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Current Bibliography.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Arensdorf, Nadia. "Current Bibliography." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, vol. 44, no. 1, 2018, pp. 111-28.

EDITIONS

The Historian's Scarlet Letter: Reading Nathaniel Hawthorne's Masterpiece As Social and Cultural History. Edited by Melissa McFarland Pennell, Praeger, 2018.

In this annotated edition of Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, Pennell introduces the text via an in-depth discussion of Hawthorne's life, the culture of antebellum New England and the text's Puritan setting. She focuses on Hawthorne's self-education and his understanding of the cultural history of New England, specifically the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies (14). Many of Hawthorne's texts, she asserts, are influenced by his knowledge of cultural history, but they are not always historically accurate. She explains, "[I]t might be more accurate to say that Hawthorn appreciated the work of historians, but did not feel bound to stick to the exact historical record when it constrained the shape or direction of his own narrative" (17). Throughout her annotations, Pennell connects scenes in The Scarlet Letter with the historical, cultural, and social contexts Hawthorne uses.

COLLECTIONS

Nathaniel Hawthorne in Context. Edited by Monika M. Elbert, Cambridge UP, 2018.

This collection consists of thirty-five articles, authored by various scholars, that approach Hawthorne and his works from a number of interesting angles. The essays are grouped into five thematic clusters that, together, "contextualize Hawthorne as a writer who understood public events, personal trials, and national history--and who sought to connect the threads as surely as does Hester with her embroidery of the 'scarlet letter'" (1). "Hawthorne and History" focuses on the author's "renderings of an array of issues in America's past and in his own time" (5): these include major historical events, such as the American Revolution and the Civil War, as well as significant contemporary political movements and economic developments. "Popular Culture and Social Movements" examines Hawthorne's treatment of utopianism and the pseudosciences: his evolving understanding of gen der issues; and his interest in philosophy, theater and visual art. "Hawthorne and the Literary Marketplace" focuses on Hawthorne's interactions with publishing venues, as well as how contemporary literary tastes shaped his fiction. "Hawthorne and Literary Traditions" examines Hawthorne's relationships with his peers, as well as his engagements with transcendentalism, sentimentalism, the gothic, science fiction, and magical realism. The final section, "Family and Place," considers Hawthorne's familial relationships and the various locales he inhabited, as well as how they, too, affected his writings. The collection emphasizes the evolution of Hawthorne's thought and Hawthorne studies in general.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

Kopley, Richard. "Form and Reform in Nathaniel Hawthorne's 'Earth's Holocaust.'" The Formal Center in Literature: Explorations from Poe to the Present, Camden House, 2018, pp. 35-40.

Kopley discusses the central parallelism of Hawthorne's "Earth's Holocaust," demonstrating how Hawthorne's framework "helps us to see the story's humor and its political and personal import" (36). He argues that, while "'Earth's Holocaust' clearly and dramatically expresses Hawthorne's abiding concern with 'Original Sin'..." "what may here be more fully recognized is the great artistry of the sketch" (36-37). Kopley focuses on the story structure, first briefly explaining how the text divides into two halves that use symmetrical language. He argues that, between these two halves, Hawthorne has a pun with the words "well done," noting the various ways in which "well done" can be interpreted in the text, particularly in the context of a tale wherein the gallows are burning. Kopley explains that Hawthorne refers both to the action being performed well (well done) and to the idea of meat being thoroughly cooked: "[T]he subtle symmetrical language of 'Earth's Holocaust' frames a central pun. This reinforces the comic tone of the sketch, and reminds us, perhaps, that if sin cannot be eliminated, neither can humor" (39).

Pennell, Melissa McFarland. "Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter: A Romance (1850)." Handbook of the American Novel of the Nineteenth Century; edited by Christine Gerhardt, Walter de Gruter, 2018, pp. 248-65.

Pennell provides an introduction to The Scarlet Letter, emphasizing "the nineteenth century literary environment in which [Hawthorne] worked, and his attempts to distinguish his work as 'romance'" (248). Much

of Pennell's argument focuses on the ambiguities and tensions Hawthorne creates in his text, in addition to the multitude of readings and academic conversations The Scarlet Letter has inspired in criticism. Pennell explicates the historical context of The Scarlet Letter, the biographical connections that critics have linked to the story, particularly in "The Custom House"; and introduces the theoretical approaches helpful to an audience first encountering the text. Pennell also provides a close reading of the text that focuses specifically on Hawthorne's character development and how he creates tensions between the "public perceptions of characters and what their private lives reveal" (248). For example, she discusses how "the chapters that focus on Hester provide insights into her nature, her view of the world, and her attempts to preserve a sense of self when she has been cut off from most, if not all things, that could sustain her in this still precarious world of the settlements" (258).

