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Cultural diversity as a tool for caring and productive resistance. The case of FC Barcelona: a responsible perspective.

INTRODUCTION: CARING, RESISTANCE AND RESPONSIBLE GLOBAL IDENTITY THROUGH FC BARCELONA

When determining the moral worth of an organisation, shareholders often tend to seek out emotional engagement associated with the notion of caring. The ethics of caring focus on the practices of a 'corporate person', rather than on such abstract concepts as 'rights', 'obligations', or 'principles'. The idea of a caring organisation is an exception to the popular view that corporations are purely rationalistic, offering a more integrative definition that encompasses emotional as well as rationalistic considerations. Why does a business organisation show concern for others? In this paper we build on the notion of caring as a productive form of resistance (Gilligan, 1988; Simola, 2005) in an effort to explain the increasing emergence of caring organisations on the international stage.

The focal issue for our examination is the mediating role organisational identity plays between domination and potential violence on the one hand and caring forms of resistance on the other. This research chooses FC Barcelona, a global sports organisation with a novel kind of cultural identity, as an empirical illustration upon which to found a theoretical argument. FC Barcelona is a symbol for Catalan cultural and national identity, a model of a global organisation that has successfully integrated diversity and corporate responsibility as a result of productive resistance against cultural domination. This study examines FC Barcelona as a case of a caring organisation developing a global identity via productive resistance within a regional national culture. The paper highlights productive resistance as a practice of caring and discusses the reciprocal relationship between a caring organisation and resistance in a culturally diverse environment.

FC Barcelona has developed several defining characteristics as an institution: it represents a dissident national minority culture, it is focused on gaining recognition in a global environment, and it engages in corporate social responsibility activities. Positive exposure to diversity reinforces plural and hybrid identities which in turn predict a productive response to external domination through acts of caring. The culturally diverse identities of FC Barcelona mean that the club is better prepared to respond through productive resistance to the threats and challenges of ethnocentrism, ie cultural or identity domination that may challenge the club from within and without. Caring can produce both cognitive and cultural change. Productive resistance is the antithesis of reductive resistance, characterised in educational and political environments by a circle of oppression and violence. Productive resistance, in contrast, is founded on the acknowledgement of plurality and ambiguity in identity. If reductive resistance seeks to maintain the purity of collective identity through violent action and dialectic confrontation, productive resistance manages a sense of richness and ambiguity engaged in changing the context or culture of the living and learning environment. The challenge for caring organisations is how to manage their old and/or internal identities and at the same time aggregate multiple and/or external identities as a survival mechanism for transcendence and self-determination.

Caring is an act of resistance for an organisation operating in a global business culture preoccupied with the creation of new ethical values. The ethics of care reject mechanical thinking as ethnocentric, fixed, male-dominated, logocentric, narcissistic and anthropocentric universal principles. The nurturing of a tolerance for richness in meaning around organisational identity is thus the first step towards synthesising caring organisations. This research compares productive and reductive resistance as different responses to domination and relates reductive resistance to closeness and violence and productive resistance to openness and caring. The paper highlights FC Barcelona's hybrid identity as a mixture of local culture claiming cultural rights and self-management and as a transnational institution charming the world with its philosophy of playing and credo ("Barca, more than a club").

FC BARCELONA: A HISTORY OF RESISTANCE

FC Barcelona is a Catalan sports club based in Barcelona, Spain. The very existence of FC Barcelona has been an act of resistance of the Catalan people towards the totalitarian colonising practices of the Castilian (Spanish) majority in Spain. Sentiments such as 'caring for the game' and 'caring for the love of playing' are at the heart of FC Barcelona's philosophy. These sentiments are intertwined with practices of caring about and for others on a local and global scale. This paper shows how globalisation of caring relations, inspired by the way FC Barcelona understands the game of football, can enable people of different cultures and social groups to live in peace, to care for the environment and to improve their lives (Held, 2006, p. 168). For the last 500 years, Catalonia has been an unofficially recognised nation (with its own language, culture and institutions) within a state--Spain. The vindication of its identity and self-government has been one of the main quests of Catalonia for the last century and FC Barcelona not only embodies this struggle but also embraces the multicultural richness of Catalan society. With the emergence of globalisation in the 1990s, FC Barcelona has transformed into a transnational organisation attracting many supporters from around the world.

