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Cuban seismology.

Resumen

El trabajo recoge una amplia y actualizada revision de las personalidades, instituciones, publicaciones, proyectos, estudios, investigaciones e instrumentos cientificos relacionados con la Sismoiogia Cubana. Este articulo cubre un periodo de 479 anos, desde la ocurrencia del primer dato de terremoto perceptible (ano 1528 en Baracoa) hasta la actualidad. Cinco son los especialistas (Andres Poey y Aguirre {1825-1919}, Benito Vines Martorell, S.J. {1837-1893}, Pedro Salterain y Legarra {1835-?}, Mariano Gutierrez Lanza {1865-1943}, y Eduardo Montelieu y de la Torre {1883-?}) que desarrollaron una destacada actividad cientifica en el campo sismologico nacional. Se conoce que la actividad sismica mas importante y significativa de Cuba esta localizada en su parte sudoriental, en cuanto a la magnitud, la intensidad sismica y la frecuencia de ocurrencia de los terremotos. Son dos los terremotos de 9 grados (MSK) y ocho de 8 grados (MSK) los contabilizados hasta la fecha. La magnitud registrada mas elevada ha sido de 6.9 el 25.05.1992 en Cabo Cruz. El terremoto mas fuerte en la parte occidental del pais tuvo lugar el 28.01.1880 en San Cristobal, con intensidad maxima de 8 grados (MSK). El total de fallecidos a causa de los terremotos en todo el territorio es ligeramente mayor de 100 personas. Esta cifra es sensiblemente inferior a las determinadas en otras zonas de la region.

Palabras clave: Cuba, historia, terremoto, Sismologia.

Abstract

This paper presents a review of information on personalities, institutions, publications, projects, studies, investigations, and scientific instruments related to Cuban seismology. The paper covers 479 years, from the first earthquake report (1528, in Baracoa) to the present. Five seismologists (Andres Poey y Aguirre {1825-1919}, Benito Vines Martorell, S.J. {1837-1893}, Pedro Salterain y Legarra {1835-?}, Mariano Gutierrez Lanza {1865-1943}, and Eduardo Montelieu y de la Torre {1883-?}) carried out scientific work of outstanding quality. The seismicity in the southeastern part is the most important in the country, in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency of earthquake occurrence. Two earthquakes of 9 degrees (MSK) and eight of 8 degrees (MSK) were recorded, and a 6.9 maximum magnitude was registered on 25.05.1992 in Cabo Cruz. The strongest earthquake in the western part of the island occurred on 22.01.1880 (I = 8 degrees, MSK) in San Cristobal. Recorded fatalities from earthquakes for the entire territory are slightly over one hundred, much less than in other countries in the region.

Key words: Cuba, earthquake, history, seismology.

Introduction

From the neotectonic point of view Cuba is located on the North America plate and to its southeast borders the Caribbean plate (Mann and Burke, 1984) (Figure 1). Cuban seismicity reflects not only the activity of the above mentioned plates' interaction processes, but also its own geological evolution (Cotilla et al., 1991; Molnar and Sykes, 1969). This activity is of seismic type and, logically, it is more frequent and stronger in areas in direct contact with the plates. Cuban seismicity is of a lesser scale than that in other zones with the same tectonic framework.

Documentation of earthquakes in Cuba began with the arrival of the Spanish in October 1492 (Cotilla, 1999). In the rest of the American continental zone, documenting earthquakes began much later (Cotilla et al., 1996). The gradual foundation of towns in Cuba, first in the eastern part and then toward the central--eastern, central and western parts, allowed diverse authors over time to compile earthquake catalogues (Cotilla et al., 1996). These catalogues, in addition to recording seismic activity, are a testament to the efforts made by scientific experts and institutions.

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The fundamental objective of this paper is to compile and order existing data pertaining to Cuban seismology. The author has reviewed bibliography located in Cuba, Belgium, Dominican Republic, France, Jamaica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

Personalities

Evidently, the occurrence of strong earthquakes has been the principal factor behind the development of Seismology. Cuban scientists have not made significant contributions to this field. Historically effort and talent have been devoted to making up for the lack of resources and to applying any new knowledge (Cotilla, 1999, 1999a). Thus, from the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century, the influence of scientific personalities provided the "catalyst" for the development of Cuban seismology (Cotilla, 1999a). Among these individuals are: Andres Poey y Aguirre, Benito Vines Martorell, S.J., Pedro Salterain y Legarra, Mariano Gutierrez Lanza, S.J. and Eduardo Monteulieu y de la Torre (Table 1).

Poey, Vines and Gutierrez researched and published in the fields of meteorology and magnetism (Cotilla et al., 1996; Ramos, 1994; Udias, 1996). Vines and Poey appear in the Dictionary of the Spanish Language. Vines and Monteulieu were experts of a proven dignity and ethics, opposed to the manipulation of data and the distortion of research results (No 44 in Table 22).

Individuals such as J. Jover, J.A. Martinez--Fortun y Folio, E. Bacardi, L. Morales y Pedroso, and C. Cruz Bustillo have described or recorded seismic events in Cuba, and have even compiled catalogues, but none of them have made such significant contributions as the tire previously mentioned. (No 44 in Table 22) proposed, for the first time, the existence of a set of transverse lines of tectonic weakness (known as associated faults) for the Bartlett trough. He argued that greater seismic activity was produced in the intersections of faults (or knots) and that one of them produced the earthquake of 03.02.1932, something which went against the ideas and arguments of Stephen Taber. He also gave the first earthquake (mega-earthquake) forecast in Cuba. Morales y Pedroso was a 1904 graduate in civil engineering from Columbia University in New York. He died in 1942.

Earthquake catalogues

The first ordered collection of earthquake data for the Caribbean is attributed to Lyconthenes (1607) and Zahn (1696). But the first Cuban and West Indies earthquake catalogues were compiled in the mid-nineteenth century, and included the period 1551-1857 (No 5, 6, 7 in Table 4). Tables 2 and 3 show some of the data from Poey's catalogue (Cotilla and Udias, 1999). From this can be inferred the certainty regarding information and seismic activity in the region of Santiago de Cuba.

Cuban seismicity is not the strongest in the Caribbean region (Alvarez et al., 1990, 1985), but Cuba produced the first catalogue, in the strictest sense of the word (No 5, 7 Table 4). Poey based his work on results found by (No 2, 4 in Table 4; No 14, 17a, c, d, 18 a, c, 20 in Table 22) and said: "I am proud to have published for the island of Cuba, and that it is all that science possesses up until now" ... He also produced research on seismic hazard (as it is now called), following the Peru, Ecuador and Chile earthquake of 1868, which he generously presented to the Scientific Commission of Peru (Poey, 1868). He also prepared an earthquake catalogue for Mexico.

Poey's work has been the foundation and starting point for many other catalogues for the Caribbean, including all those for Cuba (Cotilla and Udias, 1999). (No 10 in Table 4) published work that included all the earthquakes which had occurred in Cuba up to the year 1884. Later, (No 31 in Table 22) compiled a record of events for the period 1851-1923 in the Caribbean area and, in particular, parts of Cuba. Monteulieu's catalogue contains 232 earthquakes (period 1530-1932) and was prepared based on the following: 1) the catalogues of (No 5, 6, 7, 10 in Table 4; No 31 in Table 22); 2) monographs and research by Vines, Gutierrez-Lanza, Taber and Monteulieu; 3) reports in the Cuban press; and, 4) the historical work entitled Cronicas de Santiago de Cuba by (No 40 in Table 22). He did not consult the General Archive of the Indies (Seville, Spain). Table 4 shows the data in different catalogues for the area, and table 5 contains a fragment of the Monteulieu -- Morales catalogues. Earthquake catalogues have continued to be compiled in Cuba from 1963 onwards (No 30, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48 in Table 4; No 7 in Table 21; Chuy et al., 1994, 1990) but none of them evaluates the quality and reliability of the data and estimates (Cotilla, 1999b, 1996; Cotilla and Alvarez, 2001; Cotilla and Alvarez, 1999). Cotilla (1998a, 1998b) claims that there are many modifications to the data and results given in these catalogues, even when by the same author, with neither argument nor documentation to support the said changes. A statistical sample of the quantity of reported events is presented thus (with maximum intensity, MSK) in the catalogues of (No 36, 45 in Table 4) (Table 6). The temporal characteristics of these catalogues are given table 7, while Table 8 gives the result of a rough analysis of the completeness of the information given on earthquakes which have occurred in Santiago de Cuba, taking into account the five parameters used for the (No 39 in Table 4) catalogue. The quantity of seismic events by intensity for three different periods, for Santiago de Cuba, appears in the catalogues of (No 47 in Table 4) [A] and (No 39 in Table 4) [Ch], shown in table 9. The quantity of events differs, being either greater or lesser, and no comment is made in this respect by (No 47 in Table 4). Interpreting the data and the differences, it is possible to deduce, among other things, that: !) seismic activity reduced; 2) there was an overestimation in initial descriptions; 3) there is a combination of the two previous points; 4) records of seismic events are lacking. Cotilla (1993) states the similar conclusions may be drawn about seismic activity in La Espanola and Jamaica.

