Culture shock in intercultural communication.
The Concept of "Culture"
Harry Triandis, a specialist in cross-cultural psychology, uses a definition of culture that is, at the same time, explicit and wide enough to describe the term:
"Culture is a set of human-made objective and subjective elements that in the past have increased the probability of survival and resulted in satisfactions for the participants in an ecological niche, and thus became shared among those who could communicate with each other because they had a common language and they lived in the same time and place." (1)
The term "human made" reveals the fact that culture, even if it has its historical background that has left inerasable traces, has the quality of evolving over time and adapting to different types of circumstances and needs. As A.L. Kroeber stated in one of his articles, "it is increasingly evident that no civilization is ever actually static. It always flows" (2). And one of the circumstances nowadays is the development of that movement towards an intercultural dimension.
People tend to be unaware of their own culture. They take things as they come and they do not wonder what cultural aspect influences their beliefs and their behavior. When they come into contact with a new culture, the conscience of one's own cultural belonging awakens. The bigger is the differences between cultures, the higher will be the awareness about one's own cultural specificity.
The Context of Intercultural Contact Development
Nowadays it seems more than natural for people from different cultures to interact. But what determines them to interact and why did interactions increase so rapidly in the last years?
The mass media that introduce different cultures to different parts of the world, the purpose of economic development, the new source of inspiration that the intercultural environment might represent, the increased possibility to travel abroad, the need for integration in a wider space, the tendency of correlation between the national and the international context, all these constitute the background for the intercultural contact development.
Besides the movement towards America, considered for a long time to be the land of all possibilities, there is a strong tendency of Europeans to move inside their own continent too, due to the Europeanization process. Talking about Europeanization, Stephen Weatherford considers that
"In a world in which national economies are becoming increasingly integrated, the vicissitudes of trade and capital flows have had dramatic impacts on domestic welfare in every advanced country." (3)
Treating this subject, John Borneman and Nick Fowler made a short review regarding the unity that the Europeans started o create inside their continent. They mentioned the European currency (the Euro), the European flag, the European newspaper, television stations and universities, the European film festival, parliament, court, law, song festival, Champions League for soccer. They also brought into discussion the concept of "unity in diversity", a concept that suggests the possibility of different countries to maintain their specificities even when being integrated to the big European "family". (4)
Fred Halliday, in the paper Rethinking International Relations (5), considers that states are inclined to correlate more and more one with the other and to adopt sets of norms and values shared by different societies, which are being promoted by the competition among states. But, inevitably, there is a difficulty in conforming to an international pattern dictated by this competitive homogenization, by the need of overcoming the handicap caused by the difference in development among some sates. This difficulty of conforming becomes even higher if we take into consideration the fact that there is also a need of keeping the distinctive aspects of national cultures as well.
This "unity in diversity" is a good way of perceiving intercultural communicating as well. There are some global rules of communication that one must master, but specificity and compatibility are the aspects that people coming into intercultural contact should put more emphasis on, in order to become fully comprehended, and in order to be able to receive the massage that the interlocutor intends to send.
Basics of Cultural Differences
Culture influences the way humans select, interpret, process, and use information. So, keeping informed about a certain culture is not enough. One must also know how to interpret that information in an appropriate way, which may be different from his first perception. The importance of this aspect is very well formulated by Harry Triandis who asked the following question:
"In a world that can become extinct in a nuclear holocaust, can we afford to neglect a better understanding of the relationship of culture and social behavior?" (6)
The answer is obviously "no". In the century of speed, information cannot be ignored and most certainly must not be postponed. The diversity is too big to afford applying the general to the particular.
These are some of the reasons that determine the appearance of such phenomena as "culture shock". For a better understanding of the term, I will make use of Kalervo Oberg's definition, a famous Canadian anthropologist, definition reproduced by Harry Triandis in Culture and Social Behavior.
"Culture shock occurs when people interact with members of a very different culture and experience a loss of control. This happens when they cannot understand the behavior of the people from the other culture. 'Then they feel confused and develop both physical (e.g., asthma, headaches) and psycho logical (e.g., depression) symptoms (Oberg, 1954, 1960)." (7)
Sources of Culture Shock
We operate inside our culture, guided by unperceived and rarely acknowledged networks. When we are placed out of our comfort zone, the phenomenon of culture shock may occur. Culture shock is caused by unfamiliarity with the new country, difficulty or inability to speak the language, or not knowing how to behave in an unfamiliar culture. Newcomers can sometimes feel like children because they cannot understand all these new things at once.
So, culture shock can have its sources in the lack of knowledge, the lack of ability to adapt, the lack of willingness to adapt, etc. One of the reasons why people cannot adapt is the preconceived ideas about the host country, which are as dangerous as the lack of knowledge.
"Attributions refer to judgments or causal explanations about human behaviour. While individuals use attributions to make sense of their surrounding environments, their causal accounts are often influenced by motivational biases. One of these biases is related to the need to maintain and enhance self-esteem. Social psychological research has demonstrated that in most cases individuals attribute their successes to internal or dispositional factors and their failures to external or situational factors." (8)
Discrimination from the representatives of the host country can only intensify the state of discomfort. It is difficult to adapt even in a friendly environment, and reticence from the host nationals is a big impediment. Also, it is very difficult to maintain one's identity in a multicultural society, while obtaining acceptance and feeling integrated in host social groups. Discrimination results in conflicts and those conflicts lead us back to stereotypes.
What one must take into consideration when dealing with stereotypes is the fact that they are comparative judgments and that the correct manner of referring to a characteristic of one culture is by comparing it to another culture. Triandis gives the example of a certain culture A, where people wash their hands around one hundred times a day and of a certain culture B where people wash their hands around seventy times a day. Of course, there are exceptions to those numbers inside those particular cultures but the average is of one hundred and of seventy times a day. Given those numbers, representatives of both cultures can be considered to be clean and attentive to hygiene, but representatives of culture A can easily consider those of culture B not to be very clean. (9)
In giving another example to support the idea that difficulties may occur as a result of cultural particularities I will also make use of Catherine Beaulieu's study on 23 students, from 11 countries, involved in a summer program. The focus of her study was on the perception of personal space by representatives of different cultures, and on the way this perception affects the communication process. The term of personal space was introduced by Edward Hall in 1959 and it refers to an invisible zone surrounding each individual, which allows him to feel comfortable in interactions. Though the author admits the small number of subjects involved in the survey, the results obtained are just a confirmation of what had already been concluded by other surveys in that domain and they can support the effects of cultural differences in communication. Anglo Saxons need a larger personal space, fallowed by Asians, Caucasians and Latinos. Even the body posture is different when interacting. As a result, a Latino may seem aggressive to an Asian, while his style is simply more direct. (10)
All the above mentioned elements may constitute sources of culture shock. But how exactly does this phenomenon affect the intercultural traveler? This aspect will be clarified by presenting its stages and its symptoms.
Stages of Culture Shock
Though each individual reacts differently to the cross cultural differences, Kalervo Oberg, quoted by Delia Marga in Intercultural Business Communication. Professional Discourse Analysis. A reader, in his discussion regarding "culture shock", detailed four general phases of emotional reactions associated with cross-cultural sojourns. These phases are at the basis of studies in the domain of "culture shock". (11)
1. The "honeymoon" stage
This stage is the one experienced at the beginning of the contact, and it is characterized of euphoria, excitement, fascination, and enthusiasm. Positive attitudes predominate, and even if travelers come with a luggage of pre-conceived ideas, the thrill in front of the new and out of the ordinary predominates. Most tourists do not surpass this phase. Those that intend to stay for a longer period of time are preoccupied with getting accommodated and making connections. Similarities are regarded with comfort while dissimilarities are regarded with interest.
