.

Although various tools had been suggested but still there is no agreed upon tool to measure curricular success. Nathan offered health professional ethics rubric for assessment of several learning out comes using assessment methods of Defining Issues Tests DIT I and II and suggested inquiring from dental students through survey about change in the attitude and knowledge.31

The marks obtained in examination and attitude of professionals are also indicators. Knowledge of ethics and ethical practice are two separate constructs. The knowledge can neither guarantee ethical conduct nor ensure change in behavior. The unethical behavior is not necessarily the outcome of ignorance. Jenson's view, "It is unrealistic to expect good behavior from ignorant students" 34 is quite true. Various triggers like fear, failure, greed, envy, stress, difficult situations and risks promote unethical behavior. The punishment as strong deterrent alone would not instill ethics.10

In addition to communication of expectations; strong convincing reasons for being ethical are also needed. The Bartolani's philosophy of self enlightened self interest states, "person who act to further the interest of others, ultimately serves to his/her own self interest".35

But the freedom to choose between two actions of same moral values has been bestowed upon persons.36 The response of students in Babeau's study about the effects of PDE curriculum on moral reasoning development and attitudes, indicated significant improvement.32

Also verified in our survey by more than two third students admitting change in knowledge, thoughts and behavior. The evidence from our and other studies illustrating the influence of even modest curriculum on ethical development in measurable ways,30,32 should motivate the educators to continuously strive for enhancing ethics curriculum.

The maintenance of ethical institutional environment has synergistic impact on outcome of ethics education. Along with the comprehensive strategy adopted at our institution, various elements like emphasis on comprehensive care rather than completing procedures to graduate, identifying student's needs, examining student feedback and modeling ethical behavior are also addressed. Hidden ethics in curriculum in the form of behavior and messages like closing eyes to students cheating in exams as instructor, ignoring plagiarism, tolerating inappropriate behavior and fighting for patients to complete cases etc. could sabotage ethics teaching efforts.10

In addition to the observance of Islamic values, regulations of organization, mutual regard, responsibility and dignity; motivation by the acknowledgement or reward on performance and accountability by appropriate disciplinary actions on violations play key role in building and sustaining an ethical environment.

The values transmitted to students by teaching could be internalized by observation, critical thinking and questioning. The knowledge of right and wrong develops the moral courage needed to make right choices and decisions. Continuous wrestling with dilemmas and addressing the pressures of dental practice would develop the forces of positive habits later transformed into rules of conduct.11

The available literature and multi dimensional researches with collaboration of health professionals and scholars could fulfill the emerging requirements and development of global ethics through interaction between different cultures and philosophies.37

The incorporation of available models and recommendations could help to meet the challenge of teaching professional ethics. The competency of professionals in identification of ethical issues and decision making can be enhanced through teaching compulsory professional ethics course by duly qualified teaching faculty, using multiple teaching methodologies and assessment tools.

CONCLUSIONS

The professional ethics education is important for prevention and management of ethical dilemmas in health care delivery. The students' feedback helped in evaluation and improvement of the ethics course, which being toddler needs further enrichment using multiple strategies to make up the deficiencies.

REFERENCES

1 Shaikh A and Humayun N (2012). Medical Ethics in Undergraduate Medical Education in Pakistan: Towards a Curricular Change, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, Dr. Peter A. Clark (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0169-7, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/33900. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/contemporary-issues-in-bioethics/medical-ethics-in-undergraduate-medical-education-in-pakistan-towards-a-curricular-change-

2 A.M. Mohamed, M.A. Ghanem, A.A. Kassem. Knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics among physician residents of University of Alexandria hospitals, Egypt. EMHJ, 2012, 18(9): 935-45.

3 Joseph O. Fadare, Olufemi O. Desalu1, Abiodun C. Jemilohun2, Oluwole A. Babatunde.

4 Knowledge of medical ethics among Nigerian medical doctors. Nigerian Medical Journal.October-December 2012; 53(4): 226-30.

5 Tahira QA, Lodhi S, Haider ST, Abaidullah S. The Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical Law and Ethics among Doctors in a Tertiary Care Hospital. January-March 2013 Annals; 19(1): 55-60.

6 Janakiram C, Gardens SJ Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthcare ethics among medical and dental postgraduate students in south India. Indian J Med Ethics. 2014 Apr 1; 11(2): 99-104.

7 Dental professional programs in University of Southern Indiana. Available online: http://www.usi.edu/health/contnuing...dental profesional programs

8 Courses on dental ethics. American college of dentistry. Available online: http://www.dentalethics.org

9 Ethics continuing education courses. American Dental Association. Available online: www.ada.org/

9 Dental law and ethics course British dental journal. Available online: www.nature.com

10 Berk NW. Teaching ethics in dental schools: trends, techniques and targets. J Dent Edu 2001: 65(8): 744-50.

11 Karp S. Teaching Ethics and professionalism to dental students 2009-02-01. Available online: www.oralhealthgroup.com/

12 Katrova L. Ethical, legal and professional foundations of the autonomous regulation of the dental profession. The case of Bulgaria. Jof IMABAnnual Proceeding (scientific papers) 2010, Vol 16, Book 4.