Alvarez et al. (1999) (No 48 in Table 4)'s catalogue covers the period up to 1995. Table 10 has a summary of the data. This material continues to include data on the event of 1766 reported by Zapata and Chuy (1992). In addition, Chuy (1999) presented a table with 28 earthquakes (Strong earthquakes reported in Cuba), where an extra earthquake was included (1752.10 with M = 5,8 and 1 = 7 MSK, in Santiago de Cuba), but modified: 1) the magnitude of 17 of the events; 2) the epicenter coordinates of 13; 3) the depth of two. This would be acceptable, provided that, the reason for the changes is indicated, something which these authors do not include. These last catalogues used information from the following research: (No 33, 34 46 in Table 4; No 52a in Table 22; No 47, 48, 50, 51, 60, 63, 74, 81). However, none of the authors cited in previous paragraphs have consulted the General Archive of the Indies.

Medvedev (1973) presented an earthquake catalogue for the Caribbean. It is quite different of the (48 in Table 4), Cotilla (1998a) discussed about it.

For some earthquakes isoseismal maps have been compiled (No 43 in Table 4; No 44 in Table 22). Based on an analysis of these maps, ir has been possible to identify the generating seismic element (fault and knot of faults) and to establish the spread strike of energy; for example, for the earthquake of Torriente -- Jaguey Grande on the 16.12.1982 (No 40 in Table 4) (Figure 2). However, given the location of the main seismogenetic faults (Nortecubana, Surcubana, and Bartlett -- Cayman) (Figure 1), the geometric figures for the isoseismals of the earthquakes which have occurred there ate represented only for one hall (Figure 2). The high level of subjectivity, when assessing the initial data and tracing the isoseismals, limits the scope of these results in seismotectonic research (Cotilla, 1999b, 1993).

Tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean (1692-1946). Rubio (1982) lists 16 tsunamis associated with earthquakes, the strongest (Ms = 8,1) occurring on 04.08.1946 in the northeast of La Espanola. A list of 38 Caribbean tsunamis can be found at the following address {http://www.ineter.gob.ni/geofisica/tsunami/tsu-caribe-list.html} published by Caribbean Tsunami Awareness, Florida Inst. Technology, Univ. Publ. EN-158-399. Of the 38 events, three are stated to have occurred in Cuba (1755, 1775 and 1932). Table 1 gives 5 reports on Cuba, following Rubio (1985). The occurrence probability of tsunamis in Cuba is very low, because of certain focal mechanisms and the arrangement of the seismogenetic marine structures that surround the island (No 8 in Table 21). Interestingly, the tsunami caused by the earthquake on 01.11.1755 in Lisbon was perceived in Santiago de Cuba. Commenting on this, (No 39 in Table 22) wrote ... "The severe earthquake of 1755 was accompanied by a sea-wave which almost completely inundated the town" ... Later, (No 31 in Table 4; 52) published other catalogues. Lander reports six tsunamis in Cuba (Table 12).

Some Cuban earthquakes

Table 13 shows the earliest information available on earthquakes in the Caribbean and Central America. The first reports and earthquake communications in Cuba correspond to the eastern region. The reports from Cuba begin with the earthquake of 1528 (No 48 in Table 22) (Figure 3) which produced general alarm among the population of the first city founded by the Spaniards. The north coast village of "Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion de Baracoa" (today Baracoa), founded in 1511, is characterized by an energetic and young relief (Cotilla et al., 1991 a). In 1990, the discovery of a "miraculously" preserved report in the town showed that after the seismic shaking the population held a procession in the streets. It is thought the earthquake had its epicenter in the north marine part (20.50N, 74.50W, h=30km, M = 5.0), specifically in the Nortecubana fault zone which forms the external limit of the Cuban megablock and that it had an intensity of 6 degrees (MSK) (Alvarez et al., 1990). The foundation dates of the main towns and cities of Cuba are given in Table 14.

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The town of "San Salvador de Bayamo" (today Bayamo), founded in 1513, was shaken in 1551 by a strong earthquake (No 5, 6, 7 in Table 4) (Figure 3). The zone where it is located is characterized by significant layers of sediment from the Cauto -- Nipe basin (Cotilla et al., 1991a), something which evidently favors the amplification of the oscillations. This event reportedly destroyed houses and the church. The seismic intensity was estimated at 8 degrees (MSK) and the epicenter was assumed to be in the same basin (Chuy and Rodriguez, 1980). According to Alvarez et al. (1990) the data on the earthquake ate 20.40N, 76.60W, h = 15km, M = 5.8. The author found in the General Archive of the Indies the earthquake occurred at 18.10.1551 and estimates Ms = 6.6). Also, the author considers that the focus was in the marine part of the southern area, in particular around Cabo Cruz (Figure 2). This is based mainly on the neotectonic characteristics of the region, the geological engineering conditions of Bayamo and on the probable distortion of the basic information (Cotilla et al., 1991b).

On 11.02.1678 Santiago de Cuba was affected by a strong earthquake, designated "The Great Earthquake" and felt in La Habana (No 5 in Table 4). The data on the earthquake ate: 14:59:00, 19.90N, 76.00W, h = 30km, M = 6.75 (No 48 in Table 4). Another strong earthquake in Santiago de Cuba occurred on 11.07.1760 (No 5 in Table 4; No 17a in Table 22). According to (No 48 in Table 4) the data ate 19.90N, 76.00W, h = 30km, M = 6.75.

According to Cotilla (1993), at 00-h local time on June 11, 1766, an earthquake took place affecting a large area of Cuba. This event caused 34-40 fatalities and 700 injured in Santiago de Cuba. Bayamo was also strongly affected but suffered no casualties. The greatest part of the damage was due to a lethal combination of local soil conditions and poor quality building materials used in structures in the affected areas. The approximate macroseismic epicenter coordinates were 19.9N, 76.1W (Figure 3), focal depth was established at 25, and maximum intensity of 9 degrees (MSK) corresponded to a magnitude Ms = 6.8. The shock originated in the Bartlett -Caiman fault zone, the principal seismogenetic source in the region. This earthquake was followed by a series of aftershocks felt over 66 days. There is evidence of a correlation between damage and site -- specific effects due to unconsolidated soils and favorable relief -- slopes in the vicinity of the epicenter region. These effects ate especially visible near the El Morro Castle and in the Santiago de Cuba city, which were heavily damaged by MSK intensity 9 and 8 degrees (MSK), respectively. However, these data differ considerably from that given by other authors (Table 15).

On 18.09.1826 Santiago de Cuba was affected by a strong seismic event that was felt in Jamaica (No 3, 5 in Table 4). The data according to Alvarez et al. (1999) (No 48 in Table 4) are the following 09:29:00, 19.90N, 76.00W, h = 30km and M = 5.75.

Poey (1855) (No 5 in Table 4) claimed that on 07.05.1842 Santiago de Cuba was shaken by a very strong earthquake. This was an event with an epicenter in north Haiti (No 33, 34 in Table 4; No 39 in Table 22). In (No 48 Table 4) the following data are given: 22:15:00, 19.80N, 72.20W, h = 60km, M = 8.2. But in the Cuban literature it is claimed that there was another earthquake on that date in the eastern zone. Thus, (No 48 in Table 4) put forward the following data 19.90N, 75.80W, h = 20km and M = 4.10. This shows how information contained in the Cuban catalogues has changed on many occasions without explanation. For example, according to (No 38 in Table 4) the earthquake had an intensity of 8 degrees (MSK) in Baracoa. Chuy and Rodriguez (1980) presented this event for seismic hazard estimates for the first time, giving an identical value. In Chuy et al. (1988) (No 42 in Table 4) information on the occurrence and the damage was reiterated. However, in the catalogue of Alvarez et al. (1993) (No 47 in Table 4) the earthquake does not appear.

On 20.08.1852, a strong earthquake occurred in the area surrounding Santiago de Cuba (Figure 3), which produced shockwaves as far away as Pinar del Rio, in the western part of Cuba (No 5, 6, 7 in Table 4; No 17 in Table 22). The data according to Alvarez et al. (1999) (No 48 in Table 4) are 14:05:00, 19.75N, 75.32W, h = 30km and M = 7.3 with 60 aftershocks. Chuy et al. (1990) drew an isoseismals map for the earthquake. However, the information for this earthquake on the number of dead reflected in Chuy et al. (1982) (No 39 in Table 4) does not coincide with that expressed by Chuy et al. (1980) (No 36 in Table 22): "... since giving the numbers of fatalities is almost always void or petty. One of the most notable happened on the 20th of August, 1852, described vividly by Mr. Estorch (cited before by Salterain), but in spite of exhausting the dictionary's expressions of terror, the damage was evaluated at 200,000.00 pesos...". This value coincides with Chuy et al. (1984) (No 42 in Table 22) data (following Bacardi). This information, given by T. Chuy, O. Pino (1984) (No 39 in Table 4) does not agree either with that found by this author in the National Historical Library of Spain, which also reports two deaths and the generous economic help of the Spanish crown.

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The earthquake of Tuesday 03.02.1932 (15:55,0 UT; 19.80N and 75.80W) was considered to be very strong, given the damage caused in Santiago de Cuba (Figure 3); there were 14 dead, 300 injured, 80 % of buildings were affected and 5% totally destroyed (No 44 in Table 22). According to the same author there were 122 aftershocks, which continued until the 01.02.1933. However, the foremost expert on the event, Fernando Boytel (personal communication, 1982), claimed that the event was overestimated and that the damage was largely due to the very low quality of the construction materials used. As an eyewitness of the earthquake, he gave convincing examples of some of his claims: "... the Velazquez house (15th century Spanish governor) never suffered earthquake damage, in spite of being in the same area as the cathedral and so many other constructions that were affected and destroyed and on a slope of >30[grados]; furthermore the constructions built by my father, who was in the building trade, were not affected either by the earthquake of 1932 ...". The earthquake was registered by 112 seismic stations (06h 16m 3s, 19.7N, 75.5W {International Seismological Summary}). Figure 4 represents the first isoseismal map (No 44 in Table 22). Other authors such as Chuy et al. (1988), Alvarez et al. (1999) (No 43, 48 in Table) state that maximum intensity reached 8 degrees (MSK) with a Ms = 6.75; they even present new isoseismals. Monteulieu personally directed 15 experts from La Habana and 3 from Santiago de Cuba on site. In parallel and simultaneously, American specialists from the University of Princeton, in collaboration with the Dutch geophysicist M. Meizner and the specialists S. Taber, H.H. Hess and J.P. Luschene, all under the direction of Richard I. Field, also investigated the site. This group used an American Navy submarine and plane, obtaining air photographs of the eastern territory from a very low altitude.

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Another strong seismic event in the area surrounding Santiago de Cuba is that which occurred on Thursday 07.08.1947 (19.75N, 75.25W, h = 50km, 00:40:20,0 UT) (No 49, 53 in Table 22) (Figure 3). The earthquake reached an intensity of 7 degrees (MSK) and the registered magnitude was 6.75; while the macroseismic magnitude only reached a value of 6.3. It had 15 aftershocks and two foreshocks and isoseismals were drawn up (No 43 in Table 22). The Ebro Observatory, Spain registered it using a MAINKA seismograph with N - S and E - W components. The US Coast Geodetic Service, with 111 stations, established the following data: 00 h 40.3m; 19.8N and 75.8W. This differs from Gutenberg's data, giving the coordinates 19.75N and 75.25W (Seismological Notes of the BSSA, 1947, vol. 37, No 3, p. 350). In Earthquake Notes (Eastern Stations) of the Seismological Society of America, 1947, vol. XIX, No 1-2 the same information is repeated and includes the determination (time: 00:40.4; 19.8N 75.7W) of the Central Office of the Jesuits Seismological Association at St. Louis In Annales de l'Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Nouvelle Serie, Tome IX-X-XI-XII-XIII, Deuxieme Partie; Seismologie: Observations des Stations Francaises 1944 - 46 - 48) of 1951 state that on the 07.08.1947 at 22h 16.9m there was an aftershock. And in International Seismological Summary of 1956 it was stated that 15 seismic stations registered an earthquake on 06.08.1947 at 20 h 6 m 13 s in the coordinates 19.4N and 75.8W.

The earthquake of Thursday 19.02.1976 (19.86N, 76.87W, 13:59:59.0 UT, Ms = 5.7h = 15km, [I.sub.0]= 8 degree MSK) (Alvarez et al., 1984) (Figure 3) was felt in a wide area of the eastern region and in the neighboring island of Jamaica (on the other side of the Oriente Trough) with I = 5 degrees (MSK). It is known as the "Pilon Earthquake" and caused two fatalities. It was estimated that the focus break zone was 30km from the epicenter and toward the aftershocks (to the west). Greatest intensity was reported in the surrounding area of the aftershock zone, therefore the isoseismals are distorted. The focal mechanism of the main earthquake had a main left strike movement and the composite mechanism comprising two stronger aftershocks (days 23 and 24.02) indicates normal faulting in NW strike and dipping to the south in the E - W plan. The eastern Cuban seismic stations were out of service.

On Sunday 26.08.1990 an earthquake occurred at 07:53:41.69 in the coordinates 19.592N and 77.874W, h = 10km, and mb = 5.9 (Ms = 5.1) (Figure 3) with an intensity of 8 degrees (MSK). This zone is west of the Cabo Cruz, in the southeastern region of Cuba (Figure 2). Isoseismals were drawn up Departamento de Sismologia (1990) and its focal mechanism was obtained (NEIS). This earthquake was registered by 210 stations.

The strongest seismic event ever registered for Cuba was that of Monday 25.05.1992 (Figure 3), also in the Cabo Cruz surroundings (16:55:04,17, 19.613N and 77.872W; h = 23km; mb = 6.3; Ms = 6.9) (CMT, 1992). More than 300 seismic stations registered it. It has been studied by Cotilla (1998), Perrot et al. (1997), Vireux et al. (1992) who obtained slightly different focal mechanisms. The Imax reported is 7 degrees (MSK) and isoseismals were drawn up (CENAIS, 1992). The earthquake had 14 aftershocks over two days. The break zone reached 30 km from the epicenter of the aftershock area (19.475N, 77.430W; mb = 4.4) and the direction of the break was toward the east. Thus, the events of 1976 and 1992 tend to break in opposite directions but converging toward the same zone, Cabo Cruz. Another strong earthquake in the Cabo Cruz zone occurred on Sunday 04.02.2007 (Mw = 6.2, 19.48N, 78.31W; h = 10.0km) at 20:56:59 UTC. It has thus been confirmed that this zone is the most active in the present period, as stated by Cotilla (1987).

On the 23.01.1880 (04:39:00 UT, 22.70N, 83.00W, h = 15km, M = 6.0) (48 in Table 4), a strong earthquake occurred in the area surrounding San Cristobal de los Pinos (today San Cristobal) (Figure 3), founded in 1743, which affected a vast area of Isla de Pinos (today Isla de la Juventud) in the south; Cienfuegos in the southeast; and Key West (Florida, in the north) (No 27, 28 in Table 22) (Table 16). It produced four fatalities and injured several people. S. Taber (1922, 1922a) (No 39 in Table 22) states that there were many victims, that the epicenter was to the south of Sierra de los Organos, in San Cristobal - Candelaria, and that it had intensity of 8 - 9 degrees (Rossi - Forel scale). Chuy et al. (1980) (36 in Table 4) assigned an intensity of 8 (MSK) to it and drew up its isoseismals. These were later much modified by Orbera et al. (1990) (No 7 in Table 21), reducing earthquake perception in Ciudad de La Habana significantly. That earthquake was Cuba's first seismic event to be studied on site by specialists in the subject (No 27 in Table 22). The research notes not only the places affected and the economic ruin of the region, but also some interesting geological engineering observations and other suggestions about the possible origin of the earthquake Cotilla et al. (1996). In general, it is similar to studies of the Italian earthquake (16.12.1857). In addition, it was the first scientific investigation in the Caribbean to use the focal region theory proposed five years before by E. Suess (Cotilla, 1993). Cotilla (1999b, 1993) considered that the seismogenetic zone which produced this earthquake was the Guane fault and not the Pinar fault, as claimed by other experts (Cotilla, 2003, 1999b; Cotilla and Udias, 1999). S. Taber (1922a) (No 39 in Table 22) asserted ... "In contrast to the Sierra Maestra region, the north and central parts of Cuba have been virtually free from seismic disturbance. A severe earthquake followed by aftershocks originated in the Sierra los Organos of western Cuba in 1880, but, before that time and since, earthquakes have been almost unknown in that section ...".

The first earthquake of importance, for Cuba, was registered by a seismic station in the same country (Colegio de Belen, in La Habana) on Saturday 28.02.1914. Regrettably, the seismogram was destroyed by the so -called governmental revolutionary intervention at the institution in 1961. In the international network there were 37 records (05h 03m 21s, 18[grados]N, 67[grados]W) (British Association for the Advancement of Science Seismological Committee). The epicenter was in the marine part of the north, specifically in the Nortecubana fault zone (Figure 3). Isoseismals were drawn up and showed a maximum intensity of 7 degrees MSK (No 43 in Table 4). Alvarez et al. (1999) (No 48 in Table 4) presents the following data 05h 19m 00s, 21.30N, 76.20W, h = 50km, M = 6.2. It appears in the catalogues of E. Montelieu (1968) (No 53 in Table 22), and of J. Tomblin, G.R. Robson (1977) (No 34 in Table 4). This earthquake shows that scientific critique is valid provided that it agrees and is presented in accurate and rigorous terms. For example, at the meeting on the 27 of March, 1915, in the Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisica y Naturales de La Habana, Doctor Antonio Pastor Giraud presented an accurate and devastating critique of the previously mentioned research by Doctor J. Jover on the earthquakes which occurred on the 27-28 of February, 1914. Some fragments are given below, without comment: ... Doctor Jover's copy: "... the earthquake of the 27 to the 28 of February of that year had the following characteristic: notable, not local, to the VII degree, epicenter toward Gibara, domestic and with aftershocks"; adding in the following line: "this latter proves that its origin and development was not occasioned by the Tectonic ..." I regret to disagree here with the opinions of the Doctor Jover. To my manner of seeing, the opposite to what the cited specialist asserts happened, that is, that the aftershocks exist precisely in the tectonic quakes. I am very much surprised that later, he repeats the following: "All purely tectonic earthquakes lack aftershocks and reach a great depth ... in Gibara, the people did not have advance warning of the earthquake, and nevertheless, we discovered a multitude of signs of faults, all mutually parallel, indicating ancient earthquakes, and, at the same time, serving as a key in our research to clarify and strengthen certain ideas" (end of the quotation).

In the areas surrounding Remedios and Caibarien, Las Villas province (Figure 3), an earthquake of Ms = 5.6 was registered by 15 stations on the international network, on Tuesday 15.08.1939 (03:52:31.0 UT; 22.50N, 79.25W) (The International Seismological Summary, 1939). 90% of buildings were affected (No 49, 53 in Table 22) an intensity of 7 degrees (MSK) was recorded (No 43 in Table 4). For this event isoseismals were drawn up, which confirm that the epicenter was located in the north marine part (Nortecubana fault zone) (No 43 in Table 4).

The Esmeralda locality, in the province of Ciego de Avila, suffered the effects of an earthquake from I = 6 degrees (MSK) on Sunday 08.04.1974 to 03:18:19.3 GMT (21[grados]51'N and 78[grados]12'W MLH = 3.95) (No 48 in Table 4) (Figure 3). The magnitude estimated by macroseimic data was 3.7. Isoseismals were drawn up (No 43 in Table 4). This event was significant because its epicenter was located in the emerged part of Western Cuba and had foreshocks and aftershocks. (No 8 in Table 21) associated it with the Cubitas seismogenetic zone.

On Thursday 16.12.1982 (20:20 UT, 22[grados] 37'N, 81[grados] 14'W) an earthquake occurred (Ms = 5.0, h = 30km, 1 = 6 degrees MSK) in Torriente - Jaguey Grande, in Matanzas province (Figure 3). This province was considered to be of unknown seismicity and without tectonic complication (No 40 in Table 4). The epicenter was also identified in the emerged part of western Cuba. This event drew the attention of specialists due to the particularity of the spread of the waves and of the alarm provoked among the population. A mechanism of intersection faults of seismotectonic knots was proposed. For this event, the technique of remote perception with satellite images and photographs was applied for the first time in Cuba (Cotilla et al., 1991b). With this earthquake there was not a little scientific controversy in Cuba, due to its relative nearness to the area of the possible site for the Centro de Investigaciones Nucleares (C1N) of La Habana. Cotilla (1999b) discusses the matter thoroughly and among other things indicates that the isoseismals of the Torriente - Jaguey Grande earthquake, of 16.12.1982 presented in (Chuy et al., 1988a) were totally modified by Orbera et al. (1990) (No 7 in Table 21) in order to dismiss the possibility of shock waves of l = 5 degrees (MSK) in the construction area of the CIN. Paradoxically, this last affirmation on the work of Orbera et al. (1990) (No 7 in Table 21) was confirmed by other work by those same authors (Chuy et al., 1994). Thus, their figure 4 (Map of seismic intensity {MSK} for recurrent periods of 100 years) shows how a segment of Ciudad de La Habana and the CIN are in a very small area where the intensity is less than 5 degrees (MSK), whilst the immense majority of the region (Pinar del Rio, Ciudad de La Habana, La Habana and Matanzas, provinces) is in 5 degrees (MSK). Consequently, it was feasible "to execute" the nuclear research complex "without the need" to carry out research projects, as demanded by the International Organization of Nuclear Energy.

Table 16 gives the data on which B. Gonzalez, T. Chuy (1983), Chuy et al. (1988) (No 41, 43 in Table 4) based their evaluations of the earthquake of the 23.01.1880 in San Cristobal and which produced shock waves of 6 degrees (MSK) in Ciudad de La Habana. And on Thursday 09.03.1995 an earthquake (Ms = 2.5) was registered in San Jose de las Lajas, also in La Habana (Figure 3), with 1 = 5 degrees (MSK) (Gonzalez et al., 1995). Alvarez et al. (1999) (No 48 in Table 4) present the following data 00h 25m 28s, 20.00N, 74.28W, h = 30km. According to Cotilla (1999a) the earthquake was produced in an intersection of faults (or knots), recognized in the seismotectonic map produced by Cotilla et al. (1991) (No 8 in Table 21). These faults were the Habana - Cienfuegos (associated with the 1982 earthquake) and Guane (associated with the earthquake of 1880). The epicenter of this earthquake is located some 10km from the CIN; there is, therefore, an evident need to carry out special studies.