Saunders, Judith. "Nepotism in Hawthorne's 'My Kinsman, Major Molineux."' American Classics: Evolutionary Perspectives, Academic Studies Press, 2018, pp. 23-36.

Saunders contends that, in "My Kinsman, Major Molineux," Hawthorne "examines expectations for preferential treatment of relatives, along with the social context in which such favoritism manifests itself" (23). She argues that inclusive fitness plays an important role in the story, as it explains many of the motivations of the characters, specifically Major Molineux and Robin. Nepotism, specifically "altruism directed preferentially towards relatives," is related to the "reproductive success" of the individual, "the closerdegree of relatedness, the more likely investment becomes" (24). However: "the age, health, and socioeconomic circumstances of both helper and recipient also influence the likelihood of aid" (24). In substantiating her arguments, Saunders examines the Major's rationale for choosing Robi n as his heir when he was older and thus less likely to have his own children. She also examines how Robin chooses not to acknowledge the Major's inheritance when he finds out that he is not in good social standing in his community, thus demonstrating inclusive fitness. Saunders concludes that Hawthorne's story "scrutinizes nepotistic strategies, ruthlessly exposing the inclusive fitness logic that drives them, along with the cost benefit calculations that regulate them" (36).

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Achilles, Jochen. "Environmental Liminalities: Negotiating Metaphysics and Materialism in Nathaniel Hawthorne's, Sherwood Anderson's, and Flannery O'Connor's Short Fiction." ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, vol. 34, no. 3,1 Nov. 2017, pp. 482-95.

Achilles examines Hawthorne's "Roger Malvin's Burial," Anderson's "Godliness" and O'Connor's "A View of the Woods" to demonstrate a "heterotopic interrelation of nature and culture which tends to collapse both terms into a liminal sphere" (483). Achilles believes that, within these stories, the authors "present both territorial and oedipal conflicts orchestrating unusual processes of initiation" (483). In his discussion of "Roger Malvin's Burial," Achilles discusses how "Roger's denied burial marks the refusal to take cognizance of and to remember the human lives destroyed in the westward movement" (485). Throughoul the story, the nature scenes occupy a liminal space between the frontier settlements and Indian battlegrounds, specifically, "the battlefield of 'Lovell's Fight'" (484). Achille's contends that both the setting of the text and Reuben's psychological isolation relate to the "deaths of white settlers and militiamen but also the unmentioned deaths of Native Americans in the Indian wars" in the process of cultivation. He claims, "Reuben's psychological isolation internalizes the liminal heterotopia of the howling wilderness in which violence and death reign. The howling wilderness of Reuben's soul erodes and transforms within the peaceful settlement where he lives with his family and which is only seemingly cordoned off from the hostilities by and against Native Americans. Psychological problems of oedipal father slaying give expression to the deferred guilt of ethnic cleansing" (485).

Bamert, Sophia. "Miasmas in Eden: Atmosphere, History and Narrative in The House of the Seven Gables and 'Rappaccini's Daughter.'" Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, vol. 43, no. 2, 2017, pp. 1-18.

Bamert "applies ecocritical methodologies to the atmospheric phenomena in Seven Gables and 'Rappaccini's Daughter'" to show how they "engage with the U.S.'s complex and violent histories of settler colonialism, industrial capitalism, and race relations'" (2). By looking at the atmospheres within these texts, she examines how they allegorically represent characters' inabilities to escape the past. For example, in The House of the Seven Cables, the "dark and gloomy miasmas of the house reify the continually circulating Pyncheon curse" (7). In addition, the cloudy atmosphere in "Rappaccini's Daughter" is seen as a "material manifestation of racism" that shows the impossibility of the erasure of race espoused by the text (16). Throughout her article, Bamert contends that, by looking at atmosphere as a literary figure, readers can see the link between "the material relationships between race, history, and environment" (16).

Bechtold, Rebeccah. "The 'Quietude of Conscience' and the Magnetism of Sound: Listening to Nathaniel Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Gables." New England Quarterly, vol. 90, no. 1, 2017, pp. 69-102;.