Catalan society respects cultural diversity as part of the identity of the people living in this territory. The Catalan government incorporated a model of co-existence between the native cultures of these new Catalans and their newly adopted Catalan identity. More than 50% of the new Catalans have integrated their cultural differences and incorporated their values and practices into this new 'melting pot' of the Catalonian society (Claret, 2003, p. 142). An ethnic economy has emerged with more than 600,000 non-European immigrants (80% in Barcelona) ready to create new businesses and services in a somewhat 'mixed embedded' system (Sole & Parella, 2005, p. 68). This new environment has encouraged a positive attitude towards corporate responsibility. Studies show that almost 25% of people living in Catalonia are socially responsible and concerned with environmental and cultural diversity issues (Castells & Tubella, 2003, p. 265).

FC Barcelona was founded in 1899 by a group of Swiss, English and Catalans led by Joan Gamper (15) who was first a player and thereafter, five times president of the Club. Two foreigners, the Swiss Joan Gamper and the Dutch Johan Cruyff, together with the Spanish-Hungarian Ladislao Kubala, are the most important members in the history of the club. FC Barcelona (el Barca) has become a Catalan institution and the motto, "mesque un club" (more than just a club) underpins its commitment to responsible actions. Although the players, supporters and executives have contributed to the club in many ways, the point of departure for the club's activities is the Foundation. FC Barcelona participates in Africa, Asia and Latin America with socially responsible actions. Within the club, the organisation not only takes good care of the veterans and the retired supporters (16), but also challenged/disabled people and visible minorities. The fight against racism and the participation of women in its activities play an important role in the institution. Women have been part of the history of the club. In September 2011, out of 169,318 supporters ("socis") 41,997 were women (26%). This is higher than other clubs such as Arsenal (19%), Real Madrid (16.4%) or Milan (15%). Six hundred and six women have been supporters for more than 50 years. In 2007 there were 415 female athletes in the Club, or 16.6% of all the athletes in the institution (Nadal & Ruiz, 2007).

FC Barcelona's Foundation, established in 1994, has participated in many social, cultural and sports activities around the world. It has supported the United Nations' 'Millennium Development Goals' and provided 0.7% of its budget to international development programs. On 14 July 2006, FC Barcelona announced a five-year global alliance with UNICEF which includes sporting only the UNICEF logo on the players' shirts for free instead of the standard practice of earning very lucrative revenue through corporate sponsorship. FC Barcelona has made a commitment to UNICEF's humanitarian aid programs through the donation of 1.5 million euros for the next five years. The club reinforces its position as one of the leading globally responsible sports organisations, setting up international cooperation programs for development. In addition, the team goes on international tours to the United States, Japan, Korea, China, Egypt, Mexico and other parts of the world where the Foundation has initiated their activities.

Despite the fact that the 'Team that Unites the World' commercial is the most watched video on FC Barcelona's YouTube channel, the multimillionaire shirt sponsorship deal, started in August 2013 between FC Barcelona and Qatar Airways, has raised controversy, as the new management team led by FC Barcelona's elected President Sandro Rosell was turning its back on 112 years of history. In 2010, The Qatar Foundation, a charitable organisation, became the first to have its logo on FC Barcelona's shirt. Strong criticism from FC Barcelona's rivals and from Rosell's opposition FC Barcelona's members highlighted Qatar's limited respect for human rights and its bad practices concerning immigrant workers (eg low wages, overwork). However, the commitment of the FC Barcelona to cultural diversity and global compact principles is rooted in the intercultural sensitivity of Catalan society since its constitution as a multicultural nation. At the same time, the multicultural history of the club with a long list of international participants and supporters enhances the fundamental principles of cultural diversity and socially responsible action.