Finally, the event of Tuesday 09.06.1981 (Ms = 3.2 and 1 = 3.5 {MSK}) (No 48 in Table 4) in the locality of San Juan y Martinez, Pinar del Rio province (Figure 3) was the first induced type noticeable to date in Cuba, in this case by geophysical surveys. The event is on the most western outline of the Guane fault (Cotilla and Cordoba, 2011).

Seismic stations

Cuban seismicity extends over practically all its territory and historically there are many populations which have apparently felt the effects of an earthquake (Alvarez et al., 1990, 1985). Because of this, the first seismic station was inaugurated on 03.02.1907 by the Order of the Company of Jesus (Colegio de Belen) on the outskirts of La Habana, Luyano (Figure 5). It was a two components station (N - S and E - W) with smoked paper recording and Omori - Bosch seismometer detection (No 36 in Table 22). It is estimated that it was in operation until the 1920s. It is sufficient to indicate that other American countries had seismic stations after that, for example Guatemala in 1925 and Nicaragua in 1966 (Johanssen, 1988). Only Costa Rica [1888], El Salvador [1896] (Rojas et al., 1993), and Panama [1904] (No 29 in Table 4) installed seismological equipment before that date.

The seismic station of La Habana formed part of the world network created by the Company of Jesus (Udias and Stauder, 1991). On the initiative of that Religious Order, through Father Mariano Gutierrez Lanza S.J., Cuba joined the International Association of Seismology, with headquarters in Strasbourg, in the period 1907-1940s Serrano and Alvarez (1983). Later, little progress was made until the beginning the 1960s. It was from 1964 onwards that seismic stations were built successively in Cuba (Table 17) (Figure 5). It is demonstrable that the records of the Cuban seismic stations are limited by physical-geographical and subjective conditions (Cotilla, 1987). Thus, the configuration of the archipelago (long and narrow), its location in the Caribbean framework (frequent storm zones and sea waves) and the distribution of the station, limits, given the equipment, detection reliability. The other limitation, no less important, includes the infrequent (not to say inexistent) collaboration with neighboring countries, and systematical operational difficulties (operation, record, analysis and maintenance), at least until 1996. The best station, up to that time, in every sense, was Cascorro, in the Camaguey province. This station covered, with different degrees of reliability, its seismogenetic zones Cotilla (1993), and therefore, the zone of Cauto - Nipe (where the city of Bayamo is located, associated with the earthquake of 18.10.1551) (Figure 5) was better covered by the eastern Cuban network. Paradoxically, for subjective reasons it is not well studied (Cotilla, 1999b, 1993; Cotilla et al., 1998). The preferred zone for analysis and information processing has always been the Bartlett - Cayman zone. However, due to the network design (located to the north) and to subjective factors, significant mistakes in information interpretation have been made in this zone (Cotilla, 1993, 1987). Generally, the Cuban network does not facilitate the location of the epicentre; also for the strongest earthquakes there are meaningful differences between Cuban reports and those of the international network (Cotilla, 1993). Nevertheless, it can be stated that the process of earthquakes generation is superficial, h < 30km (No 48 in Table 4).

In the area surrounding Santiago de Cuba city, a local seismotelemetric network was put into operation around the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s as a result of the research projects 430.03 and 310.01 carried out by Alvarez et al. (1990, 1985). This network was developed by Cuban specialists from different institutions. Its structure is simple and its design consisted of a set of remote stations that transmitted radio signals to the central station located in what is now the headquarters of the National Investigations Seismological Centre (Lopez et al., 1988). Real time analysis remained pending. Diez Zaldivar (1999) presented the Eastern Network comprising five stations around Santiago de Cuba. Recently, Moreno (2002) has claimed that the current Cuban seismic network comprises 11 stations (7 broad band and 4 short - period) (Table 18) (Figure 6). However, significant differences can be observed in the Cuban seismic station data given in (Moreno, 2002; Moreno et al., 2002) with respect to the web of the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: NETWORK SSNC (October, 2003) (http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/stationbook/SSNCNET WORK.html) (Table 19). Thus, it is significant that Z.MA. Moraleza wrote an article for CMKC ("Radio Revolucion", in Cuba), with the title: "inauguration of the seismological station in Pilon, Manzanillo". In one of the six paragraphs he says: "... The new seismic station has a capital cost of 25 thousand dollars and possesses German technology that will improve the constant monitoring of a generating zone and will be of much interest for earthquake research" ... {see the following address: http//www.cmkc.co.cu/2003/Ciencia %20y%20Tec/ct5.htm)}. However, this seismic station does not appear in the previous lists.

[FIGURA 5 OMITIR]

Temporary seismic stations have been installed in some parts of Cuba for the detection of earthquakes felt by the population, and for the study of seriously affected objects (Figure 6), though all with a very reduced level of efficiency (Cotilla, 1993). These stations are of conventional type.

[FIGURA 6 OMITIR]

Scientific institutions and publications

Table 20 shows the principal scientific institutions which have concentrated on Cuban seismological activities. The Sciences Academy of Cuba (in Spanish ACC), with the Institute of Geophysical and Astronomy (IGA) and its department of Seismology, have been the principal institutions, with a scientific and technical structure similar to that of the socialistic countries of the same period. Four lines of research were developed in the department of Seismology: a) National Seismological Service; b) Applied Research Service; c) Seismic Hazard; d) Seismic microzoning. Mainly on the basis of Russian ideas, various estimate studies for seismic hazard in Cuban territory as a whole were developed (Alvarez et al., 1990, 1985), and for specific zones (Alvarez, 1983; Alvarez and Bune, 1977), and different models were obtained. The degree of knowledge can therefore be considered to be reliable; but due to some assumptions included in the models their application is limited. Also most of the research on seismic microzoning in Cuba, for large - scale industrial projects and cities, are fundamentally based on the proposals made by Medvedev (1977, 1973). These studies implied a theoretical and practical phase. The most important research in this line has been carried out in the zones indicated in Figure 7 (Gonzalez et al., 1989; Rivera, 2000), 03.02.1992 is extracted, by governmental decree, and without scientific arguments, to the department of Seismology of the IGA. This is now designated the National Investigations Seismological Centre (in Spanish CENAIS). and is directly dependent on the Territorial Delegation of Santiago de Cuba.

[FIGURA 7 OMITIR]

Within the ACC there were two other scientific bodies, the Geography Institute {IG} and the Secretariat of Nuclear Matters that worked on some seismological aspects. On Soviet advice, the IG applied geomorphologic methods with the objective of establishing relationships between seismicity and morphostructures for three regions of Cuba (Western, Middle - Eastern and Southeastern) (Diaz, 1985; Hernandez, 1989). However, none of them had links with the IGA's research projects. Nevertheless, a joint publication was prepared by the departments of Seismology at the IGA and of Geomorphology at the IG (Lillienberg et al., 1995). The Secretariat of Nuclear Matters, with a group of seismotectonic investigations derived mainly from the Ministry from Basic Industry (to which reference will be made later) worked in the area of the already mentioned CIN with the participation of two specialists from the department of Seismology at the IGA (7 in Table 21). This latter centre was built, without previous studies, in the eastern periphery of Havana.

[FIGURA 8 OMITIR]

In the geophysical and seismological research into the potential sites for nuclear power plants (GEN) three zones were studied: Juragua (in Cienfuegos), Gibara - Bariay (Holguin) and the north of Pinar del Rio (Figure 7). For the first zone three seismic stations of conventional type were installed; and a wide range of scientific projects were carried out, all directed by Soviet specialists (mainly Russian), which culminated with the first seismogenetic zones map for the central Cuba region (No 3 in Table 21). The seismic stations were in operation for a short time and were later assigned to the IGA, which reinstalled them in the eastern Cuba region, in order to cover the Bartlett - Cayman seismogenetic zone. Later, in the second zone a large infrastructure was created for research into another nuclear power plant (CEN-H). Once again, a large group of Soviet specialists (tadzhikos, mainly) participated. A conventional station network was installed in the eastern region, complementing those operated by the IGA. Once research related to the CEN-H came to an end, control of these stations was passed to the IGA. There was scientific collaboration between the CEN-H and the IGA, with the Soviet parties having responsibility for the Project. The seismotectonic projects carried out for different zones of the country are shown in Table 21.