Bechtold discusses sound in The House of the Seven Gables, specifically illustrating how noise in the novel "offers insights not only to the listening practices of the nineteenth century readership but also of Hawthorne's own perception of his story-telling role" (73). She believes that the "vast array of auralities" "disclose, although in differing ways the politics of audibility emerging in the United States in the antebellum period" (73-74). One example includes the ringing of the bell in Hepzibah's shop and how that and other noises encountered throughout her day not only disturb her but also show "how the market's democratization in the early nineteenth century reconfigured existing social relations in distinctively aural ways" (77). Bechtold argues that the passage reveals "the laboring classes' emerging authority in the new global market" (78). She examines, too, absences of sound, in particular, the silence that Clifford experiences in prison and the silence that characters note after their prayers. Bechtold contends that noise and its absences are connected with, but not limited to, the haunting of the past in the present, the politics of an emerging market, and the therapy of sound and storytelling in nineteenth-century culture.

Daly, Robert. "Hawthorne Scholarship: A Life in Company." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, vol. 4,3, no. 2, 2017, pp. 81-88.

Daly argues that "Hawthorne's works extend the line in representations, in fictions, shaped language games in which we can learn (at a much lower cost of tuition) more subtle and timely knowledge [than] that usually available in the simplistic and murderous school of experience" (83). He believes that "one of Hawthorne's many strengths is that he offers so few conclusions or messages," thereby provoking the reader to actively consider the texts' larger significances (83). Daly asserts that, despite his shy spirit and social isolation, Hawthorne "was also reaching out, through ambiguous, plurisignficant, and ironic representations to make contact with others of his ilk, the rest of us" (86-87). Daly believes that, in "studying the multiple origins from which [Hawthorne's singularity] sprang, the multiple effects it caused, and the multiple communities it has called forth," scholars can see the texts differently but remain connected as part of Hawthorne's "larger community of readers" (87).

Diamond, David B. "'That self was gone!' The Transformations of Arthur Dimmesdale in The Scarlet Letter: A Psychoanalytic Perspective." American Imago, vol. 75, no. 4, 2018, pp. 647-83.

Diamond provides a Freudian psychoanalytic analysis of Arthur Dimmesdale, arguing that despite contemporary scholars who view Dimmesdale negatively, an "informed understanding of Dimmesdale'spsychecanpro vide a freshly sympathetic perspective" that will "serve to stabilize the wide variances in judgements about him" (651, 653). In his analysis. Diamond argues that Dimmesdale goes through three different transformations in The Scarlet Letter: one before the narrative begins, one in his encounter with Hester in the forest, and one as he returns to his study from this encounter. He argues that the first transformation, which is often critically overlooked, involves his "severe neurotic illness that reduces him from man of stature and dignity to a pathetic character" due to his guilt following his adultery with Hester (650). The second transformation, Diamond contends, is "from melancholia to mania" and is a result of Hester's presence and touch in their encounter, "which temporarily frees him from the oppression of a relentless punitive superego" (651). Finally, he demonstrates that Dimmesdale's third transformation is the result of self-reflection, whereby his "ego retakes possession of his psyche," resulting in a man who "comes to terms with the moral and psychological consequences of his past" (651).

Elbert, Monika. "The Marriage of True Minds: Hawthorne and Fuller at Niagara Falls." South Central Review, vol. 35, no. 3, 2018, pp. 72-88.

Elbert connects Hawthorne and Fuller, comparing not only their trips to Niagara Falls but also theirdarkviews of nature and human nature. Elbert looks at accounts written by Hawthorne and Fuller, noting that they both felt a similar "sense[s] of isolation" at seeing Niagara Falls and that "their notions about communal living in nature were also rather bleak as both felt they did not belong" (73). In her discussion of Hawthorne specifically, Elbert demonstrates how "Hawthorne deconstructs the scenery to rob the landscape of any aesthetic qualities and to show America at its worst, at least in his eyes" (76). Comparing Hawthorne's representations to those of Fuller, she concludes that "the disappointment about Niagara Falls says much about Hawthorne's and Fuller's temperaments, not simply as travelers but as types of Gothic wanderers in search of home" (86).

Halpern, Faye. "Beyond Contempt: Ways to Read Uncle Tom's Cabin." Publications of the Modern Language Association of America., vol. 133, no. 3, 2018, PP. 633-39.

