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DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HYPODERMATOSIS IN BUFALOES (Bos bubalis bubalis) OF DISTRICT TOBA TEK SINGH PUNJAB PAKISTAN.

Byline: A. Iqbal M. S. Sajid F. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood A.Shamim

ABSTRACT: During this study out of 800 buffaloes examined 11.37% were found positive for hypodermatosis. Hypoderma bovis was the only prevalent specie in this area. The infestation was found to be positively associated with host determinants like (a) sex; being higher in female (67.03%; Pless than 0.05; OR= 2.03) than males (32.96%) and (b) age; significantly higher in young animals (57.14%; Pless than 0.05; OR= 1.33) as compared to the adult animals (42.86%). Winter months (DecemberJanuary) were found to be favorable for hypoderma. Tehsil-wise prevalence was highest in Kamalia followed in order by Toba Tek Singh and Gojra. Microclimatic factors like stall feeding (7.37%; Pless than 0.05; OR= 1.84) closed housing system (5.12%; Pless than 0.05; OR= 2.41) rope tied animals (7.62%; Pless than 0.05; OR=2.03) and non-cemented (5.37%; Pless than 0.05; OR= 2.26) floor was found highly associated with hypodermatosis. Appropriate control measures for flies should be adopted in order to safeguard animal health.

Key words: Hpodermatosis Buffaloes Epidemiology Toba Tek Singh Pakistan.

INTRODUCTION

Globally buffaloes have been considered as more productive and healthier animals (Aaiz et al. 2011) but parasitism is one of the major causes of lower production (Ahmad et al. 2013) in these animals. Among various parasites warble fly is considered to be a notorious threat to livestock population including cattle buffaloes sheep and goats (Khan et al. 2006; Oryan et al. 2009; Radfar and Hajm chamm adi 2012). The disease caused by this fly is endemic in semi-hilly mountainous and riverine areas of Pakistan (Khan et al. 2006; Arshad et al. 2014) which is second important disease after tick infestation in buffaloes of Pakistan (Ahmad et al. 2013). It inflicts considerable economic losses to leather industry by lowering down the market value of hides. Other losses include lowered milk production and degradation of meat quality (Soulsby 2006). In comparison to research on cattle the research on water buffaloes has also been much neglected (Johan 2002 Arshad et al. 2014).

The prevalence of disease in cattle and goats has been reported from various parts of the country (Ayaz and Khan 1999; Ayaz et al. 1999; Hasan et al. 2007; Arshad et al. 2014). But till now there is no report available regarding hypodermatosis in the study area so the present study was carried out: to determine the prevalence and associated determinants of hypodermatosis in district T. T. Singh Punjab Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was planned in district T. T. Singh which is located in central Punjab between 3033'- 312' degree N. and 7208'-7248' E. having three tehsils viz; Gojra Kamalia and Toba Tek Singh and consisting of 82 union councils. Most of the area of study district comprised of low lands that are flooded frequently from the Ravi River. This river runs along the southern and southeastern borders of the district. According to Pakistan Livestock Survey (2006) an average population of domestic animals in district Toba Tek Singh is 1.25 millions. The annual rainfall varies from 254-381mm; June and July are the hottest months of the year with maximum average temperature of 39oC. The climate of the study area is extremely hot in summer and cold in winter. There are four seasons in the study area i.e. summer (May to July) autumn (August to October) winter (November to January) and spring (February to April). December and January are the coldest months of the year with average minimum temperature of 6oC.

Cattle buffaloes goats sheep and camels are major livestock of the farmers of the study area in descending order of importance. A majority of dairy farmers have traditional stall feeding systems with poor husbandry practices including unhygienic conditions rope-tied practices and un-cemented (Kacha) floor. A total of 800 buffaloes of different sex (400 male and 400 female) and age (400 young and 400 adult) were sampled based on proportional allocation (Thrusfield 2007) in three tehsils of the district and examined for the presence of hypodermatosis in the study area. Animals less than 2 years were considered as young and greater than 2 year as adult.

Surveillance studies were carried out to record month-wise sex-wise and age-wise prevalence of the disease. The larvae of warble flies were taken from the backs of naturally infested buffaloes according to methods described by Scholl and Barrett (1986) with slight modification. Briefly 5% solution of H2O2 was injected and the warble and the larvae were expelled out by the back pressure caused by H2O2 activity. After washing in saline solution the larvae were preserved in glycerin alcohol (Anonymous 2009). Larvae were boiled in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 1 h to clear the stigmal plates of posterior spiracles. The samples were washed with distilled water for 15 min rinsed in glacial acetic acid for 10 min and stained in acid fuschin. They were dehydrated in ascending by ethyl alcohol starting from 30% to absolute alcohol for 510 min in each grade then were washed in xylol and cleared in ceder wood oil.