Since 1994, the FC Barcelona Foundation has been in charge of developing civic-minded and community-spirited responsible activities that go back to the wishes of its founder, Joan Gamper. Today, FC Barcelona is truly 'more than just a club'. The Foundation carries out social, cultural and supportive policies to foster grass-root sports activities. To accomplish this, it receives donations from leading companies who are honorary, collaborating and protector members. As part of its objectives, the Foundation promotes activities to improve the social conditions of people with disabilities, immigrants and other groups at risk of social exclusion. Working together with the United Nations for the 'global compact', the club is involved in combating severe poverty and child diseases, promoting universal education and advocating gender equality. To this end, FC Barcelona has been participating in national and international programs some of which are presented on the website of the club.

In national activities, the Foundation is committed to the following:
Table 1: FC Barcelona's CSR activities (17)

            Programs                 Collaborative programs with the
                                             United Nations

SOLIDARITY AND COOPERATION:         UNICEF: Agreement with the United
Programs benefit vulnerable         Nations Agency for Children to
children at risk of social          implement projects to combat AIDS
exclusion throughout the world.     and promote its prevention,
                                    principally in Sub-Saharan Africa
                                    (Angola, Swaziland and Malawi).

SPORT AND CITIZENSHIP: Programs     UNESCO: To join the fight against
and initiatives of an               racism, raise awareness about
educational, cultural, scientific   drugs and promote education and
and civic nature to promote the     literacy.
values of sport contributing to
the person of growth of children
and teenagers.

XICS: Network of International      UNHC/ACNUR: Agreement with the UN
Solidarity Centers (Catalonia,     High Commission on Refugees to
Ecuador, Brazil, Mexico, India,    implement educational and
Morocco, Senegal, Mali, Burkina     sporting programs improving the
Faso, Malawi). The objective of     situation of 42 million refugees
this program is to give the         and displaced person around the
world's most at-risk children aid   world (Rwanda, Colombia, Nepal
that responds to their              and Ecuador).
educational, health, social and
psychosocial needs in order to
help them forge a brighter future
for themselves.

JES: Workshops on Solidarity and
Sport (Morocco, Senegal,
Catalonia, Honduras, Ecuador,
Mali). The main objective of this
project is to provide teachers
and other professionals who work
with children the necessary
resources to use sport as an
educational tool and a way of
transmitting values and promoting
social inclusion and harmony.

PLAY-IT website (www.iuga-la.cat) With 54,000 visits, an
online space for collaborations
between organisations in the
fields of social work, education
and sport.

TEAM-UP, LIVE TOGETHER: Program
to promote positive values in
local sport club youth under the
age of 16.

FAIR FOOTBALL: Method of social
assistance that helps educate via
sport and allows youngsters to
deal with such ideas as social
harmony, discrimination, gender
equality, etc.


Table 1 shows many charitable caring activities that FC Barcelona executes as organisational collaboration. UNICEF and FC Barcelona have jointly developed a variety of programs with specific budgets to help children in Africa, Latin America and Asia. FC Barcelona has developed a new Global Business Responsible Citizenship "grounded in universal ethical norms, or hyper norms, that infuse a company's globally integrated strategy of ethics" (Noddings, 2002, p. 173). This kind of global corporate citizenship "begins with the premise that economic activity can be--and must be--compatible and in harmony with ecological and social development" (Post, 2002: 149).The underlying philosophy--sport as a tool for social development--is recommended by the United Nations. In table 1, XICS (1.1.) refers to the Catalan initials that stand for FC Barcelona's International Network of Solidarity Centres, Xarxa International de Centres Solidaris del FC Barcelona (XICS). Through the XICS, the club is trying to use the philosophy of sport as a tool for social integration and education (Pujol, 2006) in a multicultural reality (Saura, 2006). School support classes for children who have difficulty with their lessons and informal education for young people who have had to leave school to go to work form part of the integrated support philosophy of the club's XICS. FC Barcelona understands caring not in a paternalistic way as helping others, but as a "much healthier respect for other's autonomy" (Brock, 1996, p. 544).