While focusing primarily on Uncle Tom's Cabin, Halpern uses Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter to demonstrate ways to read a text skeptically. She asks whether "Hawthorne ultimately suggests that sometimes the symbols people project onto the world are really there. Or does he?" (635). The article suggests that there is room in The Scarlet Letter to view perception skeptically and questions whether the "A" actually exists or is merely a product of Dimmesdale's imagination. The ambiguity as to whether an object is real or part of the character's imagination becomes central to Halpern's argument. She considers multiple ways novels can be read. Halpern claims that "to read Hawthorne in a suspicious way is to affirm his artistry and the fruitfulness of our critical enterprise" (636). She then uses this analysis to suggest skeptical viewings of narration within Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Huang, Zhongfeng. "From Social Rebellion to Ambiguous Conformism: A Study of Reform and History in The Scarlet Letter." Neohelicon: Acta Comparationis Litterarum Universarum, vol. 44, no. 2. 2017, pp. 523-39.

Huang argues that, "according to Hawthorne, self and community are dependent, and only by social participation can the individual find a fulfilling form of democratic life" (538). Through analysis of Hester's transition from social rebel to her "conformist" return to the Puritan community at the end of the novel, Huang claims that Hester illustrates Hawthorne's political ideas concerning social rebellion, specifically the idea that reform necessitates "the proper recognition of historical heritage" (526). Unlike other critics who have contended that Hester's return to the community results in a "full reconciliation with the community," Huang believes that "Hester returns not intentionally to become a model citizen but simply to live and to no longer be segregated from her past" (534). Huang suggests that Hawthorne's characterization of Hester criticizes her "revolutionary thoughts of overturning the established social order" while still being sympathetic of her social reform, which "cast[s] serious doubts and criticism upon the ridged code of Puritanism" (536). Therefore, he concludes that "Hawthorne is the holder of the middle ground. On the one hand, he appeals to social reform: on the other hand, he denounced radical reform that breaks the present from the past" (536).

Masterson, Kelly. '"As Nice a Little Saleswoman, As I Am a Housewife': Domesticity, Education, and Separate Spheres in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The House of Seven Gables." Canadian Review of American Studies, vol. 48, no. 2, 2018, pp. 191-209.

Masterson argues that Hawthorne's characterization of Phoebe Pyncheon "offers up a model for not only the ideally educated modern young woman but also one that successfully merges capitalist values with domesticity" (192). Masterson examines how Phoebe's "emphasis on industry and productivity" serves as a "prototype for the middle-class American woman in a society increasingly structured by capitalist paradigms" (192). She contends that Phoebe's character simultaneously shows how education can "assimilate women into the capitalist system and contain that assimilation within the home" (193). Comparing Phoebe to Hepzibah. Masterson contends that Phoebe's character illustrates a new form of womanhood that celebrates women's ability to use capitalist business principles, whereas Hepzibah is characterized by old-world ideals of womanhood that celebrate accomplishments over a practical education (200). Finally, she argues that Phoebe's capitalistic values are contained within the home because her shop is in the Pyncheon house. The article demonstrates that while Phoebe has capitalist knowledge, she uses that knowledge only in connection to her domestic responsibilities at home and in a business within her house. Ultimately, the novel expresses Hawthorne's "desire to integrate women into capitalist society and an apprehension of taking women too far from domesticity" (203).

McCauley, Alex, and Zachary Tavlin. "The Art of Extraction and Preservation: Hawthorne's 'Dirty Nature.'" Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, vol. 43, no. 2, 3017, pp. 19-34.

McCauley and Tavlin "argue that Hawthorne's theory of fiction is also a theory of ecological extraction and preservation" (19). Viewing both the "Custom House" and The Marble Faun from an ecological perspective, they contend that, "for Hawthorne, the problem of fiction as a problem of preservation portends that writing threatens to either kill its subject matter or exhaust the grounds of extraction" (19). Throughout their examination, McCauley and Tavlin explore the idea that, for Hawthorne, "there is neither pure excavation nor clean divisions between art, nature, and the marketplace" (32). Their reading shows "that extraction and preservation--twin ecological concerns that grew in importance in the mid-nineteenth century--are key theoretical and meta-literary concepts for understanding Hawthorne's writerly praxis (and anxieties)" (33).