13 Schwartz B. Innovative approach to teaching ethics and professionalism. JCDA. june 2009: 75(5): 338-40. Available online: www.cda-adc.ca/jcda

14 Muriel J. Bebeau. Teaching and assessment material for a dental ethics course designed to facilitate the development of moral reasoning and judgment. Available online: ethical development. ua.edu/....Rev-2-teaching-assessment-materials-cou

15 Bruscino T. Basic ethics in dentistry. The academy of learning and OSHA training. CESupport@DentalLearning.org October2010 available online: www.dentallearning.org/course/Ethics/ Ethics. pdf

16 Kasule POH. 0803-12-years experience of deriving Medical Ethico-legal rulings. http://omarkasule-05.tripod.com/id153 html

17 Centre for Bioethics and Culture. Available on: www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Center_for_Bioethics_and_Culture

18 Bioethics and culture. Diniz D. Developing world bioethics. World congress of Bioethics 2014: 10(3).

19 Ten Have, H., A.M.J. (2012). "Potter's notion of bioethics. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal", 2014, pgs. 59-82.

20 The Holy Quran, Surah 5 Almaidah:verse 45.

21 G. Hussein Rasool. Competence in caring for Muslim patients. Palgrave Macmillan England . 2014. Chapter 17. putting cultural competence all together: some considerations in caring for Muslim patients. P. 277.

22 Tober DM and Budiani D. Introduction: Why Islam, Health and the Body? Available online: www.geneticsandsociety.org/.../ Introduction_Tober_Bud_IHB.pdf Retrieved on 16-08-2014.

23 PgCert. Dental Law and Ethics, University of Bedfordshire. www.beds.ac.uk

24 Moazam T, Jaferey A. Pakistan and biomedical ethicsreport from a Muslim country. Cambridge quarterly of health care, 2005, 14: 249-55.

25 Koerber A, Botto RW, Pendleton DD, Albazzaz MB, Doshi SJ, Rinando VA, Enhancing ethical behavior; view of students, administors and faculty. J Dent Educ. 2005;69(2):213-224.... Referenced to (Papadakis M, Hodgson CS, Teherani A, Kohatsu ND.

26 Code of Ethics of Practice for Medical and Dental Practitioners. www.pmdc.org.pk

27 Lantz MS, Bebeau MJ, Zarkowski P. The Status of Ethics Teaching and Learning in U.S. Dental Schools. Journal of Dental Education October 1, 2011,75(10): 1295-1309.

28 Barbara B. Ott, PhD, RN, Al-Khadhuri J, MSN, Al-Junaibi S, BSN. Preventing Ethical Dilemmas: Understanding Islamic Health Care Practices Pediatr Nurs. 2003; 29(3) (c) 2003 Jannetti Publications, Inc. Available online: www.medscape.com/ viewarticle/457485_2

29 Khan MI. Professional ethics an Islamic perspective. Institute of policy studies Islamabad. 2013.

30 Bebeau MJ. Designing an Outcome-based Ethics Curriculum or Professional Education: strategies and evidence of effectiveness. Journal of Moral Education. 1993; 22(3): 313-26.

31 Carlin N et al. The health professional ethics rubric: practical asssessment in ethics education for health professional schools. J Acad Ethics 2011; 9: 277-290. Doi10.1007/s10805-011-9146-2

32 Bebeau MJ, Thoma SJ. The impact of a dental ethics curriculum on moral reasoning. Journal of Dental Education September 1, 1994, 58(9): 684-92.

33 Islamic Medical Education Resources. Available at: Omarkasule-tib.blogspot.com/ and http://omarkasule.tripod.com

34 Jenson LE. Why our curricula do work. Journal of Dental Education February 1, 2005; 69( 2): 225-28.

35 Bertolami CN. Why our ethics curricula don't work. J Dent Edu. 2004: 68(4): 414-25.

36 Shahzad Q. Biomedical ethics - Philosophical and Islamic perspective. Islamic Research Institute IIUI Islamabad. 2009; 27: 113-16.

37 B Pratt et al. Perspective from south and east Asia in clinical and research ethics: a literature review Journal of empirical research on human research and ethics; 9(2): 52-67.
COPYRIGHT 2016 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2016
Words:5066
Previous Article:MYTHS ASSOCIATED WITH DENTAL SCALING (Study done by Pharmacy students/lecturer).
Next Article:PERCEPTION OF DENTAL AESTHETICS AMONG HAIL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters