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Cultural marketing: the museum. The museum image formation process.

The cultural component is one of major importance to personal development. It can be regarded from an individual, as well as from a collective perspective. The former can be interpreted as one's personal ability and interest in gaining knowledge, correlated with fulfilling the needs situated at the top of Maslow's hierarchy, while the latter offers a more general and accessible approach, creating the cultural context for the individuals' self progress. Creating a positively structured cultural environment has become the role of certain existing or newly established institutions, such as museums. Both the growth of museums and the current economic situation have led to an increase in competition among these cultural organizations, raising questions not only about the way they seek to educate the public and preserve the heritage, but also about their finance and funding. In order to accomplish all their objectives, museums need to adopt an adequate marketing approach. The aim of this article is to identify the situation of cultural marketing in Romanian museums. We will focus on art museums and we will try to determine the extent to which they make marketing efforts in order to achieve their mission and to conduct a coherent communication process.

The Role of the Modern Museum Institution

The first thing that comes to one's mind when thinking of a museum is a place where important historical or cultural items are preserved and guarded in order to be shown to the visitors. The concept of museum is, in fact, a much broader one than just an enumeration of its usual physical evidences and it has undergone significant changes since the establishment of the first museum. Public museums, in the true, current sense of the word appeared at the end of the 18th century and were regarded by cultural critics as "alienated, alienating unauthentic institutions." (1) Quatreme de Quincy criticized these relatively new institutions for their "removal of artifacts from a supposedly living, authentic cultural context and placement of them in an inauthentic and fabricated social space and their reduction of artworks to things in need of preservation rather than the manifestation of ongoing, living, creative process of creation." (2) Over two centuries apart (emerging in 1990), the new museum "participates competitively in the field of leisure industries, against pastimes as diverse as cinema going, shopping, and attending sporting events." (3) New museums are described as physically new institutions that exist globally and aim to be defined primarily against a highly self-conscious image of newness, which refers to the style of architecture, the approaches toward installation and the modes of publicity circulating around the museum, rather than to what they exhibit. (4) Analyzing the two opposing (in chronological terms) perceptions of the museum, we can stress out the shift from the focus on the artifacts placed in an unaccepted context to the focus on the spectacular context displaying less important artifacts. These findings are relevant to the aim of our article because they mark the boundary lines of the museum concept.

The museums acting on the market at present have upgraded from doing only what Kylie Message calls the core business, (5) consisting of artifact preservation and exhibition making, to acquiring both social and economic performance. The social performance refers to the "classic mission of the museum--custody, preservation and education," (6) while economic performance consists of increasing revenue and/through increasing number of visitors. The necessity for introducing the financial component in museums' actions arose both from the "worldwide unbridled growth in building and remodeling of museums," (7) thus the increase of competition and from the fact that "these days, museums have an economic objective that guarantees their survival and profitability." (8) In order to increase museums' performance, Carmen Camarero and Maria-Jose Garrido propound and analyze three alternative strategic orientations: (9)

1. Custodial orientation

The museum puts its effort in conservation, research and customer education, generating awareness about its work and offering the visitors what they need, not what they want. It focuses on being to the long-term benefit of the society, often to the detriment of short-term customer satisfaction.

2. Sales orientation

The museum employs aggressive sales and advertising techniques to persuade customers to buy more goods and services and to attract visitors not usually interested in the traditional museum. It emphasizes short-term sales maximization in detriment of long-term relationship building and competes with other suppliers of leisure activities.