2. The "crisis" stage
This stage is the most difficult and challenging one, as it is characterized by feelings of inadequacy, frustration, anxiety, irritation, hostility, etc. The euphoria of the exotic and out of the ordinary has passed and the traveler has to face reality. In this stage the manifestations of the "disease" culture shock starts to manifest. If this stage is surpassed, though some travelers never do, then the "healing" process can begin.
3. The "recovery" or "gradual adjustment" stage
During this stage, the individual takes measures to exit the crisis stage. He begins to understand the new culture and to create a comfort zone. The unfamiliar becomes familiar and this diminishes his states of anxiety and nervousness. His actions evolve from artificial to natural, due to crisis resolution and culture learning. Sojourners and immigrants suffer the most severe adjustment problems at the beginning stage of transition when the number of changes is very high and coping resources are very low.
4. The "complete adjustment" or the "biculturalism"
This stage reflects enjoyment and functional competence in the new environment. The "patient" has entirely recovered from his "disease". He has learned to accept things the way they are and he has embraced some of the culture particularities of the host country. He no longer feels a "fish out of water" (a metaphor which refers to taking the individual out of habitual environment that he can control and where he feels at ease). Harry Triandis states that even if an individual has the chance of getting support in the host culture, it is not equivalent to the one received from his family and friends. He also speaks about avoidance and formality as factors that come against one's adaptation. (12)
For those that return to the host culture, some specialists support the idea of the existence of another stage. This stage is called the "re-entry shock" and it does not necessary fallow the other four. It depends on the level that the individual has reached before returning home.
"As he becomes involved once again in his home culture he is faced with the need to bring his reconstructed value system into closer juxtaposition with indigenous values; he is faced with the need to prove his sameness without discarding his newly acquired outlook." (13)
Gulbahar Huxur, university professor in Columbia, clearly summarizes the reasons for the re-entry shock by describing it, in an article published in 1996, as a feeling of both gain and loss. Gain of new concepts and values, of new experiences, of new perspectives, and loss of an environment that was familiar for a longer or shorter period of time, regain of what he or she has left at departure and loss of what he or she has found in the new culture. (14)
Lysgaard (1955), quoted by Coleen Ward et alii in The Psychology of Culture Shock proposed in his cross-cultural study a U-curve model of adjustment during cross-cultural relocation based on his investigation of some Scandinavian students in the United States. The conclusion of his study was that there is a critical adjustment period for the intercultural sojourners. That period is considered to be from six to eighteen months of departure. This conclusion is based on the fact that students returning home after six months have managed to adjust to the needs required in that interval. After around six months, the enthusiasm of the new and the effects of the "honeymoon" stage start to fade away. So, sojourners encounter new problems in adaptation that are considered to be surpassed after eighteen months or more. As opposed to the U-curve adjustment theory, there is also a longitudinal adjustment theory. Longitudinal studies have considered the early months of transition as having the higher level of psychological distress. Still, the U-curve proposition has continued to exert strong influence on the field. (15)
Lysgaard's U-curve model has been analyzed by Miriam Sobre-Denton and Dan Hart, in the article Mind the gap: Application-based analysis of cultural adjustment models. (16) The authors of this article analyze the advantages and disadvantages of four important cross-cultural adaptation theories. The main strength of this model is in their point of view the so called "intuitive appeal" while the main disadvantage is the fact that it focuses to much on a pattern, leaving aside the uniqueness of each individual and of each experience.
The second analyzed model is the Anxiety/Uncertainty Management model, introduced by William Gudykunst. What this model draws attention to is the fact that uncertainty and anxiety do not damage the process of acculturation, but contribute to the "positive acculturation". Also, it does not have the weakness of the previously presented model, as it is adapted to different individuals in different situations. In spite of that, the problem with this model derives exactly in the orientation towards this great diversity. The forty seven axioms invest this model with a great degree of complexity that can be disorienting.
The third model brought into discussion is the Transition model which presents adaptation as a natural process and it focuses even more on the particularity of each individual. According to Bennett, the promoter of this model, cultural adaptation training should be more sojourner oriented than pattern oriented, and this aspect is considered to be a positive one by Miriam Sobre-Denton and Dan Hart along with the perception of culture shock as a natural psychological phenomenon. The negative aspect is considered to be the difficulty of applying this model to larger groups involved in training sessions.
