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Current bibliography.

Bibliographies

Kurta, Meghan. "Current Bibliography." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review 35.2 (2009): 145-158.

Smith, Andrew M., and Elizabeth J. Wright. "Hawthorne." American Literary Scholarship, 2008. Ed David J. Nordloh. Durham, N.C.: Duke UP, 2010: 29-41.

Editions

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Blithedale Romance. Intro. Robert S. Levine. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 2010.

The John Harvard Library edition reproduces the authoritative text of The Blithedale Romance of the Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Levine's introduction (21 pages) deals with biographical and historical context in reference to the novel's narrator, Miles Coverdale.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The House of the Seven Gables. Intro. Denis Donoghue. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard UP, 2009.

The John Harvard Library edition reproduces the authoritative text of The House of the Seven Gables in the Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. In the introduction (24 pages), Donoghue provides biographical information, lays out the basic themes and influences of the novel, and discusses the archetypal figures in a Romance (and how they differ from characters in a Novel), keeping up a steady conversation with Hawthorne's critics (particularly Henry James) to make his claims.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter: With an Introduction and Contemporary Criticism. Intro. Aaron Urbanczyk. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press, 2009.

Urbanczyk stresses the importance of historical knowledge in understanding The Scarlet Letter and Hawthorne's attachment to themes of Puritanism, as well as the significance of Hawthorne's personal history to the composition of the novel itself, pointing to "The Custom-House" as an example. The role of Salem is explored in relation to both text and author. Urbanczyk repeatedly describes the novel as a tragedy and roots its power in the Romantic blending of the real/ historical and the fantastic that fuels the book's symbolism.

Books

Fraysse, Suzanne. Les voix du silence: La Lettre ecarlate et les recits d'esclaves. Paris, FR: L'Harmattan, 2009.

Fraysse engages the theme of silence as a form of political activism in Hawthorne's works, reconceptualizing the absence of overt slavery in The Scarlet Letter as a comment on the slave's lack of voice as well as the abolitionist tendency to erase the voice of the slaves they championed. Fraysse complicates The Scarlet Letter with a dialectic slipperiness of the master/slave positions that makes establishing the guilt of any one party impossible. The author addresses Hawthorne's view of the law, arguing that he believed it imperfect but vital to the maintenance of society, and that enforcement of the written law was of paramount importance.. (Reviewed in this issue.)

Robertson, Ben P. Inchbald, Hawthorne and the Romantic Moral Romance: Little Histories and Territories. London, England: Pickering & Chatto Ltd, 2009.

Tracking a transatlantic connection between these two Romantic writers, Robertson states that the authors, though divergent in aims, nevertheless participated in writing what he terms the "Romantic moral romance," a subgenre in which an individual interacts with a social order, sometimes finding that "the parameters established by a government, by a particular religion or a social group for correct behavior may be inadequate for the individual" (5). Theroes of a Romantic moral romance (Hester Prynne or Inchbald's Miss Milner or Matilda) can call into question the prevailing moral authority and ultimately act in a way that is "correct" without necessarily following the rules of official authorities. Robertson grapples with issues of authorial intent and influence, comparing the two authors' works and concluding with an argument for their contributions to the creation of the modern symbolic novel.

Chapters in Books

Gilmore, Michael T. "Hawthorne and the Resilience of Dissent." The War on Words: Slavery, Race, and Free Speech in American Literature. Chicago, Illinois: U of Chicago P, 2010. 87-100.

Gilmore partially overturns accepted notions about Hawthorne's repugnance for transformative human agency, arguing that while his activist characters--possessing dangerous rhetorical skills--are generally punished by the narrative, a persistent influence nevertheless exists, generated by their powerful verbal utterances. Words, Gilmore claims, have power in Hawthorne's fiction: the power to curse, to enthrall, or to make prophecies that enforce their predictions upon the world. While Hawthorne writes that "God is the sole worker of realities," Gilmore concludes that human speech has its own power and acts as a catalyst for change.

Hobby, Blake. "Hester's Bewitched Triangle: Within the Spell of the 'A.'" Rebirth and Renewal. Ed. Tharold Bloom. New York, NY: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2009. 191-200.