3. Customer orientation

Defined as the degree to which the organization obtains and uses information from customers and develops a strategy that will meet customers' needs and wants, customer orientation is shown in practice by conducting market segmentations, by conducting research on both customers' needs, wants, perceptions and competition, by taking these results into account when planning exhibitions and by having a marketing strategy. It is focused on "maximizing customer satisfaction and not on building a relationship seen as an advantage in front of the competition." (10)

Adopting any of the three strategic orientations would make the museum become either economic or social performance oriented. This choice situates the cultural organization in the context generated by the dispute between Andre Malraux and Maurice Blanchot. In his essay on the museum without walls, Malraux states that due to technological changes, "the museum could now be liberated from the space of the universally concerned yet location tied museum and be made accessible to all in virtual form. [..] Bringing artifacts together in one space provides them with a single rather than dispersed context for interpretation that allows for new insights about technique and style to emerge through comparison with works of other times and places." (11) Blanchot considered that "the space of the museum changed both the context of art and also its possible meaning. Contrary to Malraux, he believed that [the museum without walls] had as many limitations to it as possibilities. [..] Making things available does not make them accessible." (12) In other words, focusing on making the cultural product available to any potential customer regardless of time and space boundaries might not mean a transition towards a new museum, which is less concerned with the exposed artifact, but in fact become a possibility to enhance its artistic value and its creative potential. In contrast, focusing strictly on perfectly conserving and developing the heritage might limit its potential. Certain measures must be taken in order for it to become not only available, but also accessible to any potential visitor.

The model created by Kent Drummond (13) presenting the migration of Caravaggio's art (14) from studio to museum and to market shows that art works can be situated simultaneously in several locations, without interfering with each other. Paintings can influence the work of other artists (the quotation stage) before and after they are put in a museum and they do not lose their artistic or esthetic value if, while being in a museum, they are also referred to (appropriation) or represented/reproduced (commercialization and commodification) on the market. Corroborating Drummond's conclusions of his model with the orientations presented above, we can conclude that a museum institution can be oriented both to social and economic performance.

Cultural Marketing Practices

Cultural marketing is a rather new discipline, which emerged at the end of the 20th century. Philip Kotler considers it part of social marketing, which "seeks to influence social behaviors not to benefit the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society." (15) While Kotler states that the only difference from other types of marketing are the organizational objectives, others believe that "artistic goals may not be compatible with the demands of the market and that satisfying visitors and gaining popularity may be contradictory to artistic quality and reputation" (16) and that "visiting satisfaction may be a less than ideal measure of organizational effectiveness in the non profit sector, since such organizations often have missions that require them to change visitor behaviors." (17) One of the impediments standing in the way of cultural organizations and preventing them from only seeking to maintain the artistic quality and educate visitors is the threat from rapidly developing leisure facilities. Museums have to face the indirect competition of all the market players that offer a wide variety of free-time activities and still they have to pursue their goal to preserve cultural heritage and educate the public. Therefore they need to counteract.

Starting from the idea that learning is fun, museums have increased the number of undertaken subsidiary activities and became part of what Hannigan calls edutainment: "the joining together of educational and cultural activities with commerce and technology of the entertainment world." (18) Even though a museum cannot change the product (work of art) to fit the marketplace, the product mix can include: (19) the collection and the experience created by the objects in the collection, the related services, the symbolic capital and also a series of peripheral services, such as stores, restaurants and libraries.

Another tendency in the cultural marketing is the formation of museum clusters, which on the one hand is benefic to the city by increasing its visibility regarding tourism and by becoming a source of new employment possibility and, on the other, hand offer several advantages: greater visibility, increased diversity, intertwining of diverse functions and shared infrastructure. (20) Another advantage of such spatial concentration of museums is that direct competition between museums is eluded.

Museum Image Formation Process

Image is of great importance to museum visitors, both residents and tourists. Image can be defined as "the way the public perceives the organization or its products" (21) or, more precisely, as "the overall mental picture formed from the mass of information available to the visitor, both about the museum and about museums in general." (22) In order for a positive image to be projected towards the customers, the museum has to build a coherent identity, and to communicate it in a distinctive way to the public. Hence the communication process is very important in museum image formation process.