Finally, the last model of training in cultural adaptation presented is the Stress-Adaptation-Growth model of Young Yun Kim. This model focuses more on the immersion of language and communication in the acculturation and deculturation processes that lead to assimilation. As opposed to the last two models, the disadvantage of this model is its lack of focus on the individual.
The presentation of these four models was just a way of framing the theoretical aspects related to the stages of culture shock. More emphasis on the training techniques will be put later on in this article. Whether it is represented in a liner way or as a U-curve, the effects of culture shock depend very much on each individual. As Jacques Demorgon pointed out in his Dynamiques interculturelles pour l'Europe, all in all, the capacity to tolerate what is foreign finds a certain limit in each individual. (17) Having established the stages of culture shock, a clarification must be made regarding its manifestations, more precisely its symptoms.
Symptoms of Culture Shock
Culture shock does not manifest itself in the same way for each individual. Still, taking into consideration the frequency of some manifestations, a list of the most common symptoms may be presented to the reader.
The most frequent culture shock symptoms:
--excessive concern for sanitation regarding hand washing, the quality of the food or water consumed
--fear of physical contact with members of the other culture
--troubles with concentrating on certain things
--feelings of helplessness
--fear of being injured, robbed or cheated
--exaggeration of the damage caused by minor injuries or any other physical disorders
--alcohol or drugs abuse
--even more severe effects, like suicidal attempts
Triandis also pointed out that the degree of manifestation of culture shock is proportional with the conceptual distance between the home culture and the host culture. There is also a strong connection between culture shock and intercultural experience, the proportion being reversed in this case.
I will end this section by presenting one of Triandis' experiences as a traveler. Though he had a rich traveling experience, the first time he went to Calcutta, India, having arrived during the night, he was surprised to see lots of corpses along the road. But what he thought to be corpses were actually people sleeping. Only later he learned that those people were not dead; it was common for people to sleep there, in order to save some of the money they gained and to help their families in the villages. His conclusion is that:
"When we are able to predict what others will do, when we can act so as to get others to do what we want done, when we know how to get rewards from our environment and avoid punishments, we feel in control. In new cultures we are often not able to predict the behavior of others or get them to do what we want." (18)
Means of Coping with Culture Shock
Intercultural training presupposes not only teaching the language of a certain country. Giving information about the culture of foreign countries and constantly adapting the information to the current situation is an imperative in intercultural training.
As the language aspect has been brought into discussion, I would like to draw attention on what knowing the language of the culture that is going to be visited actually means. In a case study on 127 students, engaged in study motilities in France, Margaret Pitts notices that there is a difference between the levels of language that student perceive of having and the way they manage to perform in that particular language abroad. She considers this to be in many cases a first level of shock for students. (19) Different academic demands, combined with an unexpected language difficulty could represent a first challenge into adaptation, and this is why even language knowledge should be adapted to particular regions and social environments.
Culture training addresses especially to long term travelers like sojourners or immigrants; in the case of tourists, some general information is usually sufficient. The economic aspect should also de taken into consideration because culture training is rather expensive and this is why special emphasis should be put on long term travelers, which can benefit much more than tourists from that training. Besides the period of departure, the need for special training and the potential difficulties of psychological and socio-cultural adaptation depend on the quantity and quality of relations with the host nationals and the cultural differences between the county of origin and the host country.
The international traveler is looking for support in two directions. The first direction is from the host nationals and the second one is from family, friends, or acquaintances back home. The support from the people back home seems to be the most reliable source of support but it can also make the traveler's stay abroad more difficult. Keeping constant contact with people back home can, in some cases, create difficulties in adaptation, as homesickness is intensified. So, contact with people back home and with host nationals should be combined in such a way that the traveler can find his comfort zone.