Blake draws on the work of Rene Girard to persuade the reader that Hester's scarlet 'A' radiates a subtle, almost magical influence over the novel's characters, at once driving them to catharsis and constricting them in rigid roles and patterns of behavior. Blake focuses on Hester's isolation, a condition enforced by the 'A' but serving a transformative purpose; driven to solitude, Hester suffers from torturous and tempting "mimetic desire" that leads her to epiphany. Blake also touches on the 'A''s impact on Chillingsworth and Dimmesdale, both characters being enflamed by its nearly supernatural power to address issues of desire and obsession.

Toker, Leona. "Carnival and Crisis in Three Stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne." Toward the Ethics of Form in Fiction: Narratives of Cultural Remission. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State UP, 2010. 21-34.

Toker examines the carnivalesque elements of discreteness/assimilation of the self in "My Kinsman, Major Molineux," "Young Goodman Brown," and "The Maypole of Merry-Mount," in which the main characters accept, refuse, or are forced to become part of an overpowering communal entity. The Puritan attack on the "Comus crew" is seen as necessary to eliminate an incompatible aberration that threatens the whole. The narrator of "My Kinsman" is initiated into adult society by abandoning individuality and joining the mob that jeers at his relative; Goodman Brown rejects community when he retreats into judgment of others and obliviousness to his own sin. Toker links the blurring of self with society to Hawthorne's wariness of utopianism as a threat to "the sanctity of the human heart" (34).

Essays in Book Collections

Bolton, Mathew J. "Nathaniel Hawthorne's Critical Reception." Nathaniel Hawthorne (Critical Insights). Ed. Jack Lynch. Pasadena, California: Salem Press, 2010. 36-50.

Beginning with a useful overview of available sources of information on Hawthorne criticism, Bolton proceeds to outline the phases of Hawthornean scholarship, starting with the critical reception by Hawthorne's contemporaries and advancing through the immediately posthumous period, mentioning the retrospectives of Henry James, Anthony Trollope, and Leslie Stephen. Bolton moves swiftly on to the lulls of criticism in the early twentieth century and the resurgence of interest in Hawthorne, first historical and later in poststructuralist theories, thus offering an introductory chronology of how Hawthorne has been read by critics from his first publications to the present.

Elbert, Monika. "The Perfect Dinner: Hawthorne's Ruminations on Old and New England." Culinary Aesthetics and Practices in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. Ed. Monika Elbert and Marie Drews. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009. 153-169.

Discussing Hawthorne's use of food in his literary works and personal documents, Elbert examines his view of the preparation and presentation of food as a work of art and representation of national identity. Notes from Hawthorne's Consulship in Liverpool afford the reader with examples of his perspective on European nationalities and their contrasts to Americans through the medium of the culinary arts and mealtime etiquette. Particular attention is given to Hawthorne's comparison of English and American treatment of food, in which he acts as a neutral party who addresses critiques and compliments to "old" and New England in roughly equal measure.

Evans, Robert C. "Civil Disobedience and Realpolitik in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter'" Civil Disobedience. Ed. Tharold Bloom. New York, NY: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2010. 243-252.

Following the evolution of Hester's relationship with the Puritan authorities who judge, punish, and threaten her for her sin, Evans traces Hester's development from the passive rebellion of civil disobedience, when she refuses to name her child's father but does not actively challenge the judgment placed upon her, to her cutthroat manipulation of Dimmesdale in her mission to retain guardianship of Pearl. Evans comes to the conclusion that Hester--who doesn't protest the hypocritical judgment levied against her--learns to leverage her weight of secrets into a potent tool of realpolitik when motivated by maternal desperation.

--. "'That Evening of Ambiguity and Weariness': Readerly Exploration in Hawthorne's 'My Kinsman, Major Molineux.'" Exploration and Colonization. Ed. Tharold Bloom. New York, NY: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2010. 115-122.

Following the theme of the anthology, Evans' essay discusses "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" as a story of exploration: the symbolic exploration of the journey from adolescence to adulthood; the physical exploration the narrator undertakes in a foreign town; and the reader's exploration of the story itself. Evans stresses the ambiguity of the story as a possible end in itself, arguing that the scholarly debates concerning the story's "point" miss evidence that Hawthorne's intent was to evoke the tension attendant upon the disorientation and uncertainty of exploration.