Newberry, Fredrick. "The Hawthorne We Still Don't Know." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, vol. 43, no. 2, 3017, pp. 74-81.

Newberry describes his experiences working on Hawthorne, from researching his dissertation to the project he is currently completing. Newberry notes that he began his research on Hawthorne by "retracing [Hawthorne's] own historical reading" and looking at the "histories of England and colonial New England familiar to [him]" (74). He believes that "Hawthorne makes it crystalline that a puritanical tradition was responsible for the failure of an artistic tradition" (75). While beginning with a historical approach to Hawthorne, Newberry notes that he "shifted to consider Hawthorne's leanings towards Romanticism" and that he has recently focused scholarly attention on Hawthorne's biographers (78). He concludes by observing that Hawthorne is difficult to know because of his reclusive nature, even within his letters; however, despite the author's want for privacy, Newberry has "no doubt of [Hawthorne's] desire to be recognized as an artist equal to the best in England" (78).

Newberry, Frederick. "Hawthorne's Old Manse Biographers." South Central Review, vol. 35, no. 3, 2018, pp. 55-71.

Newberry examines Hawthorne bibliographies, specifically arguing that, while "scrupulous biographers have been attempting to get the outer facts of Hawthorne's life straight, or in examining his life and works for psychological manifestations belonging to Hawthorne personally, they have fallen a good deal shy of describing Hawthorne's intellectual engagement with ideas and events both in history and in his own time" (55). He focuses primarily on how biographers have described the "Old Manse years [1842-45]," showing how often they have excluded these years or failed to consider the connections between Hawthorne's life experiences and his works during this period of the author's life (55). Newberry contends that there have been both hagiographers and denigrators when discussing Hawthorne's life and that "we still need a biographer who will, on the one hand, rescue Hawthorne from the mere fact-finder and, on the other, redeem him from a psychological analysis that invariably casts him into puny relation with the very art authorizing biographical attention in the first place" (70).

Noor-Tehrani Mahini, Ramtin and Erin Barth. "The Scarlet Letter: Embroidering Transcendentalism and Anti-transcendentalism Thread for an Early American." Journal of Language Teaching and Research, vol. 9, pp. 474-79.

Noor-Tehrani Mahini and Barth discuss The Scarlet Letter, specifically demonstrating how the text "weaves both transcendentalism and antitranscendentalism" in order "to give readers a chance to evaluate different beliefs and different aspects of early American life at the New England settlement in the seventeenth century" (474). Through his characterizations of Hester. Dimmesdale, and Chillingworth, "Hawthorne explores the psychological effects of sin and guilt while simultaneously examining the inner struggle between good and evil in his character" (474). Although Hawthorne is often considered a "dark romantic" or anti-transcendentalist author, Noor-Tehrani Mahini and Barth believe that Hawthorne uses many transcendentalist precepts. These include "self-confidence and self-reliance, in transforming or changing life for the better, in individual worth and dignity of manual labor, in innate goodness of people, in the benefits of living close to nature, and in the fact that truth is acquired through intuition, not reason or logic" (475). While "moral corruption, guilt, hatred, revenge, etc.... are expressed prominently." Noor-Tehrani Mahini and Barth argue that "the book ends on an optimistic note about human nature--highlighting the basis of transcendentalism"--and they indicate that "perhaps Hawthorne is suggesting to future generations that although human nature is both good or bad, goodness will always prevail" (476, 478).

Rendeiro, John C. "Scenes of Embodiment: Interpretation and Community in Hawthorne's Biographical Stories." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, vol. 43, no. 2, 2017, pp. 35-60.

Rendeiro argues that, despite claims that The Biographical Stories are unfocused or unfinished, "the paucity of the frame [compared to that of the Whole History] represents a conscious shift towards increasing expectations placed upon readers to read, that is, to interpret" (36). He claims that, "in minimal izing the role of the frame in Biographical Stories and deemphasizing responses by Mr. Temple's auditors, Hawthorne creates freedom of interpretation for his readers or listeners" (36). Rendeiro examines the historical figures discussed in The Biographical Stories and the morals that are emphasized for the children within the frame narrative, in addition to the morals that are not addressed. He contends that leaving the tales slightly more ambiguous allows children to "reflect on their places with communities as embodied individuals, a theme echoed in the component tales" (37). Furthermore, Rendeiro argues that Edward's blindness in The Biographical Stories is "more than merely a sentimental trope"; rather, it is used to show the universality of subjectivity (53). He concludes by noting that, "at its core, the book claims that all people have agency, which is unstable, and that no person has sovereignty or full autonomy. Agency can both emerge from and be furthered by one's status as a reader, interpreter, and speaker" (54).