Some studies have focused on the sources of support for the sojourners and among the most used and effective ones we can find: maintaining contact with the people back home and coming into contact with the host nationals or with other international students, visiting the new country, being open-minded and optimistic, having a good knowledge of the foreign language, learning the other culture's specificity, keeping a journal, finding a comfort zone, thinking about the outcomes of that experience. Besides the general stress coping strategies, each individual should try to discover his or her own ways of feeling comfortable in the new environment and should take advantage of all the help he or she can get.
There are some reactions to culture shock that, instead of diminishing its negative effects, can only increase stress and the negative attitude towards the new culture. Some intercultural travelers blame their condition on the host nationals, on the environment or on the persons that have encouraged them in their departure. Though blaming others and staying more or less isolated may seem as a proper solution to avoid responsibility, this only postpones taking efficient measures for making the time spent abroad as enjoyable as possible. (20)
In the case of international students, active counseling can help them surpass difficulties and to benefit the most from the experience. Keeping them busy and involved could be a good method for diminishing culture shock. Community programs and group integrations may seem time consuming but it can be both relaxing and educational.
"These two goals, if broadly defined, are not antagonistic. Although the student may have a specific academic goal, inevitably he will have experienced cultural unities and diversities during his sojourn abroad. Almost inevitably, he will be called upon to fulfill, in addition to his professional role, upon return home, the role of a cultural interpreter." (21)
So, it is perfectly justifiable why adequate communication has been regarded by many as the key component of intercultural effectiveness.
There are several training methods in this domain and I will present some of the most efficient ones in the following paragraphs, using the study of Colleen Ward et alii (22) as source of information:
One of the best training methods is to bring a member of the host culture into the trainee's one. This way, he is exposed to a very realistic and genuine source of knowledge and he is kept away from experiencing the first contact shock, on foreign ground. It is, of course important to learn about the foreign culture, but having an example in front of you is much more concluding. Of course, the person selected must be one representative for his or her culture, not an out of the ordinary individual. Though it is more difficult to put in practice, short term exchange among culture members seems to be the best way of a proper comprehension.
Another learning method, though more theoretical, is indeed very efficient. This method is called "the culture assimilator" and it is a programmed learning approach that consists of a set of one hundred to two hundred scenarios in which individuals from two different cultures interact. For each scenario, the trainee is given a set of explanations for the miscommunication process, and he has to choose the correct one. This technique is also useful because, instead of presenting facts, it places the trainee in the position of learning from his own assumptions. This can give him a feedback on what he already knows and on how prepared he is for a future contact. Also, having actual situations as examples makes learning more practical and attractive.
In the BAFA BAFA game, trainees are given a hypothetical cultural group that they have to identify with. There are two different teams, Alpha and Beta, belonging to different cultural groups. Both teams receive information regarding the culture that they must identify with. The game consists in exchanging visitors and simulating a host-sojourner situation. This way, the trainees learn in an interactive way of two cultures at the time and, also, they make an idea of what being a host means.
Another interesting technique is the Barnga game. The subjects receive a set of playing cards, different for each team, and a set of rules that they have to memorize. They are not allowed to speak or write words. They can express themselves only by gestures and drawings. When the game is over, the participants discuss their experiences. The aim of Barnga is to simulate intercultural communication difficulties.
In the Ecotonos game, players are divided into three teams, each representing one culture. They receive cards with rules in each culture. After discussing for a short while about their cultures, they must make up stories about their cultural development. Then they are combined in "multicultural" groups, and are given different tasks that they must accomplish together, taking into consideration the cultural background that they have been assigned. This game also gave the purpose of improving communication skills and cultural knowledge.
The last technique that I will describe is "the critical incident technique". This technique presupposes the analysis of some episodes of misunderstanding or conflict arising from cultural differences between the actors. With the help of a facilitator that will explain at the end, in detail, what had happened, the trainees must discover the problem issues.