--. "The Complexities of 'Old Roger' Chillingworth: Sin and Redemption in Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter'" Sin and Redemption. Ed. Tharold Bloom. New York, NY: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2010. 251-260. Evans describes Chillingworth as "the character who at first seems the most sinned against [who] eventually becomes the greatest sinner" (251). While Hester and Dimmesdale sin, serve penance, and come to the end of their guilt-laden journeys, Chillingworth--their "victim"--fails to acknowledge his own sin of seeking vengeance. Evans links Hawthorne's use of the moniker, 'Old Roger,' to the Satanic qualities Chillingworth adopts as he pursues his secretive revenge, arguing that, like Satan, Chillingworth is denied the possibility of redemption because of pride.

Georgieva, Margarita. "The Burden of Secret Sin: Nathaniel Hawthorne's Fiction." Nathaniel Hawthorne (Critical Insights). Ed. Jack Lynch. Pasadena, California: Salem Press, 2010. 51-61.

Georgieva focuses on Hawthorne's recurring interest in the problem of sin. She addresses the concept of Original Sin, positing that Hawthorne ultimately judged it as less blameworthy than sin committed by an individual, especially sin committed and redoubled by the added transgression of concealing guilt, saying, "the distinction between 'knowledge as sin' and 'secret sin' is the key to the problem" (52). Georgieva claims that demarcations can be seen in the sins in Hawthorne's works, with "secret sin" being the most foul, and she argues that the secret-keeper inherently causes suffering by hiding his crime. Revealing hidden sin can free an individual from the haunting/curse/disease that is the secret sin's outward manifestation.

Marshall, Bridget M. "Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Canon of American Literature." Nathaniel Hawthorne (Critical Insights). Ed. Jack Lynch. Pasadena, California: Salem Press, 2010. 21-35.

Providing an overview of Hawthorne's successes and setbacks, both literary and financial, Marshall presents Hawthorne's struggle to find an appreciative readership, support his family, and find satisfaction in his work. Marshall tracks the growth of his reputation during his life and after, citing the regular reprinting of his works and Hawthorne-related tourist activity as signs of his hard-won success.

Palladino, Jennifer Banach. "Nathaniel Hawthorne and American Romanticism." Nathaniel Hawthorne (Critical Insights). Ed. Jack Lynch. Pasadena, California: Salem Press, 2010. 62-75.

Palladino deals with Hawthorne's status as a Romantic, pointing to the psychological symbolism in his works (Hester's "A," Maule's curse), his anxiety concerning the heedless advance of science ("The Birth-Mark"), the quickly changing role of the artist in society ("The Artist and the Beautiful"), and his complex female characters, who are allowed the full range of human emotion. While identifying Hawthorne as Romantic and comparing him to British Romantics, Palladino stresses the flexibility of the term and the its wide range of meanings. Ultimately, Palladino concludes that Hawthorne's Romanticism isn't revolutionary, but rather serves as a "precursor to the modern democratic ideal, the call to change through the empowerment of the individual. This is the American romance" (73).

Journal Articles

Claybaugh, Amanda. "The Consular Service and U.S. Literature: Nathaniel Hawthorne Abroad." Novel: A Forum on Fiction 42.2 (2009): 284-289.

Claybaugh observes the frequency with which American authors served as consuls or ministers for the United States prior to the nominal elimination of the patronage system and the demand for training in civic service exams for those positions. Claybaugh divides these authors into three categories: those who drew little distinction between their lives as men of letters and government employees or representatives, those who gained their positions as honors unattached to official obligations, and those who accepted their positions to assist their literary labors. As Claybaugh states, Hawthorne falls into the third category, and the financial aid given him in the form of the Liverpool consulship can be viewed as a patronage of the arts. The essay doesn't stop at commentary or categorization but expands to argue that the positioning of prominent authors in public, diplomatic, and global roles contributed both to those authors identifying as American rather than regional authors, and to the literary establishment of a national identity. Claybaugh compares The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne's "great novel of Boston" (286), to "Consular Experiences," in which, she argues, we can see an identity "grounded... in the official apparatus of the national state" (387).