The larvae were mounted using canada balsam and identified by using the standard parasitological description (Barrett 1981). The data was analyzed through Fisher's exact test using SAS software (SAS 2010). Differences were considered statistically significant when p=0.05. The 95% confidence intervals and odd ratios were also worked out.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A total of 800 buffaloes were examined among them (91/800; 13.37%) were found to be infested. Only one species of Hypoderma (Hypoderma bovis) was recorded from this area and this has also been reported from other areas of Pakistan in bovines (Mazhar and Anwar 2002; Ahmad et al. 2013). Tehsil wise prevalence showed that infestation was highest in Kamalia (51.27%) in order followed by Toba Tek Singh (13.98%) and Gojra (11.44%). Highest prevalence of hypodermatosis in kamalia was found to be due to the fact that there was a River (Ravi) which runs along this tehsil. These findings are supported by the results of Mazhar and Anwar (2002) and Khan et al. (2006) who reported that the climatic conditions of river area were positive by association with the prevalence of hypodermatosis in animals in Pakistan. It was revealed that the age of the host had a significant (pless than 0.01) effect on hypodermatosis.

Buffalo calves were found comparatively more susceptible to the disease (57.14%) than adult animals (42.86%). It was observed that the susceptibility decreases with the increase of age. It has very difficult to explain exactly the frequent occurrence of hypoderma bovis in calves but it could be assumed that the less developed immune system of the calves may be responsible for the higher prevalence of hypoderma (Ahmad et al. 2013). On the other hand buffaloes developed immunity with the increase of age so susceptibility decreased with the increase of age. From this study it was found that the prevalence of hypodematosis was significantly (pless than 0.01) higher in female buffaloes (85.71%) than male (56.70%). Although the exact cause of higher prevalence of hypodermatosis in female buffaloes could not be explained but it could be hypothesized that stresses of production make the buffaloes more susceptible to any ectoparasitic infection as has been reported by Iqbal et al. (2013) and Arshad et al. (2014).

Seasonal fluctuation of the year had a significant (pless than 0.01) effect on the prevalence of hypodermatosis in buffaloes. A relatively higher infestation with hypodermatosis was observed in winter (80%) followed by rainy season (50.68%) and summer (39.62%). These findings also in line coinciding with the previous findings of Hassan et al. (2007) who reported that fly activity was higher in December and lower in October. The little contrast in between the present and earlier finding could be explained by the fact of variation in the geographical location of the experimental area topography and composition of soil type temperature and humidity. However the highest prevalence in winter season could be attributed to favorable climatic condition in winter supplemented by little hygienic care like washing grooming etc. The observations from the present study may contribute to the increased understanding of the epidemiology of hypodermatosis in buffaloes of study area so that

control strategies could be suggested. The managemental practices of cattle and buffaloes are alike in most parts of Pakistan. Therefore presumably buffaloes were equally exposed to the warble fly attack as cattle. These reports about hypodermatosis in buffaloes of lowland (study area) areas were alarming one for the farmers of this locality. Further studies should be carried out to determine the other husbandary related risk factors hypoderma born diseases in animals and men and control of warble fly disease now should also be directed toward buffaloes as it is the major dairy animal of the Asia.

Table 1: Prevalence and associated determinants of Hypodermatosis in Bufaloes ( Bos bubalis bubalis) of district

###T.T. Singh

###Overall prevalence (%)###11.37% (91/800)

Associated###95% C.I.###Odds###P-

###Variables###Levels###Prevalence (%)

determinants###Lower limit Upper limit###Ratio###value

Agent###Species###Hypoderma bovis###13.37% (91/800)###-###-###-###-

###Female###67.03% (61/91)###56.39###76.26

###Sex###2.03###0.010

###Male###32.97% (30/91)###23.46###42.90

Host

###Young###57.14% (52/91)###46.34###67.08

###Age###1.33###0.304

###Adult###42.86% (39/91)###32.53###53.09

###Kamalia###15.78% (42/266)###11.62###20.40###2.11###0.010

Spatial Distribution###Tehsil-wise###T.T. Singh###10.90% (29/266)###7.42###14.91###1.46###0.023

###Gojra###7.49% (20/267)###4.63###10.93###-###-

###Stall feeding###7.37% (59/800)###5.66###9.28###1.84###0.004

###Feeding system

###Grazing###4.00% (32/800)###2.32###5.46###-###-

###Close###5.12% (41/800)###3.70###6.76###2.41###0.002

###Housing system###Semi close###4.12% (33/800)###2.86###5.61###1.94###0.031

###Open###2.12% (17/800)###1.24###3.23###-###-

Microclimate###Non-cemented###5.37% (43/800)###3.92###7.04###2.26###0.003

###Partially

###Floor pattern###3.62% (29/800)###2.44###5.03###1.53###0.187

###cemented

###Cemented###2.37% (19/800)###1.44###3.15###-###-

###Rope tied###7.62% (61/800)###5.88###9.56

###Animal keeping###2.03###0.002

###Open###3.75% (30/800)###2.54###5.17

Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the farming community of district Toba Tek Singh for their cooperation during the conduct of project. Financial assistant for the study was provided by the Endowment Fund Secretariat University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

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Date:Mar 31, 2014
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