It is very difficult to evaluate the efficiency of one training method or another, as it takes a lot of time to see the results and those results are very much influenced by the specificity of each individual and of each culture. Some of the methods of testing their efficiency are the feedback on return home, the individual's performance or his results, the feedback of representatives of the receiving country. "The analysis produced a three factor model of intercultural effectiveness: (1) ability to manage psychological stress, (2) ability to communicate effectively, and (3) ability to establish interpersonal relationships." (23)
"The 'shock' part of culture shock is now being discussed in terms of skills deficits (Bochner, 1986) and acculturative stress (Berry, 1994a, 1997). This, in turn, draws attention to the range of mediating and moderating variables that can either attenuate or accentuate the effects of behavioural deficits and psychosocial stressors that sojourners, immigrants and refugees may face." (24)
It is important to comprehend that no method is self sufficient or completely efficient. Still, the importance of being aware of the potential difficulties reduces culture shock considerably. To support this final idea I will make use of the adaptation of Fons Trompenaars to the famous saying "When in Rome, do as the Romans do". Referring to the Japanese people and to their solution to adapting to the changes produced by globalization around the world, he considers that the correct manner of dealing with interculturality and its challenges would be: "When in Rome, understand the behaviour of the Romans, and thus become an even more complete Japanese." (25)
The boundaries of one's country are no longer an impediment in one's development. People have the freedom of circulating more freely among countries and cultures and the changes in their needs often determine them to take advantage of that freedom. But being a good communicator in one culture does not necessary mean that one will be a good communicator in all cultures.
The cultural differences may put in difficulty even the most experimented traveler, as the examples in my paper have shown. In order to surpass those difficulties, people need to embrace a new set of rules and values. If they are not able to adapt, than the negative symptoms of culture shock intervene. One may experience this culture shock when he is placed out of his familiar environment, in an environment where his own norms and values are not compatible to those of others.
Nowadays, the international travelers have the advantage of being quite numerous. As a result, it is easier for them to integrate in a new environment if they find people placed in a similar situation. Lately, the economic implications of intercultural contact have led to the tendency towards training also the host nationals for the intercultural encounter. The manner in which this training should be made and the proper model to be chosen is as challenging as in the case of pre-departure training.
What we should keep in mind is that there is no correct or incorrect way of perceiving things and of communicating; there is just a different way of doing those things. In order to improve our life, we must adapt our behaviors and our needs to the environment that we inhabit. As the environment is constantly enlarging, intercultural training is an imperative in any communication act.
1. Adler, Nancy (1992), International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, second edition, Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company
2. Beaulieu, Catherine (2004), "Intercultural Study on Personal Space: A Case Study", in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 34, Issue 4, April 2004, Pages: 794-805, [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext], 27.10.2009
3. Borneman, John; Fowler, Nick (1997), "Europeanization", in Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 26, p. 487-514.
4. Cajoleas, Louis (1958), "Counseling Overseas Students" , in The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 209-212, 234.
5. Demorgon, Jacques; Lipiansky, Edmond-Mark; Muller, Brukhard; Nicklas, Hans (2003), Dynamiques Interculturelles pour L'Europe, Paris : Ed. Economica.
6. Halliday, John Fred (1994), Rethinking International Relations, London: Macmillan.
7. Huxur, Gulbahar; Mansfield, Earl; Nnazor, Reginald; Schuetze, Hans; Segawa, Megumi (1996), "Learning Needs and Adaptation Problems of Foreign Graduate Students", in CSSHE Professional File, No. 15., pp. 1-18, [www.eric.ed.gov], 2 February 2008.
8. Kroeber, A.L. (1953), "The Delimitation of Civilizations", in Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 14, no. 2., pp. 264-275.
9. Marga, Delia, (ed.) (2004), Intercultural Business Communication. Professional Discourse Analysis. A reader, Cluj-Napoca: Cluj University Press.
10. Pitts, Margaret (2009), "Identity and the role of expectations, stress, and talk in short-term student sojourner adjustment", in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 33, No. 6, November 2009, pp. 450-462, [www.elsevier.com/locate/ijintrel], 27 October 2009.