Stein, Jordan Alexander. "Herman Melville's Love Letters." ELH, vol. 85, no. 1, 2018, pp. 119-40.

Stein examines the widely held belief that Melville and Hawthorne's relationship verges on the homoerotic based on eleven letters of correspondence. Stein contends that, even though Melville's letters "intimate an unmistakable intensity and interest in his addressee," similar intimacy is evident in letters written by Melville to other correspondents (119). He believes that "the isolation of Hawthorne as Melville's principal love object proves to be as much a projection of mid-twentieth century Americanist critics... as it does a historical reality" (130). Stein examines the editorial practices and critical presumptions that led twentieth-century scholars to characterize Hawthorne and Melville's relationship as a love affair. By examining and contextualizing the critical interpretations that have led others to see Melville's correspondence with Hawthorne as extraordinary. Stein also addresses "the cultural assumptions that critics bring to bear on their objects" (130).

Valenti Dunlavy, Patricia. "Time and the Hawthornes." Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, vol. 43, no. 2, 2017, pp. 61-74.

Valenti discusses her work with the Hawthorne family archives and how that work has directed her scholarship. After reading Rose Hawthorne's papers at the Rosary Hill Home, she proposed that her Memories of Hawthorne "constituted Rose's own 'auto/biography,' an apologia pro vita sua, her indirect manifesto for communal life and service to the poor" (67). Valenti also discusses Sophia Hawthorne's journals, arguing that "Sophia's story, like that of other women who had been ignored, misrepresented, or maligned, needed to be corrected. The facts of herlife contradicted the narrative of a prudish, amateurish lady-painter, sickly and timid, that had been created by Nathaniel and perpetuated by his biographers" (68-69). Instead, Valenti looks at Sophia's journals and explains how they "demand to be treated as art" (71).

DISSERTATIONS

Boyne, Joseph. Romanticism's Influence on the Southern Renaissance. DAI-A 77/09(E) (2019), Catholic U of America, 2019. Advisor: Ernest Suarez, 294 pp., publication no. 10981139.

Davis, Amanda Leigh. Housing, Character, and Artificial Life. DAI A79/11 (E) (2018), U of Chicago, 2018. Advisor: Bill Brown, 310 pp., publication no. 10745101.

Foley, Vera R. The Home Front Revisited: Visions of Union from Professional Women Writers of the American North, 1859-1877. DAI-A 77/11 (E) (2016), U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2016. Advisor: Phillip F. Gura, 301 pp., publication no. 10119859.

Grace, Daniel. Guided Passages: Spiritual Progress and Travel Narrative in Nineteenth-Century U.S. Literature and Culture. DAI:A 79/12 (E) (2018), U of California-Davis, 2018. Advisor: Elizabeth Freeman, 257 pp., publication no. 10815565.

Hung-hao Shiu, et al. The Sinful Narcissus: Hawthorne's Writing of Melancholia and Megalomania, 2017.

Martin, Kristi Lynn. Creating 'Concord': Making a Literary Tourist Town, 1835-1910. DAI-A 80/08 (E) (2019), Boston U, 2019. Advisors: Phyllis B. Cole and William D. Moore, 512 pp., publication no. 10974138.

Tavlin, Zachary. Glancing Visions: American Literature Beyond the Gaze. DAI-A 79/12 (E) (2018), U of Washington, 2018. Advisor: Leroy Searle, 240 pp., publication no. 10826547.

Stevens, Helen Christine. Paradise Closed: Energy, Inspiration and Making Art in Rome in the Works of Harriet Hosmer, William Wetmore Story, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Sophia Peabody Hawthorne, Elizabeth Gaskell and Henry James. 1847-1903." DAI-C 77/07 (2018), U of London, King's College, 2018. Advisors: Calre Jane Pettitt and Mark W. Turner, 295 pp., publication no. 13832956.

Erin Noelle McNulty is a PhD student in Literature, Theory, and Culture Studies at Purdue University. Her interests include Children's Literature, Neo-Victorian Studies, and Nineteenth-Century American and British Literature.

doi: 10.5325/nathhawtrevi.45.2.0205
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