Several studies conducted in Romania between 1995 and 2009 show that the public does not have a crystallized image of the Romanian museums. (23) There is an inconsistency regarding the actual and the perceived situation of this part of the cultural field. A marketing research focusing on the possibility to open a Guggenheim Museum in Bucharest conducted by the Romanian branch of Gallup International (24) in 2006 reveals two extreme points of the Romanian cultural field regarding the museum image. The public perceives an "Ascetic type of Culture" (mostly existent) on the one hand, where entertainment is provided to them only by showing exhibits in a rigid environment, and a "Poly-functional type of Culture" (mostly desirable) on the other hand, where the entertainment possibilities come from several directions, such as: ambiance, leisure, active participation in the artistic field, tourism and consumption. (25) We can stress out that these two opposing perceptions correspond to the two extreme concepts in defining the museum described above: the traditional museum (which fulfills its core attributions) and the new museum. Starting from the two opposing approaches described according to literature review and from the previous work in the field, we will try to show towards which perspective the image of the Romanian museum institution is leaning, by using statistical data and a case study.

The actual cultural infrastructure in Romania has constantly and gradually improved since 1995. While records show a number of 2.02 museums/100.000 residents in 1995, (26) a 2007 study comparing statistics in the Romanian and European cultural field (27) shows that Romania has a number of 3.1 museums/100.000 residents, placing it in the first half of this ranking, (28) in front of countries such as The United Kingdom (2.5 museums/100.000 residents) or France (2 museums/100.000 residents). Regarding the visits paid to museums, the number has also increased relative to the 1995 average of 371 visits/100.000 residents, (29) people manifesting a growing interest, integrated in the European uptrend. (30) The constant growth between 2005 and 2008 was followed by a 20% drop in 2009, according to the 2009 Cultural Consumption Barometer (31) (the decline manifested mostly in high school graduates, the number of collage graduate visitors remaining constant) which can be motivated by the lack of diversity in the activities offered by these institutions. All in all, the current situation of the Romanian museums has improved both infrastructure and visitor-wise during the past decade and shows some similarities to other European competitors.

The perception that most of the Romanian public has of the cultural sector (and implicitly of museums) differs a lot from the identity projected by cultural institutions and from the data shown above. Cultural consumption is regarded as socially desirable (not as a personal need) and museums are "ascetic places", which one can visit if he or she gives up daily activities turning it into a heroic experience. (32) Therefore, for most Romanians museums are not "visitor friendly" environments, where social and leisure activities can be associated with the artistic experiences. The perception of public cultural infrastructure is also incorrect. The 2009 Cultural Consumption Barometer shows a 4% decline in the perception of museum local infrastructure from 2008. (33) Residents seem to notice less of the activities of museum institutions, yet they regard such cultural activities as necessary and show interest for a less formal and less rigid experience of this kind leaning towards the poly-functional type of culture.

Cultural marketing in Romania

The extent to which cultural marketing is used in Romania is very little. Theoretically, "as a concept, cultural marketing is quite spread; in fact, governmental cultural strategies and legal regulations of the field take it into account and promote it." (34) Technically, when it comes to implementing, it is not as present in managerial strategies. Causes may vary. First of all, we can talk about a lack of specialists in the field, which, according to Aneta Bogdan, Managing Partner at Brandient, can be caused by the fact that "this is niche specialization, situated at the borderline between marketing and culture. The person performing cultural marketing actions must, on the one hand, have solid marketing knowledge and, on the other hand, have a cultural/artistic education and very good connections in the artistic world (networking), area which is regarded as a enclosed circle." (35) Yet, people working in this field are "either amateurs, who caught a glimpse of an opportunity, but whom usually lose capital and hence give up, or former agents for artists or those working in business management or event planning, whom are more interested in the profit rather than in the quality and possible development of the event and the value added that can be delivered to the community." (36) Lack of motivation for specializing in cultural marketing can also be seen a result of the low salaries paid to the people employed in the cultural field.