FC Barcelona (Barca) has been participating for the last few years with the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) in raising awareness about the extreme vulnerability of millions of refugees and stressing the important role sport can play as a means of education and social integration (Orenes, 2008). FC Barcelona's players Lionel Messi, Andres Iniesta and Xavi Hernandez were shortlisted as the best three players in 2010 for the FIFA Ballon dOr World Player of the Year Award. All three players began their careers as children in La Masia, the training centre which develops at all levels FC Barcelona's philosophy of caring for the game (Parramon, 2008; Saura, 2008; Teres, 2011). This is an example of how a cycle of caring can lead to superior performance as well as social value in an organisation with a conscience, with 'corporate soul' (Gini, 1997, p. 157):

Barca has the duty to give society back part of what society has given us. And solidarity with vulnerable children is a way of expressing, at international level, that Barca is more than just a club, and to put across very Catalan values, such as effort. The most pro-Catalan Barca in history is also the most universal (Manresa and Dusster, 2010: 29).

CARING AS A RESPONSIBLE TOOL FOR FC BARCELONA'S PRODUCTIVE RESISTANCE

Caring is an emotional activity, carried out by caring organisations towards others in a globally-responsible environment, where profitability combined with green management practices improves humanity's quality of life (Simola, 2010; Hart, 2005; Prahalad, 2005; Prahalad & Hart, 2002). To refer to a 'caring organisation' is to indicate an organisational identity that encompasses concern for those outside the organisation, along with the corresponding action fueled by such an identity. Studies of 'positive deviance' within texts on positive organisational scholarship have mapped out cases where organisational culture, identity (Carlsen & Pistis, 2009) and practices exhibit positive emotions, one of which was the notion of care (Blight, Cameron & Caza, 2006).

Care is a productive response to domination. Resistance is understood as a form of care, as a potentially healthy and health sustaining relational processes (Simola, 2005, 2007, 2010). Caring can produce both cognitive and cultural change (Kindred, 1999, p. 218). Productive resistance is the antithesis of reductive resistance, characterised in educational and political environments by a circle of oppression and violence (Davies, 1997; Hunter, 1996; Lather, 1991; Popkewitz, 1998; Schutz, 2000, 2004). Productive resistance, in contrast, is founded on the acknowledgement of plurality and ambiguity in identity (Erickson, 1996; Schutz, 2004; Nocon, 2005). If reductive resistance seeks to maintain the purity of collective identity through violent action and dialectic confrontation, productive resistance manages a sense of richness and ambiguity engaged in changing the context or culture of the living and learning environment (Kindred, 1999). This is achieved through a dialogical relationship towards others within and outside the organisation (Durand & Calori, 2006). The challenge for caring organisations is how to manage their old and/or internal identities and at the same time aggregate multiple (Pratt & Foreman, 2000) and/or external identities as a survival mechanism for transcendence and self-determination (Castells, 2010).

For organisations, plurality of identity is measured by the diversity of social identities among their members and the richness of meanings around what is regarded as central and enduring about the organisation (Pratt & Foreman, 2000). Monolithic identities, in turn, are characterised by the conscious management of cultural purity and the practice of distancing themselves from other identities (Durand & Calori, 2006; Sen, 2006). Here the response to challenges to cultural autonomy is violent and targeted towards reclaiming autonomy, whereas reductive resistance is employed to struggle against domination. Cultures characterised by plural identities, on the other hand, are open for change and interaction, co-evolving with their neighbour cultures without conflict, through dialogue and negotiation. Their attitude towards others produces new cultural meanings with acts of caring and solidarity. Plural identities welcome foreign cultures to cohabit with them in their society in a multicultural space of fraternity and collaboration. In these minority cultures, personal engagement, integrity and courage are necessary if one wishes to confront complex power relationships (Shrivastava, 1993). In many cases, anger becomes a care-based moral mandate understood as political resistance to injustice, carelessness and violation (Gilligan, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1991; Simola, 2010). As a result, productive resistance becomes a creative tool for challenging the established political order (Gilligan, 1982), rooted as it is in care and the awareness of the vulnerability of ourselves, others and the environment (Roy, 2004, p. 186). As an extension of a minority culture, FC Barcelona's actions demand "the critical ability to care for the cultural commons as a space defined by increasingly desperate human demands for the recognition of difference" (Gilligan, 1995, p. 38).