Cody, David. "Hawthorne as Burrower." Literature in the Early American Republic: Annual Studies on Cooper and His Contemporaries 1.13 (2009): 169-196.

Cody returns to the fertile ground of the Lost Notebook to introduce previously unidentified sources and new items in previously identified sources for Hawthorne's American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. The list Cody provides covers pages 173-187. The follows the list with a look at the implications of these heretofore unexamined sources for modern readers' understanding of Hawthorne's imagination, psychology, and creative methods, culminating in an examination of what these sources indicate about Hawthorne's relationships with Samuel Goodrich and William Hone, both writers who "borrowed" extensively from Hawthorne's texts and illustrations, and both of whom had works from which Hawthorne "borrowed."

Daniels, Patsy J. "Hawthorne and His Audience: History, Dream, and Moral Values." LATCH 2.1 (2009): 115-128.

Daniels positions Hawthorne as an author bridging Romanticism and Realism, threading a line between reality and fantasy in his fiction. "Roger Malvin's Burial" and "Young Goodman Brown" are the essay's primary examples, and Daniels unearths in them a wealth of visions and dreams that call knowledge and perception into question, as well as the evocation of historical or Biblical assumed truths that lend credibility. She argues that Hawthorne's narrators' characteristic distance and habit of presenting multiple options for the reader's interpretation are qualities that bridge the gap between the genres, inviting the reader to immerse him or herself in Realist and Romantic qualities equally.

Dolis, John. "Hawthorne's Transitional Coup: Double-Crossing the Na(rra)tion." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 66.1 (2010): 35-61.

Dolis explores nineteenth-century America's relationship with England, its evolving and predatory self-perception, and Manifest Destiny in highly technical literary/ philosophical jargon. Literary conceptions of "home" in American Romantic authors offer him windows into the psychology of the era as he probes concepts of citizenship, foreignness, art, and government. This "double-crossing" is a narrative effect in which personal and national identities (among others) intermingle dialectically to confuse and confound.

Hall, Julie E. "Nathaniel Hawthorne's 'Wild' Wales." Symbiosis: A Journal of Anglo-American Literary Relations 13.1 (2009): 3-19.

Hall places Hawthorne's interest in Wales in the context of an upsurge of attention given to Celtic Britain in the eighteen and nineteenth centuries, and looks to Hawthorne's English Notebooks to uncover his views of the country, often depicted as the cultural or racial other in British Romantic literature. Hall argues that Hawthorne participates in this Anglicized view of Wales, and in the colonizing gaze of the tourist, as he represents the enduring Welsh language, the "rugged, picturesque landscapes and seascapes"(15), the people, and the storied monuments of the past. Finally, Hall argues, the "other" that Hawthorne represents is not only England's but also his and his country's own, appearing in the Welsh writings in the self-same guises that it wears in his fictions. The insights gleaned from the mere twenty pages of Hawthorne's notebook entries devoted to the Welsh travels tell readers much about the author's biases, phobias, and fascinations.

Hughes, Sandra. "'A Crimson Stain upon the Snow': Teaching Hawthorne's 'The Birth-Mark' as an Alchemical Text." Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction 9.2 (2009): 136-148.

Suggesting that Hawthorne may have possessed knowledge of alchemy and certainly had a "keen interest in the subject" (138), Hughes argues in favor of teaching "The Birth-Mark" as an "alchemical text." She advocates teaching "The Great Carbuncle" in tandem with "The Birth-Mark" to compare Dr. Cacaphodel to Aylmer, as both scientists are unable to balance invasive scientific inquiry with the spiritual philosophy inherent in alchemical tradition. The color spectrum of the alchemical progress (beginning with black, progressing to white, finishing with red) is reversed in these scientists' experiments with disastrous results, producing death instead of eternal life.

Hunt, Constance C. T. "The Persistence of Theocracy: Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter" Perspectives on Political Science 38.1 (2009): 25-32.