Second of all, we can outline a management deficiency, which, on the one hand "represents the lack of differentiation between management and marketing and art" (37) and, on the other hand, won't agree to establish marketing functions and departments in cultural organizations in order to sustain such cultural marketing practices. The marketing specialist is therefore unable to collaborate with other specialists within the organization. (38) According to literature reviews, an efficient management of a cultural organization implies an evaluation and a strict evidence of the institution's patrimony as well as an accurate perception and knowledge of the tendencies within the society.

Third of all, we can observe a lack of consistency regarding cultural marketing actions, an example of which is the organizing of the "Humorror" (39) festival which came to an abrupt end after three successful editions.

Forth of all, we must take into account the extent to which museums are forced to generate their own revenues. While in countries such as Great Britain museums have to earn 50% up to 100% of their own income (except for The National Theatre in London and the Royal Shakespeare Company which are under the patronage of the Royal House) and are therefore motivated to catch the audience's attention and attract visitors, in Romania cultural institutions are almost completely state-financed, which reduces the interest in upgrading the quality of their services. (40) Looking from an unbiased point of view, the transition to a system in which the revenues are 100% self generated should be made slowly, one step at the time, and corroborated with the income level of the population (or at least of the GDP/capita), so that the new system could be a functional one. As for private organizations in the artistic field, Romania already has a few private museums and a small number of private art galleries (part of which also work as auction houses), such as: Artmark--Bucharest, Monavisa Bucharest, Goldart--Bucharest, Art Alliance Gallery--Cluj-Napoca.

Fifth of all, we can stress out the reluctance to invest in cultural projects. Romanian art lovers, unlike other European collectors lack the habit of investing in works of art. Those who actually offer money for the implementation of such projects focus their attention towards famous artists, whose value and fame come as guarantee for their investment and they ignore talented young actors who are yet to become famous, closing in such way a vicious circle.

A best practice model in the field of cultural marketing comes from the United States of America, or from The United Kingdom. "In these countries organizations have marketing departments and numerous specialists. Moreover, their practices have consolidated during the past 30 years and one can talk about a running of the cultural marketing activities, which leads to a higher rate of efficiency." (41)

Developing tendencies in Romanian cultural marketing follow an uptrend, according to several practitioners. "Starting a few years ago, Romanian advertising agencies started to show their interest in actively sustaining activities of cultural organizations, most of the times pro-bono. This attitude led to imposing the good practices inside those specific cultural organizations. Another good sign that came recently is that several cultural organizations, including some from the public sector, started hiring specialist which have exclusively marketing responsibilities." (42) We therefore notice a progress regarding the implementation of cultural marketing strategies in Romania and we can state that we have entered the running period that was mention above by Aneta Bogdan.

Focusing on the cultural marketing of Romanian museums from a statistics point of view, we must stress out the fact that a Study on Museum Infrastructure and Consumption (43) shows that the public regards museums as being culture providers less important than press kiosks, copy centers and bookshops and libraries. (44) Moreover, when choosing between several cultural sites, Romanian visitors choose any alternative other than a museum: only 4.9% of the public are interested in museums while 26.6% prefer citadels/strongholds, 16.1% archaeological sites and 14.1% churches. When having to choose what museum to visit, 23.61% choose history and ethnography museums over art ones. (45) Corroborating this data with the current perception of the museums as rigid, traditional institutions, and its desire to enjoy a visit to a poly-functional cultural organism, we can state that the public does not lack interest in cultural and artistic activities, but is unsatisfied with the current situation of this field. A 2007 study evidences that the interest shown by the potential public in respect to the inauguration of a Guggenheim Museum in Bucharest is impressive: (46) while traditional art museums are obsolete and resource consuming, the existing National Museum of Contemporary Art presents exhibits coming from a safe zone of a classicized contemporaneousness made by well-known artists and has its image deformed by political controversies and UAPR galleries are disorganized and unfocused, such a "new museum" is seen as a breath of fresh air in the Romanian cultural space.