This research links FC Barcelona's practice of caring for the game with efforts to care for children of the new global environment characterised by attentiveness, responsibility, competence and responsiveness (Tronto, 1993; Ruddick, 1998; Held, 2006). The paper highlights productive resistance as a practice of caring and discusses the reciprocal relationship between caring organisations and resistance in a 'state of disempowerment' (Gilligan, 1995, p. 37) of voices and identities that have been marginalised through history. The new systemic, holistic and integral caring environment (Capra, 1983, 1996; Wilber, 2001, 2007) allows identities to expand to include the experience of interconnections with the ethics of responsibility and care in relationships (Gilligan, 1982, p. 178). Caring about the differences of others without presuming universal homogeneity (Robinson, 1999) is at the core of FC Barcelona's caring actions.

PRODUCTIVE AND REDUCTIVE RESISTANCE AS RESPONSES TO DOMINATION IN MULTIPLE IDENTITY ENVIRONMENTS

FC Barcelona takes into account the plurality of identities among its stakeholders sharing the sustainable global organisation's practice of the virtues ('care for the game', 'care for playing', 'care for children') (Simola, 2007) for sustaining intrinsic goods (MacIntyre, 1981; King, 1986). Every member of FC Barcelona has the responsibility for developing a relational aspect of caring (Held, 2006), where the motives of the person performing care (Sandin, 2009) are even more important than the actions themselves. A conceptual sibling of care, the concept of love is an alternative to hate and confrontation, and a practice of care in 'good management' (Autry, 1991) and responsible leadership (Caldwell & Dixon, 2010).

What explains FC Barcelona taking this route? A crucial part of the answer is linked to Catalan identity. Most Catalans reject the idea of autonomy, claiming they need external institutions to flourish as a culture and as a nation. The identity of Catalonia is linguistic and cultural, not political, as the sociologist Manuel Castells points out:
   This differentiation between cultural identity and the power of the
   state, between the undisputed sovereignty of apparatuses and the
   networking of power sharing institutions, is an historical
   innovation in relation to most processes of construction of
   nation-states (...) It seems to relate better than traditional
   notions of sovereignty to a society based on flexibility and
   adaptability, to a global economy, to the networking of media, to
   the variation and interpenetration of cultures. By not searching
   for a new state but fighting to preserve their nation, Catalans may
   have come full circle to their origins as people of borderless
   trade, cultural/linguistic identity, and flexible government
   institutions, all features that seem to characterize the
   information age (2010, p. 54).


FC Barcelona's maxim, 'more than a club', is a further indication of this trait; FC Barcelona is in a constant state of opening out towards the world and extending its identity towards others. FC Barcelona's membership (with more and more people from all over the world joining as members or "socios" in the last 10 years) is an example of an organisation with multiple identities that negotiate the opposite views of its participants (in relation to political, social, cultural and economic issues) and sharing the club's identity as a 'conciliatory identity' (Swann, 1987) with the use of 'organisational object' symbols (Pratt & Rafaeli, 1997), such as FC Barcelona's shirt, the Catalan flag, and the singing of the club's official song.

The construction of a collective identity requires that its members feel they have something in common. In this case, FC Barcelona's global identity goes beyond national, regional and local identities to embrace a world view shared by its participants. This world view breeds a 'glocal' (local and global or vice versa) multiple identity. Thirty-one per cent of Catalans related their identity with the territory of Catalonia, while only 14.1% identify their territory with Spain. Six and a half per cent relate their identity to the world, while 30% consider world history a priority for their education (Castells, Tubella, Dfaz de Isla & Wellman, 2003, pp. 214-215). Many of Barcelona's 222,980 "socios", or members and owners of the club, plus more than 43 million fans on Facebook around the world, do not share the same spiritual, moral, aesthetic and ideological views, and yet they have something in common: the club's philosophy brings them together. From productive resistance through a violent history against a centralised power (Castilian: Spanish culture), FC Barcelona has been able to overcome the pressures of colonisation with an understanding of a sporting culture that goes beyond national and/or territorial borders. It has created a kind of 'third space culture' (Bhabha, 1994) in an emerging postcolonial global caring environment where sport and play contribute to new socially and culturally responsible practices, and where its participants can identify with the multiple identities (Foreman & Whetten, 2002) of caring organisations which are open for change and value fair-play competition.