11. Pop, Dana (1996), "International Negotiations and Culture Shock", Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Studia Europaea, XLI, pp. 159-166.
12. Sobre-Denton, Miriam; Hart, Dan (2008), "Mind the gap: Application-based analysis of cultural adjustment models", in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 32, Issue 6, November 2008, pp. 538-532, [www.elsevier.com/locate/ijintrel], 27 October 2009.
13. Triandis, Harry (1994), Culture and Social Behavior, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
14. Trompenaars, Fons (1993), Riding the Waves of Culture. Understanding cultural Diversity in Business, London, Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
15. Ward, Coleen; Bochner, Stephen; Furnham, Adrian (2001), The Psychology of Culture Shock , USA/Canada: Routledge.
16. Wheaterford, Stephen; Fukui, Haruhiro (1989), "Domestic Adjustment to International Shocks in Japan and the United States", in International Organization, Vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 585-623.
Delia Flanja, is a Ph.D. candidate in philology at the Faculty of European Studies, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(1) Harry Triandis, Culture and Social Behavior, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994, p. 22.
(2) A. L. Kroeber, "The Delimitation of Civilizations", in Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 14, 1953, no. 2., pp. 264-275.
(3) Stephen Wheaterford; Haruhiro Fukui, "Domestic Adjustment to International Shocks in Japan and the United States", in International Organization, Vol. 43, 1989, no. 4, pp. 585-623.
(4) John Borneman; Nick Fowler, "Europeanization", in Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 26, 1997, pp. 487-514.
(5) John Fred Halliday, Rethinking International Relations, London: Macmillan, 1994, pp. 117-122.
(6) Harry Triandis, Culture and Social Behavior, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994, p. 31.
(7) Ibidem, p. 239.
(8) Coleen Ward, Stephen Bochner, Adrian Furnham, The Psychology of Culture Shock, Routledge, 2001, p. 112.
(9) Harry Triandis, op.cit., p. 138.
(10) Catherine Beaulieu, "Intercultural Study on Personal Space: A Case Study", in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology vol. 34, Issue 4, April 2004, pp. 794-805.
(11) Delia Marga (ed.), Intercultural Business Communication. Professional Discourse Analysis. A reader, Cluj-Napoca: Cluj University Press, 2004, pp. 152-154.
(12) Harry Triandis, op.cit., pp.262-287.
(13) Louis Cajoleas, "Counseling Overseas Students" , in The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 29, 1958, no. 4, p.212.
(14) Gulbahar Huxur, Earl Mansfield, Reginald Nnazor, Hans Schuetze, Megumi Segawa, Learning Needs and Adaptation Problems of Foreign Graduate Students, 1996, pp. 3-6.
(15) Coleen Ward, Stephen Bochner, Adrian Furnham, The Psychology of Culture Shock, Routledge, 2001, p. 80.
(16) Miriam Sobre-Denton, Dan Hart, "Mind the gap: Application-based analysis of cultural adjustment models", in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 32, Issue 6, November 2008, pp. 532-538, 539-540.
(17) Jacques Demorgon, Edmond-Mark Lipiansky, Brukhard Miiller, Hans Nicklas, Dynamiques Interculturelles pour L'Europe, Paris: Ed. Economica, 2003, p. 114.
(18) Harry Triandis, op.cit., pp. 262-263.
(19) Margaret Pitts, "Identity and the role of expectations, stress, and talk in short-term student sojourner adjustment", in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 33, no. 6, November 2009, pp. 450-462.
(20) Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Begavior, second edition, Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1992, pp. 227-231.
(21) Cajoleas, Louis, "Counseling Overseas Students" , in The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 29, no. 4, 1958, pp. 209-212, 234.
(22) Coleen Ward, Stephen Bochner, Adrian Furnham, op. cit.
(23) Ibidem, p. 41.
(24) Ibidem, p. 40.
(25) Fons Trompenaars, Riding the Waves of Culture. Understanding cultural Diversity in Business, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1993, p. 4.
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