Starting from this premise, and from the fact that in Romania there is existing and potential public both for classical, consecrated and contemporary art (according to the Study on Opening a Guggenheim Museum), the 2009 Cultural Consumption Barometer suggests that an increase in the elitist and mass cultural consumption could be obtained through financial, innovation and socialization means: ticket price reductions and "pay what you can" programs, adjustment of the offer to the needs of the public and set up of socialization spaces inside museum halls. (47) This way, cultural institutions should start to shift from the "core museum activities" to a "new approach" of a "new museum".

Case study: Centrul Artistic Baia Mare Art Museum

The case study of this paper is about the art museums in Romania with a focus on the role of communication within the image creation process of the Centrul Artistic Baia Mare Museum of Art. We chose this institution because of its characteristics--it is a non profit public institution, which conducts its own management process since 2006 and is forced to generate part of its revenues--and because of the changes it underwent during the past 4 years in order to improve its performance and its imagine creation process, constantly trying to lean towards a "new museum" approach, while preserving and promoting the tradition and the traditional character of the local painting colony. Moreover, at present Baia Mare is among the large Romanian cities/towns which manifest a high cultural vitality. According to the 2008 study on Romanian Urban Cultural Vitality, (48) Baia Mare is on the 24th position, showing a reliable infrastructure, competent human resources involved in cultural activities, financial help from the local budget and cultural activities and industries.

We conducted both a primary and a secondary research. The primary research refers to conducting an interview with the manager of the institution and carrying out a pilot survey on 40 respondents. The secondary research consists of consulting the relevant online and offline documents.

The purpose of the interview with the manager of the Centrul Artistic Baia Mare Museum of Art, Tiberiu Alexa, was to determine the way the communication process initiated by the Art Museum is conducted. The objectives are:

--determining whether the institution has a specialized marketing department;

--determining the way the communication process was conducted before the establishment of this department;

--determining the way the communication process is conducted at present by the Art Museum.

The nature of the information gathered is mostly factual.

The survey was carried out in order to determine the level of knowledge of the existing art-consumers about the actions of the Art Museum and about the history and artistic culture of Centrul Artistic Baia

Mare. The inquired people were asked to fill in a 15- items questionnaire. The respondents were participating in three cultural events:

* A book launch: The publishing of "Incoace si incolo" by Mihai Matei Nistor. The event took place on March 19 2010, in Baia Mare, at the Petre Dulfu Public Library and was moderated by the manager of the institution, Teodor Ardelean. The number of filled in questionnaires was 10.

* The inauguration of an exhibition: The opening of the painter Calin Molodovan's "150x150" exhibition, which took place on April 13, 2010 at Galleries of the UAP, (49) Baia Mare. The key-note speaker was the UAP Baia Mare manager, Nicoale Suciu. A number of 20 questionnaires were filled in until the closing of the exhibition on April 27.

* The opening of a theatre festival: The official opening of the XVIIIth of the Atelier International Theater Festival, on June 6, 2010 in the in the foyer of the Baia Mare Theatre. The number of filled in questionnaires was 10.

The objectives of the survey followed three directions:

A. The knowledge of the existing art consumer of the cultural events of the Baia Mare Museum of Art:

1. Identification of frequency of visitation

2. Identification of motivations of the visit

3. Identification of the profile of the people participating in the visit

4. Identification of the information sources regarding cultural events

5. Identification of the information sources regarding the events of the Art Museum

6. Identification of the interest for and attention paid to possessing relevant knowledge of art.

B. The knowledge of the existing art consumer of the particularities and history of the Baia Mare Artistic Center

1. Identification of knowledge of the physical evidences of the museum

2. Identification of knowledge of museum patrimony

3. Identification of knowledge of the Baia Mare painting school history.

C. Determining the profile of the respondent.

After carrying out the research, the information gathered can be structured as follows:

1. Centrul Artistic Baia Mare Museum of Art

The Baia Mare Museum of Art is a public institution which exists in the present form since October 2006, when the Maramures Museum was divided into three sections: art, ethnography and history. The institution works according to the Law of Museums and Public Collections, no.311/2003, modified and updated by Law no.12/2006. It possesses legal personality and its activity is financed by self generated revenue and other funds from the state or local budget. (50) The functions of the museum, according to the above mentioned law:

--collection, conservation and restoration

--research and scientific development of the patrimony of the museum;

--dissemination of research findings

--educating the public.