There is something puzzling about FC Barcelona's behaviour. Why do we see them responding to domination with care rather than violence? Why do they not incite brutality against the supporters of Castilian teams such as Real Madrid, or impose strict limitations against non-Catalan fans, players or coaches? We have traced the answer to plurality in organisational identity: plural identity predicts a circle of care as a response to domination. To be able to account for when to expect a circle of care rather than a circle of violence, we need to appreciate the difference between two different forms of resistance: productive and reductive (Table 2).

Some identities and cultures have a tendency to impose their views and principles on others. Resistance towards such domination can be expressed as aggression towards the oppressor (active reductive resistance) or apathy and cynicism (passive reductive resistance) in relation to power relations, identity and historical relations (Olafson & Field, 2003; Fleming & Spicer, 2003). Resistance is a struggle for identity, autonomy, and a voice. As Simola points out, "the concept of resistance refers to some kind of opposition. When people resist, they act against or in obstruction to something" (2005, p. 344). Resistance is not an end but rather a means; in other words, the point is not to live permanently in resistance. Rather, the intent of resisting is to achieve liberation.

The kind of caring response that this research sees in the FC Barcelona example is an exceptional response to domination with moral management practices where "decision makers vigorously conform to high standards of ethical behavior" (Simola, 2005, p. 367). The modern episteme (Foucault, 1970) is characterised by a view of culture founded on monolithic nation-state identities, with closed organisations, centralised political power and military institutions to back up the privileges of the elite classes. This episteme holds an ethnocentric view of society based on private ownership and a logocentric and exclusive view of culture (Williams, 1982; Retamar, 1995; Deleuze & Guattari, 1973). Within this view, cultural diversity is seen as a threat to the well-being of communities. As a result, aggressive and totalitarian behaviour towards foreigners and other cultural referents gives birth to ethnocentrism and logocentric patterns, mechanical thinking, linear approaches to problem solving and so on (Negri, 1989; Agamben, 1993; Capra, 1983).

In The Power of Identity, Manuel Castells (2010, p. 8) offers Catalan identity as a 'project identity', which he contrasts with traditional resistance identities. Project identity is at play when social actors evolve towards new entities in a continuous 'dance' with our changing environments. Productive resistance against cultural domination has given FC Barcelona and Catalonia a new identity as a responsible member of our common global village, creating a transnational brand identity that grows as the club becomes more caring about people and the environment. Catalans have been reconstructing themselves over history with no desire to establish a nation-state (Castells, 2010). Catalonia is a nation without a state, a nation born in 998 and called Catalunya in the 1300s. Within this nation, FC Barcelona is an enigma incorporating seemingly contradictory positions: simultaneously the champion of Catalan identity and independence, and yet profoundly international in a new 'translocal subaltern resistance' (2010, p. 272).

Paolo Freire (1996) points out in Pedagogy of the Oppressed that a cycle of violence rarely leads to liberation. In order for people to regain their humanity and care for others, including their oppressors, they must engage in dialogue and take actions to change oppressive structures. This will also free them from their condition (Freire, 1996, pp. 70-1). Resistance thus becomes productive when it is founded in dialogue. Under such conditions, it creates cognitive and cultural change rather than reinforcing the status quo (Kindred, 1999). Productive resistance requires contexts or environments that are both open and characterised by a collective willingness to change (Nocon, 2005). An apparent double-bind behaviour becomes the driving force of the corporation: a hybrid organisation of a local and a global cultural identity (Canclini, 1995) with the help of internet, global networks and sports. This hybrid identity has to be in relation to the notion of 'transculturality' (Ortiz, 1991) and national cultural claims. Productive resistance goes beyond monolithic identities of communities and individuals towards the configuration of global identities. This creates a tension between nation-state identities and the new global identities emerging in the last decades. Productive resistance requires contexts or open environments characterised by a collective willingness to change (Erickson, 1987; Maag, 2000; Olafson & Field, 2003). The construction of collective identities questions individuality as the point of departure for building identities.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Instead of violence and passive resistance resulting from the closeness and exclusion of other identities, Catalans and FC Barcelona 'negotiate' their identity with the 'other' external world, with open globalisation of a new hybrid identity (Hall, 1994) that stresses caring for people and caring about the game. Catalans have a tradition dating back to the 11th century they call 'pactism', or negotiating one's place in society within the different social groups. In our global environment, this translates into a strategy for "glocalising" identities, reinforcing the original local/Catalan/national identity, and developing a new global identity with people from all over the world who identify with the values and philosophy of this emerging global brand.