Other geophysical projects, aimed at the study of both the superficial and deep structure of the earth's trust, which on occasions required scientific ships, were carried out by Soviet specialists in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s (Bush and Sherbakova, 1986; Buznevy, 1968; Levchenko and Riabujin, 1971; Levchenko et al., 1976; Pucharovsky et al., 1987; Sherbakova et al., 1977, 1975). However, to date. there is still no agreement on the crust model of Cuba (Mossakovsky et al., 1989; Prol et al., 1993; Shein et al., 1985, 1985a).

Tables 22 and 23 show publications from 1774 to 1991. It should be noted that nineteenth century Cuban specialists wishing to present ideas and results of seismological research, such as Poey, had to publish abroad. Oth-ers, such as Vines and Salterain, published in the national press. And still others, in the 1930s, used the serial publication Revista de la Sociedad Cubana de Ingenieros.

The foreign press has reported on some of the earthquakes in Cuba (Table 24). Table 25 shows the coverage given by the Cuban press to earthquakes in the period 1842-1954. From 1962, publications were limited, almost in their entirety, to the socialist block. In 1980 a Spanish language journal dealing with seismology began to be published, called Investigaciones Sismologicas en Cuba. It published 5 numbers (1980-1985) with a total of 23 articles. Later, the series (1987-1991), Comunicaciones Cientificas sobre Geofisica y Astronomia appeared. These literary efforts by the IGA allowed a certain divulgation of the results within the Latin American framework. For example, among other things, one of the seismic hazard maps was published (Alvarez et al., 1991) (Figure 8); and two earthquake catalogues, one for La Espanola (Chuy and Alvarez, 1988) and the other for Nicaragua (Chuy, 1984). Another seismological map was published in the National Atlas of Cuba (Academias de Ciencias de Cuba y de la URSS, 1970). However, the immense majority of data and research was presented in internal reports that ate not generally circulated, given the restricted nature of information. even within country.

The Seismic Hazard Group at the department of Seismology, of the then IGA, in 1986-1990, maintained a fruitful collaboration with the Math and Cybernetics Institute also of the ACC. They applied logic-combining methods of pattern recognition that were presented at different times and published in at least two collections (Alvarez et al., 1995; Gitis et al., 1989, 1992). This group collaborated actively with the Geomorphology department at the Geology and Paleontology Institute (Ministerio de la Industria Basica) in the preparation of the neotectonic map (Cotilla et al., 1991a) and seismotectonic map (No 8 in Table 21). Cotilla (1995) drew attention to the work of the Cuban writer and poet Jose Marti y Perez who, without being a specialist in Seismology, drafted a very interesting scientific article on the earthquake of the 01.09.1886 in Charleston, United States of America (32.90 N. 80.00 W; I = 10 degree MM; Ms = 7.5). it was published in the Buenos Aires, Argentina, newspaper The Nation on 14 and 15 October, 1886, and described the damage caused by the earthquake, giving shrewd observations as to the origin and the generating mechanism of the earthquake.

International publication, at least in the seismological area, was facilitated towards the end of the 1980s by the publication of the New National Atlas of Cuba (Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, 1989). This scientific work was undertaken in collaboration with Spain, in particular with the National Geographical Institute. However, various subjective difficulties limited its scope and distribution. In the Atlas, a double map of seismic hazard appears (T = 100 years and T = 1,000 years), scale 1:2,000,000 (Alvarez et al., 1988), which has been taken into account when considering building legislation in Cuba. Another event of undeniable importance for national publication of Seismology research results were the five scientific study days organized by the IGA (1981-1989).

Other interesting elements

The bibliographical review located a Cuban document showing a preliminary quantitative evaluation (perhaps the first) of seismicity (No 31 in Table 22), which gives a 24 level gradation of seismicity for evaluating Spain and its Colonies. The positions 12, 16 and 20 correspond to the territories of Eastern Cuba, Central Cuba and Western Cuba, respectively, whilst Puerto Rico occupied the third position.

The structures which have demonstrated their seismic resistance in Cuba are two colonial buildings, both located in Santiago de Cuba. one in the city and the other on the outskirts. These are: 1) the House of the first governor, Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, and, 2) the Isabelica. The first has already been discussed. The second is a building from the turn of the nineteenth century, built by the French colonists who fled from Haiti. The building is in the coffee plantation area of the Sierra de la Gran Piedra, in the eastern part of the Sierra Maestra, between the bays of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo and is notable for its very good resistance to seismic shock. The structure is of stone and wood and it is special in that its design resists horizontal movement exceptionally well. However, it had deteriorated severely by the decade of the 1990s due to various elements and adverse factors such as its age, the tropical climate (high humidity content, strong variations in daily temperature, etc.), the activity of insects, vermin and unscrupulous individuals. and above all by the lack of maintenance. There are other two seismic resistant structures from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in eastern Cuban: 1) the Santiago de Cuba aqueduct; and, 2) the present Morro Castle in the Santiago de Cuba bay. The aqueduct was not damaged by the two strong earthquakes of 1932 and 1947; and the second has resisted without difficulty three strong earthquakes: 1852, 1932 and 1947. The previous Morro Castle was destroyed in the earthquake on the 11.06.1766 (Cotilla, 2003; Cotilla and Udias, 1999).

Finally, Table 26 shows earthquakes that have been felt in Cuba, but whose foci were in other zones.

Conclusions

This review gives a chronological overview of Cuban seismological history and experiences. It is probable that more aspects need to be included in order to complete the picture, but the most significant events have been incorporated here. Thus, the most important personalities in Cuban seismology are Andres Poey y Aguirre (1825-1919). Benito Vines Martorell, S.J. (1837-1893). Pedro Salterain y Legarra (1835-?), Mariano Gutierrez Lanza (1865-1943), and Eduardo Monteulieu y de la Torre (1883-?).

As a rule, Cuban knowledge of seismicity on the island is reliable, although it is very limited for the Western region, which forms the greater part of the country. Thus, while earthquakes have occurred over the entire Cuban territory, greatest seismic intensity and the most important damage is experienced in the southeastern part (2 of I = 9 degrees, MSK and 8 of I = 8 degrees, MSK), near Santiago de Cuba, with the exception of San Cristobal and Pinar del Rio (23.01.1880, I = 8 degrees, MSK). Total earthquake fatalities number slightly over one hundred countrywide.

Andres Poey y Aguirre's earthquake catalogues have constituted the basis of all subsequent Cuban catalogues and of many others throughout the Caribbean. The reliability of these catalogues is variable, and they are very strongly influenced by the period in which they were compiled. This author has detected manipulation of seismic information unsupported by scientific arguments.

To date, a single Cuban seismogenetic scheme or map does not exist, with the result that there is significant subjectivity in decision-making, given the insufficiency of basic information. A qualitative leap in the quality of these studies will only be possible if more seismic stations in the western and central parts are installed, if paleoseismic studies are carried out, and if there is more participation in international collaboration.

Cuban scientific collaboration with other countries in the field of seismology, even within the Caribbean region, has historically been very limited and has always depended on political conditions.

Acknowledgements

The author is grateful to Diego Cordoba, Agustin Udias and Miguel Herraiz for their stimulating criticism of the original text. I also wish to thank Armando Cisternas for his encouragement and useful comments. This work was carried out at the Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Astrofisica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid within the framework of activities co-ordinated and financially supported by REN2003 - 08520 - C02 - 02. REN2002 - 12494E/RIES and CGL2005 25012 - E.