By investigating three religious elements of The Scarlet Letter, Hunt attempts to explain the enduring appeal of theocracy in the modern world. "The Custom House" contrasts the morally firm but extremist Puritans with the materialistic, morally vacuous members of the Custom House. While not endorsing the oppression of Puritan theocracy, Hawthorne presents its values as having lessened in his more commercial time. Thunt points to Dimmesdale as emblematic of the tension between Puritan original sin and the struggle for moral perfection. Thester's return to Boston at the end of the novel is explained as both a desire to reunite with Dimmesdale and a need for the penitence possible only within Boston's structured, theocratic society. Hawthorne's choice to set the novel in a period of dominant Puritan values, Hunt argues, implies that "Hawthorne takes theocracy seriously as an object of reflection and inquiry" (32).

Keetley, Dawn. "Bodies and Morals: Hawthorne's 'The Birth-Mark' and Neil LaBute's The Shape of Things" Literature Film Quarterly 38.1 (2010): 16-28.

Keetley argues that Neil LaBute shares Hawthorne's interest in the moral conflicts within his characters, focusing specifically on both authors' attention to characters' reactions to the physical body. LaBute's "The Perfect" and The Shape of Things are compared to Hawthorne's "The Birth-Mark," each story dealing with characters who react to the corporality of their mates with a disturbing desire to control and reshape them, thus also distancing themselves from the material. Keetley touches on the film adaptation of The Shape of Things and points out the gendered construction of the male "reacting" character, who responds to his companion's physicality with violence; she ultimately claims that violence is the inevitable result of a gender binary rooted in irrational revulsion toward the body and the urge to perfect it.

Medoro, Dana. "'Looking into Their Inmost Nature': The Speculum and Sexual Selection in 'Rappaccini's Daughter'." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review 35.1 (2009): 70-86.

Medoro establishes the role of theories of evolution and their attendant ideologies--social Darwinism and eugenics, for example--in the early nineteenth-century U. S., and traces evidence of those theories in "Rappaccini's Daughter." Rappaccini's desire to create the perfect union between Beatrice and Giovanni mirrors prominent arguments about creating or maintaining the "purity" of the white race. Rappaccini's "penetrating gaze" is linked to the rise of the speculum; the doctor's invasive interest in female reproduction and genitalia parallels the rise of gynecology as a science "driven by the question of female fertility: how to control or contravene it, bow to shed light on the obscurity that still surrounded it" (10). Medoro finds the text rich with references to race, reproduction, and menstruation framed in botanical language, with Beatrice's suicide by means of "blessed herbs" seen as an act of female agency, a quasi-abortion that removes her reproductive potential from Rappaccini's grasp.

Milder, Robert. "Hawthorne and the Problem of New England." American Literary History 21.3 (2009): 464-491.

Milder examines the connection of writers in general and Hawthorne specifically with their birthplace and homes, claiming that geographic residences possess or create parallel mental domains that influence authorship. Milder argues that Hawthorne was primarily and profoundly linked to New England, and that his writing is laced with coexisting but contradictory views of its Puritan past. Pride in his hardworking and successful precursors mingles with shame about their cruel and oppressive taboos, and his self-image as an author is threatened by internal accusations of idleness. "[T]he aesthete in him protests against the oppressive New England fathers while the residual Puritan denigrates the aesthete by picturing him as an idle, amoral voluptuary" (480), a conflict acted out in The House of Seven Gables, where marriage of Holgrave and Phoebe tempers impatience with the past with respect for tradition. Mentioning Holgrave's fast and unconvincing conversion, and linking Phoebe with Sophia, Milder suggests that Seven Gables' indirect hostility to Phoebe reflects Hawthorne's conflicted status about his connection to New England's past.

--. "The Other Hawthorne." New England Quarterly 81.4. (2008): 559-595.

Milder engages the differences between the naturalistic Hawthorne(s) found in the romances and the morality-driven Hawthorne(s) that surface in the notebooks. While fleeting impressions Hawthorne recorded in his notebooks sometimes serve as starting points or inspiration for his fiction, his notebooks indicate his frustration with trying to represent "reality" through composition, and the influence of the notebooks is frequently superseded by the moral themes of his works. Milder argues that in The House of Seven Gables Hawthorne manages to find a balance, being "at once realist and romancer" (581), but that he is inherently uncomfortable with realism as a style, feeling that it leaches significance from the reality it attempts to represent. "The is a man known most intimately through his notebooks, who senses from experience that naturalism may be the order of things but can neither live comfortably within its confines nor transcend them through religious belief" (589).