Centrul Artistic Baia Mare posses a significant history as it was founded in 1896 as a one of the first painting colonies in Europe by Hollosy Simon. The painter, originating from Maramures, studied art and activated in Munich and managed to gather foreign painting students who came to this establishment on a yearly basis to paint, thus creating one of the first international art schools. Centrul Artistic has been continuously developing ever since.

2. The communication process

Ever since it started to exist as an independent institution, the Centrul Artistic Baia Mare Museum of Art showed high interest in communicating its identity to the public. The Marketing and Educational Programs Department was founded in 2006. This fact stresses out the importance given to the efficiency of the communication process and sets the institution among the first ones activating in this sector to pay attention to cultural marketing activities. In order to make the communication process a coherent and effective one, the organization conducted several market researches and has begun a segmentation of the public, which is not yet completed. Therefore the cultural institution took research, planning, motivation, coordination and control actions and the first practical results took the form of two public relations campaign plans, one addressing high school students and the other the existing customers and employment strategies in order to hire competent and adequate personnel.

The data collected from the survey shows that the cultural product consumers come from all age ranges in approximately equal amounts and almost all have superior education, as shown in Table 1, below:

Concerning their knowledge of the cultural events of the Art Museum, we found out that respondents come to visit the exhibitions, usually when finding out about a special event, or when they accompany tourists. Over half of the respondents get their information on events from friends or family members working in the cultural field or are themselves involved in cultural activities; another source of information considered to be relevant are the newspapers. According to the data presented in Table 2, young people under the age of 18 and those in age range of 30-40 tend to gather information from mass media, while respondents over the age of 35 find out about cultural events from other sources (such as people employed in the cultural field or people who usually attend such events) which can be identified as word of mouth.

Concerning the knowledge of the particularities and history of the Baia Mare cultural phenomenon, most of the respondents stated that they visited the exhibitions driven by a feeling of "local patriotism". Regarding the knowledge about the members of the Baia Mare painting school, the answers were unanimously correct, as those about its chronological period. All respondents consider knowledge of art to be not only relevant, but absolutely necessary.

Regarding the perception shown by the above mentioned studies on the traditional, rigid museum and the interest shown towards innovative practices and desire for socialization, the public of the Centrul Artistic Baia Mare Museum of Art is only partially included in the trend. The special character of the artistic center and the feeling of "local patriotism" together with the human resource engaged in all the activities of the museum place the public further from the feeling of entering an elitist, ascetic space. Yet, there is an obvious interest in inspiring and inspirational activities.


Museums are institutions of great value to the society because of their role in preserving and enhancing the cultural heritage and of educating the public. The rapid development and increase in the number of museums made room for a reinterpretation of their main purpose and the way they place themselves relatively to the public and to the other organizations offering services from competing ranges. Hence cultural marketing approaches came into discussion. The analysis of the situation in Romania shows that even though cultural marketing is just at the beginning, the implementation is made at a professional level and, in time, positive results will be achieved. An example of implementation of good practices is the case study of the Centrul Artistic Baia Mare Art Museum. As for the importance given by this institution to the role of communication within the image formation process we can state that it is very high, yet not coherent and focused enough. The public (which comes from various age ranges) shows interest in taking part in such a process and considers it and its results very important to society and self progress, but it is yet unable to grasp all information transmitted by the cultural institution due to lack of continuity in communication and dialog.