I am in debt to the following Institutions: 1) Germany: GeofoshungZentrum; 2) Belgium: Biblioteque Centrale; 3) Cuba: Biblioteca Nacional "Jose Marti", Biblioteca del Museo de Ciencias; 4) Dominican Republic: Instituto Sismologico Universitario; Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo; Direccion General de Mineria; 5) France: Institut de Physique du Globe (Paris and Strasbourg); Academia de Ciencias de Dijon; Biblioteque Nationale de Paris, 6) Jamaica: University of the West Indies--Jamaica (UWIJ); 7) Mexico: Biblioteca Nacional Autonoma; 8) Spain: Observatoire de L'Ebre (to Lady Arantza Ugalde); Archivo del Ejercito; Archivo Historico Nacional; Archivo General de Indias (Seville); Biblioteca del Museo de Ciencias Naturales; Biblioteca Nacional; Biblioteca del Instituto Geologico y Minero; Centro de Informacion y Documentacion; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Biblioteca Central, Instituto de Economia y Geografia); Hemeroteca Municipal de Madrid; Museo Naval; Instituto de Ciencia de la Construccion "E. Torroja"; Real Academia de Historia; Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales; and Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Bibliotecas de las Facultades de Ciencias Geologicas, and Geografia e Historia); 9) United Kingdom: Civil Engineering Department, Imperial Collage; 10) United States of America: Library of the Congress.

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Gonzalez B., Mirzoev K.M., Chuy T., Golubiatnikov V.L., Lyskov L.M., Zapata A. and Alvarez H., "Microzonificacion sismica de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba", Comunicaciones Cientificas sobre Geofisica y Astronomia, 15, 24 pp. (in Spanish), 1989.

Gonzalez B., Alvarez L., Serrano M., Garcia J., Rodriguez V., Perez L. and Fernandez E., Informe cientifico-tecnico del 9 de marzo de 1995. Ganuza, municipio San Jose de Las Lajas, Archivo del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Sismologicas, Filial Occidental, 13 pp. (in Spanish), 1995.

Hernandez J.R., Geomorfologia estructural y geodinamica reciente del relieve del sudeste de Cuba (en la zona de interaccion de la microplaca cubana y la fosa profunda de Bartlett), PhD Thesis, Instituto de Geografia, Academia de Ciencias de la URSS, pp. 200 (in Russian), 1989.

International Seismological Centre (ISC), 1969-1998. Regional catalogue of earthquakes, Edinburg-Newbury, Scotland.

International Seismological Summary (ISS), 1918-1970. Surrey, Kew Observatory.

Johanssen L.O., Seismic hazard analysis of Managua. Nicaragua, Institute For Jord.- och Bergmekanik, MSc Thesis, Kungl, Tekniska Hogskolan, Stockol, Sweden, 1988.

Kelleher J. and McCann W., "Buoyant zones great earthquakes and unstable boundaries of subduction", Jour.Geoph.Res., 81(26):4885-4896, 1976.

Kelleher J., Sykes L. and Oliver L., "Possible criteria for predicting earthquake locations and their application to major plate boundaries of the Pacific and the Caribbean", J. Geoph. Res., 78(14):2547-2585, 1973.

Lander J.F., Whiteside L.S. and Lockridge P.A., "A brief history of tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea", Science of Tsunami Hazards, 20(2):5794, 2002.

Levchenko V.A. and Riabujin A.G., "Sobre la estructura en bloques del shelf septentrional de Cuba", Geotectonica, 5 (in Russian), 1971. Levchenko V.A., Gurevich G.S., Zabichina V.V., Kitias K.A. and Pafinova S.I., Caracterizacion comparativa de la constitucion geologica de Cuba y otros paises de la cuenca del Mar Caribe y el Golfo de Mexico con el objeto de evaluar las perspectivas petroliferas y gasiferas de Cuba y las acuatorias adyacentes, Informe cientifico-tecnico del Ministerio de la Industria Basica, 150 pp. (in Spanish), 1976.

Lilienberg D.A., Hernandez J.R., Marques M.E. and Alvarez J.L. (Editors), Movimientos tectonicos recientes en Cuba, No 1, Poligono geodinamico de Cuba, Ediciones Academia, La Habana, 454 pp., 1995.

Lopez G., Ruiz F. and Serrano M., Requerimientos para el desarrollo de una red sismotelemetrica en la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba, 13 pp., Informe del Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba (in Spanish), 1988.

Lyconthenes T., Prodigiorum ae ostentorum cronicon, quae practer naterrae ordinen, motum et operationem, et insuperioribus et inferioribus mundis regionibus, ab exordio mundi usque ad haec nostra tempora, acciderunt, Basilae (in Latin), 1607.

Lynch Lloyd L. and Shepherd J.B., "An earthquake catalogue for the Caribbean. Part II. The macroseismic listing for the instrumental period 1900-1991", Presentation at the Caribbean Latin American Seismic Hazard Project Workshop. Melbourne, FL., 45 pp., 1995.

Mann P. and Burke K., "Neotectonics of the Caribbean", Review of Geophysics and Space Physics, 22(4):309-392, 1984.

McCann W.R., and Pennigton W.D., "Seismicity large earthquakes and the margin of Caribbean Plate", The Geol. of North America, vol. H, The Caribbean Reg., The Geol. Soc. of Am., 1990.

Medvedev S.V., "Recomendaciones para la microregionalizacion sismica RMS-73", Cuestiones de Ingenieria Sismica, 15:6-34, Ed. Nauka, Moscu (in Russian), 1973.

--, Microregionalizacion sismica, Editorial Nauka, Moscu, 248 pp. (in Russian), 1977.

Molnar P. and Sykes L.R., "Tectonics of the Caribbean and Middle America regions from focal mechanism and seismicity", Geol.Soc. of Amer.Bull., 80(9): 1639-1684, 1969.

Moreno B., "The new cuban seismograph network", Seismological Research Letters, 73(4):504-517, 2002.

Moreno B., Grandison M. and Atakan K., "Crustal velocity model along te southern cuban margin: Implications for the tectonic regime at an active plate boundary", Geoph.Journ. Int., 15(2):632-645, 2002.

Mossakovsky A., Pusharovski Yu., Nekrasov G.E., Sokolov S.R., Formell F., Cabrera R., Iturralde M., Flores R., Oro J., Morales A., Pantaleon G., Perez L., Pszozolkowski A., et al., Mapa tectonico de Cuba, escala 1:500,000, Instituto de Geologia y Paleontologia, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, 1989.

Perrot J., Calais E., and Mercier de Lepinay B., "Tectonic and kinematic regime along the northern Caribbean plate boundary: New insigths from broadband modeling of the May 25, 1992. Ms = 6.9 Cabo Cruz, Cuba, earthquake", Pure and Applied Geophysics, 149:475-487, 1997.

Poey A., "Relacion del gran terremoto acaecido el 13 y 16 de agosto de 1868 en las Republicas del Peru, de Chile y del Ecuador, relacionado con otros temblores de tierra en Acapulco, San Francisco, Mejico, Islas de Sandwich, Londres, Argelia y San Thomas, acontecidos hasta el 30 de setiembre", Revista Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de La Habana, tomo V, 245-252 pp. (in Spanish), 1868.

Prol. J., Ariaza G. and Otero R., Sobre la confeccion de los mapas de profundidad del basamento y espesor de la corteza terrestre en el territorio cubano, Informe cientifico-tecnico de la Empresa Nacional de Geofisica, Ministerio de la Industria Basica de Cuba, 36 pp. (in Spanish), 1993.

Pusharovsky Yu, Vtulochkin M.A. and Mossakovsky A., "Estructuras y tipos de corteza terrestre en Cuba", Informes de la Academia de Ciencias de la URSS, 294:178-182 (in Russian), 1987.

Ramos L.E., Notas historicas acerca de dos directores del Observatorio del Colegio de Belen y su significado cientifico, Resumenes del Primer Congreso Nacional de Historia de la Ciencia y la Tecnica, 14-16 noviembre, La Habana, Centro de Estudios de Historia y Organizacion de la Ciencia, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba (in Spanish), 1994.

Rivera Z.C., Microzonificacion sismica de la ciudad de Bayamo. Red de Estaciones Sismicas en Cuba, Editorial Academia, La Habana, 61-66 pp. (in Spanish), 2000.

Rojas W., Bungun H. and Lindholm C., "Historical and recent earthquakes in Central America", Revista Geologica de America Central, 16:5-22 (in Spanish), 1993.

Rothe J.P., The seismicity of the Earth 1953-1963, UNESCO, Earth Sciences, 1,336 pp., 1969.