The purpose of this research has been to show how domination can induce productive resistance, which can lead to the creation of caring organisations. This paper has argued that positive exposure to diversity reinforces plural identities, which are amplified by acts of productive resistance. The nurturing of a tolerance for richness in meaning around organisational identity is thus the first step towards synthesising caring organisations. This study compared productive and reductive resistance as different responses to domination and related reductive resistance to closeness and violence and productive resistance to openness and caring. As a result, plural identities are more inclined to result in productive resistance and caring, while monolithic identities are closely related to reductive resistance and violence. This was highlighted with the notion of project identity as a means for reconciling a local nationalistic identity with multiculturalism in a world where new collective identities emerge as part of a caring globally-responsible environment.

The game philosophy of FC Barcelona is what enlarged the original regional identity of this sporting club, a symbol of Catalonia as national culture, into a global identity, a view that is today both transnational and universal for the fans and members of the club ('enjoying the game, no matter what the results are'). If multiple identities do not have to be universal, many of them can be a specificity of certain groups within the organisation (in the case of FC Barcelona this is related to the cultural and linguistic 'Catalan' identity of many of its members). FC Barcelona claims its local identity as well as a new global identity that are both part of this open and caring sports organisation.

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Carlos A. Rabasso

Rouen Business School, France

Francisco Javier Rabasso

Universite de Rouen, France

Saku Mantere

Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland

(15) The first President of Barcelona was the Swiss Joan Gamper. Together with eleven players (Swiss Otto Kunzle, English Wild and John and William Parsons, German Otto Maier and Catalans Llufsd'Osso, BartomeuTerradas, Enric Ducal, Pere Cabot, CarlesPujol and JosepLlobet) met to found an association that would have the name of the city, FC Barcelona. Every year since 1966 the club plays the first match of the season in the "Camp Nou" and presents the team to their supporters in the Joan Gamper Trophy, celebrated in the third or fourth week of August.

(16) Since 1989, the most senior supporters of the Club have had a meeting place: << The Casal de l'Avi >> (Granddad's Club). Many activities surrounding the Club are organised to make the seniors participate actively as a very important actor of the institution. The "mascote" of the Club, "L'"avidelBarca" (Barca's Grandfather), was created in 1924 by ValentfCastanys for the "Xut!" magazine. It is a figure that looks very much like Santa Claus dressed up with Barcelona's shirt. It is the official symbol of the Club and its figure appears in the most important activities and sports newspapers.

(17) See Memoria F.C. Barcelona Fondation Report 2009/10 and FC Barcelona Fondation Report 2010/11 (www.fcbarcelona.com)
Table 2: Characteristics of reductive and productive resistance

                       Reductive resistance     Productive resistance

World view             Dialectical: life as a   Dialogical: Life as
                       competition, resulting   interchange and
                       in violence, passive     learning, participants
                       resistance Nation-       share different
                       state identities         identities, culture
                                                and ideas Global
                                                identities in a
                                                diverse 'global
                                                village'

Relationship towards   Purity of identity by    Plurality of identity
others                 reduction of tensions    by addition of
                       and contradictions       seemingly
                       Monolithic and close     contradictory elements
                       identities               Postmodern paradox and
                                                ambiguous identities,
                                                transculturality,
                                                hybrid identities

Relation to insiders   Subsuming                Shared creation of a
                       individuality into the   transformational
                       collective, conformity   subject, freedom of
                                                expressing identity

Relation to            Exclusivity towards      Inclusivity towards
outsiders              outsiders                outsiders

Characteristic         Acts of violent          Acts of caring
outcome                conflict Development     Glocalisation as a way
                       of confrontational       of sharing local and
                       skills against others    globally diverse
                       (perceived as enemies    cultures
                       of the community)
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Title Annotation:Futbol Club
Author:Rabasso, Carlos A.; Rabasso, Francisco Javier; Mantere, Saku
Publication:International Journal of Employment Studies
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Oct 1, 2013
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