The limitations of the paper are that more cultural organizations could not be analyzed in order to confer a more complex image of the modern museum institution in Romania and the fact that the focusing only on the communication process leaves uncovered a large number of relevant cultural marketing concepts. Further research could focus either on enlarging the analysis to particularities of the museum marketing or to conducting the same survey on visitors of other museums and comparing the results.


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2. Kotler, Philip, Armstrong, Gary (2008), Principiile Marketingului. Editia a IV-a, Bucuresti: Teora.

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6. Drummond, Kent (2006), "The migration of art from museum to market: Consuming Caravaggio" in Marketing Theory no. 6, 85-105.

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9. Message, Kylie (2006) "The New Museum" in Theory, Culture & Society no. 23, 603-606.

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(1) Kevin Hetherington, "Museum", in Theory, Culture and Society, no. 23, 2006, p. 597.

(2) Ibidem, p. 597.

(3) Kylie Message, "The New Museum", in Theory, Culture and Society, no. 23, 2006, p.603.

(4) Ibidem, pp. 603-604.

(5) Ibidem, p. 603.

(6) Carmen Camarero, Maria-Jose Garrido, "Improving Museums' Performance Through Custodial, Sales and Customer Orientation", in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly OnlineFirst, no. 10, 2008, p. 1.

(7) Irina van Aalst, Inez Boogaarts, "From Museum to Mass Entertainment: The Evolution of the Role of Museums in Cities", in European and Regional Studies no. 9, 2002, p. 195.

(8) Camarero, Garrido, op.cit., p. 7.

(9) Ibidem, pp. 3-9.

(10) Manfred Bruhn, Orientarea spre clienti. Temelia afacerii de succes, Bucuresti: Economica, 2001, p. 18.

(11) Hetherington, op.cit., pp. 597-598.

(12) Ibidem, p. 598.

(13) Kent Drummond, "The migration of art from museum to market: Consuming Caravaggio", in Marketing Theory no. 6, 2006, pp. 85-103.

(14) According to the author, the model also fits other well established artists of the western cannon.

(15) Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Principiile Marketingului, Ed. a IV-a, Bucuresti: Teora, 2008, p. 325.

(16) Camarero, Garrido, op.cit., p. 3.

(17) Ibidem.

(18) van Aalst, Boogaarts, op.cit., p. 197.

(19) Camarero, Garrido, op.cit., p. 3.

(20) van Aalst, Boogaarts, op.cit., pp. 195-197.

(21) Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller, Managementul Marketingului, Ed. a V-a, Bucuresti: Teora, 2008, p. 470.

(22) Sergio Moreno Gil, R. J. Brent Ritchie, "Understanding the Museum Image Formation Process: A Comparison of Residents and Tourists", in Journal of Travel Research no. 47, 2009, p. 481.

(23) *** "Muzeul Guggenheim in Bucurecti--Cultura vizitarii muzeelor si o prospectie de piata", Central de cercetare si consultants in domeniul culturii [], link retrieved 7th August 2011, p. 13.

(24) Ibidem, p. 3.

(25) Ibidem, p. 12.

(26) ***, "Studiu referitor la situatia muzeelor din Romania", Centrul de cercetare si consultants in domeniul culturii [] link retrieved 7th August 2011, p. 3.

(27) ***, "Statistici comparative ale sectorului cultural din Romania si din cateva tari europene", Centrul de cercetare si consultanta in domeniul culturii, [ 20Europa%20bogdan%2017.pdf] link retrieved 7th August 2011, p. 8.

(28) First country--Finland with 9.3 museums/100.000 residents, last country--Albany with 0.3 museums/100.000 residents.

(29) ***, "Studiu referitor la situatia muzeelor din Romania", p. 3.

(30) ***, "Statistici comparative ale sectorului cultural din Romania si din cateva tari europene", p. 22.

(31) ***, "Barometrul de consum cultural 2009", Centrul de cercetare si consultanta in domeniul culturii [] link retrieved 7th August 2011.