Otten, Thomas J. "Hawthorne's Twisted Letters." Modern Language Quarterly: A Journal of Literary History 70.3 (2009): 363-386.

Otten explores the complex connections between visual imagery and the written word in Hawthorne's 1850's texts, and comes to the conclusion that these "twisted letters" can be read as representing Hawthorne's perspective on the changing nature of interpersonal relationships during this period. According to Otten, the nineteenth century saw conventional relationships such as friendship or marriage put under an investigative lens that revealed them as idiosyncratic and complicated, and Otten finds a reaction to this unveiled complexity in Hawthorne's works. Just as a word's etymology and connotations defy efforts at simple definition, and just as the scarlet letter signifies far more than a single sound, so, Otten argues, does Hawthorne see relationships between human beings defying prosaic categorization.

Person, Leland S. "A Man for the Whole Country: Marketing Masculinity in the Pierce Biography." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review 35.1 (2009): 1-22.

Person looks at The Life of Franklin Pierce as a work of fiction, investigating its expression of masculinity and sexuality, and drawing connections between The Life and The Blithedale Romance, published the previous year. The Pierce of the biography displays a mix of traditional masculine traits and culturally atypical softness or effeminacy, the latter quality being something Hawthorne had to work to market to a public that preferred the straightforward masculinity of Pierce's political rival, Winfield Scott. Hawthorne creates a patriotic Pierce who "unites two types of manhood--one domestic (arguably feminized), the other worldly and more conventionally masculine" (12). The author frames Pierce's deviations from traditional masculinity as complementary rather than oppositional to his manhood.

--. "The Ways of the Hour: Cooper's Scarlet Letter." Literature in the Early American Republic: Annual Studies on Cooper and His Contemporaries 1 (2009): 197-220.

Person initiates a dialogue between authorial treatments of women's rights, particularly the Married Woman's Property Act, in Cooper's The Ways of the Hour and Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. Thester Prynne and Mary Monson are both women marked by Otherness and threatened by patriarchal legal systems in which they have limited agency; they are also characters tied to the emerging and controversial phenomenon of the (financially) independent woman who upsets the established formulation of marriage by owning property, and therefore herself, as exemplified by Mary's successful legal self-defense. While Hester's progress is limited by the Puritan era she lives in, Mary Monson, Person maintains, fulfills Hester's prophecy of a new age of gender relations: "That brighter period, as Cooper represents it, is New York in 1850" (216).

Stein, Jordan Alexander. " The Blithedale Romance's Queer Style." ESQ: A Journal of the American Renaissance 55.3-4 (2009): 211-236.

Stein argues that the style of The Blithedale Romance makes a stronger case for its inclusion in the body of queer literature than its surface-level homoeroticism. Relatively direct references to what modern readers understand as "homosexuality" are subordinate to stylistic queerness, so that "the effect of Blithedale's conjunction of style with personality is queer, but that this queerness is not precisely 'homosexual'" (225). Part of this queer style is the ironic (self)misunderstanding of Coverdale as narrator, a quality which Stein ultimately connects to the reader or critic as interpreter of the text. Like Coverdale, readers can only perceive the world of the novel through their sometimes self-deceiving perspectives.

Stromberg, Maria. "Hawthorne's Black Man: Image of Social Evil." Explicator 67.4 (2009): 274-276.

Drawing on Nina Baym's premise that Hawthorne uses Puritan concepts of the supernatural to represent human psychology, Stromberg explores the identity of The Scarlet Letters Black Man. "The is the man who lives outside the community, incapable of entering." He appears in the text as a signal of characters straying from society's moral boundaries, and he is associated with Chillingsworth's transformation from a "good doctor and a scientist" to someone "incapable of giving anything but harm" (275). Stromberg argues that the Black Man is a symbol of social evil, the evil of separating oneself from human and moral community.

Walsh, Conor. "Aminadab in Nathaniel Hawthorne's 'The Birth-Mark.'" Explicator 67.4 (2009): 258-260.

Conor discusses Aminadab in "The Birth-Mark," explaining the Biblical associations of his name as interpreted by W.R. Thompson. Aminadab is linked with Adam, the physical earth and clay, and priestly authority. Conor compares Aminadab with Aylmer, stating that although the scientific Aylmer is intellectually superior, Aminadab possesses the wisdom and humility requisite to achieve spiritually-based happiness. The presents as evidence Aylmer's insistence on removing Georgiana's birthmark, while Aminadab would "never part with that birth-mark."

Dissertations

Hawthorne and Others

Ellwood, Fay Elanor. "Prophets and Prophecy in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Fiction." DAI 71, No. 9 (2011). The Claremont Graduate University, 2010. Advisor: Robert N. Thudspeth. 202 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3421447

Finn, Margaret L. "Immanent Nature: Environment, Women, and Sacrifice in the Nature Writing of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Catharine Maria Sedgwick, and Sarah Orne Jewett." DAI 71, No. 2 (August 2010). Temple University, 2010. Advisors: Daniel O'Hara & Katherine Henry. 226 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3390467

Murphy, Jonathan William David. "Hawthorne's Transcendental Turn." DAI 71, No. 2 (August 2010). State University of New York at Buffalo, 2010. Advisor: Rodolphe Gasche. 309 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3391065

Walsh, Conor Michael. "Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Biblical Contexts." DAI 70, No. 10 (April 2010). University of Nevada, 2009. Advisor: Richard Harp. 333 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3384000

Valin, Joanne. "'Gasping for Breath': The Language in the Poetics and Narrative Praxis of Emerson, Poe, Hawthorne, Melville and Dickinson." DAI 70, No, 8 (February 2011). University of Manitoba, 2010. Advisors: Dawne McCance & David Arnason. 387 pp. Publication No.: AAT NR64300

General Topics that Treat Hawthorne

Blackwood, Sarah Elizabeth. "The Portrait's Subject: Picturing Psychology in American Literature and Visual Culture, 1839-1900." DAI 70, No. 12 (June 2010). Northwestern University, 2009. Advisor: Betsy Erkilla. 305 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3386375

Burchett, Karen Gonzales. "Platform of Influence: The Power of Public Speaking in Nineteenth-Century American Fiction." DAI 70, No. 9 (March 2010). University of California, Davis, 2009. Advisor: Linda A. Morris. 177 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3375510

Gilliland, Don. "Self, World, and God in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson and Herman Melville." DAI 70, No. 8 (February 2010). The University of Alabama, 2009. Advisor: Heather C. White. 185 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3369745

Hills, Alison Macbeth. "Practical Confusion: Aesthetic Perception in Antebellum New England Writing." DAI 71, No. 4 (October 2010). University of California, Los Angeles, 2009. Advisors: Christopher Looby & Jennifer L. Fleissner. 304 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3405554

Hughes, Jennifer A. "Telling Laughter: Hilarity and Democracy in the Nineteenth-Century United States." DAI 70, No. 11 (May 2010). Emory University, 2009. Advisor: Barbara Ladd. 219 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3378443

Lamm, Zachary Neil. "The Queer Work of Fantasy: The Romance in Antebellum America." DAI 70, No. 12 (June 2010). Loyola University, Chicago, 2009. Advisor: John Kerkering. 226 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3387417

Moss, Andrew Patrick. "The Cultural Constitution of the Post-Republic: Eighteenth-Century Politics and Nineteenth-Century Literary Form." DAI 71, No. 6 (December 2010). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2010. Advisor: Trish Loughran. 300 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3411450

Rezek, Joseph Paul. "Tales from Elsewhere: Fiction at a Proximate Distance in the Anglophone Atlantic, 1800-1850." DAI 70, No. 12 (June 2010). University of California, Los Angeles, 2009. Advisor: Christopher Looby. 292 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3388115

Sandler, Matt. "A Poetics of Self-Help in America." DAI 70, No. 2 (August 2009). Columbia University, 2009. Advisor: Robert G. O'Meally. 322 pp. Publication No.: AAT 3348402

Thompson, Kara. "A Romance with Many Reservations: American Indian Figurations and the Globalization of Indigeneity." DAI 70, No. 11 (May 2010). University of California, Davis, 2009. Advisor: Elizabeth Freeman. Publication No.: AAT 3379612
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Author:Drislane, Liamog Seamus
Publication:Nathaniel Hawthorne Review
Article Type:Bibliography
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2010
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