(32) *** "Muzeul Guggenheim in Bucurecti--Cultura vizitarii muzeelor si o prospectie de piata", p. 12.

(33) ***, "Barometrul de consum cultural 2009".

(34) Alexandra Zbuchea, "Ce au in comun marketingul fi patrimoniul cultural", IAA, 2010 [ patrimoniulcultural/3347.html], link retrieved 20th October 2010.

(35) Aneta Bogdan, "Marketingul cultural", Brandient, 2005 [ interviuri_si_articole/marketingul_cultural. html], link retrieved 20th October 2010.

(36) Aneta Bogdan, "Proiectele de marketing cultural--efemeride?", Cariere online, 2010 [], link retrieved 20th October 2010.

(37) Lucian Georgescu, "Lupta cu morile de vant", Cariere online, 2010 [], link retrieved 20th October 2010.

(38) Zbuchea, op.cit.

(39) Aneta Bogdan, "Branduri fi festivaluri culturale", Brandient, 2005 [ branduri_si_festivaluri_culturale.html], link retrieved 20th October 2010.

(40) Roxana Crifan, "Marketingul cultural--o himera?", Cariere online, 2010 [], link retrieved 20th October 2010.

(41) Zbuchea, op.cit.

(42) Ibidem.

(43) ***, "Studiu referitor la situatia muzeelor din Romania".

(44) Ibidem, p. 18.

(45) Ibidem, p. 19.

(46) ***, "Peisajul de arta contemporana in prespectiva infiintarii Muzeului Guggenheim--Raportul studiului despre galeriile de arta contemporana", Centru de cercetare si consultanta in domeniul culturii, [], link retrieved 7th August 2011, p. 10.

(47) ***, "Barometrul de consum cultural 2009".

(48) ***, "Vitalitatea culturala a oraselor din Romania", Centrul de cercetare si consultanta in domeniul culturii, [], link retrieved 7th August 2011.

(49) UAP stands for Uniunea Artistilor Plastici, an Organisation of Romanian Artists.

(50) Legea 311/2006, Cap.IV, Art.21.

Iulia--Oana Enasel *

* Iulia--Oana Enacel is a graduate of the Media Society Master's Degree Programme of the Faculty of European Studies, Babes-Bolyai University. E-mail:
Table 1: Age and education of respondents

                               high school    studies

Q14          under 18          0               0
             19-25 years       0               1
             26-30 years       0               8
             31-35 years       0               9
             36-40 years       0              10
             41-45 years       0               4
             46-50 years       1               3
Total                          1              35

                               master         Ph.D.
                               studies        studies

Q14          under 18          2              0
             19-25 years       0              0
             26-30 years       0              0
             31-35 years       0              0
             36-40 years       0              1
             41-45 years       0              1
             46-50 years       0              0
Total                          2              2


Q14          under 18           2
             19-25 years        1
             26-30 years        8
             31-35 years        9
             36-40 years       11
             41-45 years        5
             46-50 years        4
Total                          40

Table 2: Age and Sources of information


                            family and   mass-
                            friends      media

Q14          under 18       0             2
             19-25 years    0             0
             26-30 years    1             4
             31-35 years    0             5
             36-40 years    1             5
             41-45 years    0             0
             46-50 years    0             2
Total                       2            18

                            I do not
                            remeber      Other

Q14          under 18       0             0
             19-25 years    0             1
             26-30 years    0             3
             31-35 years    0             4
             36-40 years    1             4
             41-45 years    0             5
             46-50 years    0             2
Total                       1            19


Q14          under 18        2
             19-25 years     1
             26-30 years     8
             31-35 years     9
             36-40 years    11
             41-45 years     5
             46-50 years     4
Total                       40
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Title Annotation:FORUM
Author:Enasel, Iulia-Oana
Publication:Studia Europaea
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXRO
Date:Sep 1, 2011
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