Rubio M., "Ocurrencia de tsunamis en el Caribe", Revista Investigaciones Sismologicas en Cuba, 2:170-180 (in Spanish), 1982.

Serrano M. and Alvarez L., "Desarrollo de la sismoiogia instrumental en Cuba", Revista Investigaciones Simologicas en Cuba, 4:5-10 (in Spanish), 1983.

Shein V.S., Klishov K.A., Jain V.E., Dikenshtein G.E., Yparraguirre J.L., Garcia E. and Rodriguez R., Mapa tectonico de Cuba. escala 1:500, 000, Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas, Ministerio de la Industria Basica de Cuba, 1985.

Shein V.S., Tenreyro R. and Garcia E., "Modelo de constitucion geologica profunda de Cuba", Serie Geologica, 1:78-88 (in Spanish), 1985a.

Sherbakova B.E., Bovenko V.G., Latzenko T.N. and Miroshnishenko I.P., Informe sobre los resultados de las observaciones con los aparatos Tierra en el territorio de Cuba Occidental, llevadas a cabo en 1972-1974, Archivos del Consejo Nacional del Fondo Geologico (in Spanish), 1975.

--, Informe sobre los metodos de observaciones con los aparatos TIERRA en el territorio de Cuba Occidental, llevadas a cabo en 1974-1975, Moscu, 1,153 pp. (in Spanish), 1977.

Sykes L.R. and Ewing M., "The seismicity of the Caribbean region", J. Geophys.Res., 70:5065-5074, 1965.

Udias A., "Jesuists' contribution to meteorology", Bull. of Am.Met.Soc., 77(10):2307-2315, 1996.

Udias A. and Stauder W., "Jesuist geophysical observatories", EOS. Transactions AGU, 72:185-189, 1991.

Vireux J., Calais E., Deschamps A., Mercier de Lepinay B. and Bethoux N., "Tectonic interpretation of the May 25th 92 Cuban earthquake, EOS Transactions", AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 1992.

Zahn J., Specule Physico-Mathematico-Historical Notabilium & Mirabiliuru Scientorum. Scrutinium IV. Disquisitie I. Novinbergae (in Latin), 1696.

Zapata J. and Chuy T., "Validacion de la microzonificacion sismica de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba por las observaciones macrosismicas de terremotos", Reporte de Investigacion del Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, 27 pp. (in Spanish), 1992.

Mario Octavio COTILLA RODRIGUEZ, Profesor del Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Astrofisica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, correo electronico: macot@fis.ucm.es
Table 1
Personalities in Cuban Seismology

No   Name           Description

1    Andres         He is called the Father of Cuban Seismology. He
     Poey y         was born on 15.02.1825 in La Habana and studied in
     Aguirre        France, where he lived for more than 30 years, and
                    he died on 04.01.1919. He made the first
                    catalogues for Cuba and the West Indies. He
                    directed the Meteorological Institute of Cuba, and
                    was a scientific member of the Real Academia de
                    Ciencias Medicas, Fisica y Naturales in La Habana
                    (03.03.1861) and of the Academia de Ciencias of
                    Dijon, France. He was also a member of the
                    Academia de Ciencias in Madrid, Spain. He worked
                    as a correspondent for the Sociedad Zoologica
                    Americana and in the Liceo Cubano in New York.

2    Benito         Father of the Company of Jesus and director, from
     Vines          1870, of the Observatorio Magnetico y
     Martorell,     Meteorologico del Real Colegio de Belen in La
     S.J.           Habana, was born in Pobleda (Catalonia), Spain,
                    on 19.09.1837. He wrote about the difficulties
                    encountered in Cuban reports and earthquake
                    catalogues, and of their lack of relation to
                    tectonic conditions, and identified the
                    seismogenetic differences between the western and
                    eastern parts of Cuba. On 23.02.1873 he was invited
                    to join the Real Academia de Ciencias Mddicas,
                    Fisica y Naturales in La Habana as an "Academic of
                    Merit". He died on 23.07.1893 in La Habana and the
                    population accom panied his coffin to the tomb.

3    Pedro          He was born in Irun (Guipuzcua), Spain on
     Salterain      12.03.1835. As a geologist he investigated the
     y Legarra      earthquake of 1880. He compiled an earthquake
                    catalogue and in 1884 quantatively identified, for
                    the first time, that greatest levels of seismicity
                    in Cuba are located in the eastern province
                    (Santiago de Cuba). He collaborated in the
                    "Geological Sketch of Cuba" in 1869. He was an
                    "Academic of Number" in the Real Academia de
                    Ciencias Medicas, Fisica y Naturales in La Habana
                    (14.03.1884-20.02.1893).

4    Mariano        Father of the Company of Jesus, Mariano Gutierrez
     Gutierrez      Lanza, S.J., was born in 26.05.1865, in Parcade
     Lanza,         (Leon), Spain. He was director of the Observatorio
     S.J.           del Colegio de Belen and was responsible for the
                    installa tion and development of the first Cuban
                    seismological station. He analyzed the record of
                    the Gibara earthquake of 1914. Also, he was an
                    "Academic of Merit" in the Real Academia de
                    Ciencias Medicas, Fisica y Naturales in La Habana
                    (26.02.1915). He was responsible for the
                    incorporation of Cuba (1907-1940) into the
                    International Seismological Association. He died
                    on 24.12.1943 in La Habana.

5    Eduardo        Native of Puerto Principe (currently province of
     Montelieu      Camaguey, Cuba), was born on 27.07.1883. He
                    graduated in 1904 from Harvard University, United
                    States of North America, as a mining engineer.
                    From 11.01.1935 he was an "Academic of Number" in
                    the Real Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisica y
                    Naturales in La Habana, and a Resident Member of
                    the Sociedad Cubana de Ingenieros. He compiled the
                    first classification of Cuban earthquake energy
                    (megaseism, macroseism and microseism), and
                    asserted that no seismic disturbance information
                    had been available for four centuries, for the
                    north coast and the central part of the island.
                    From 1928 onwards, he repeatedly and
                    unsuccessfully requested the successive
                    governmental authorities to install at least two
                    seismic stations (La Habana and Santiago de
                    Cuba). After 1959 he had very serious difficulties
                    with the so-called Revolutionary Cuban Government
                    because of his scientific and technical opinions
                    about the development of mining in Cuba
                    (Monteulieu, 1961). The date and the place of his
                    death in Cuba are not known.

Table 2
Analysis of the Cuban earthquake catalogue of Andres Poey y Aguirre

No   Date             Site                              Clasification

1    1530             Cuba                                    D
2    1551             Bayamo                                  D
3    1578             Santiago de Cuba                        D
4    1624             Bayamo                                  D
5    1675.02.11       Santiago de Cuba                        B
6    1677.02.11       Santiago de Cuba                        B
7    1678.02.11       Santiago de Cuba                        B
8    1679.02.11       Santiago de Cuba                        B
9    1682             Santiago de Cuba                        D
10   1693             La Habana                               D
11   1755.11.01       Santiago de Cuba                        -
12   1757.12.14       Santiago de Cuba                        B
13   1760.07.11       Santiago de Cuba                        B
14   1762.11.13       Santiago de las Vegas,                  B
                      La Habana
15   1762             Santiago de Cuba                        D
16   1766.06.11       Santiago de Cuba                        A
17   1766.08.01       Santiago de Cuba                        B
18   1766             Cuba                                    D
19   1777.07.07       La Habana                               B
20   1791.06.21       Santiago de Cuba                        B
21   1800.10.14-15    Santiago de Cuba                        B
22   1800.11.02       Cuba                                    B
23   1810.10          Santiago de Cuba                        C
24   1812             Matanzas                                D
25   1822.05.08       Santiago de Cuba                        B
26   1824.01.05       Trinidad                                B
27   1826.07          Santiago de Cuba                        C
28   1826.09.18       Santiago de Cuba                        B
29   1837.04.22       Cubitas                                 B
30   1842.05.07       Santiago de Cuba-Cabo Haitiano          B
31   1842.07.07       Santiago de Cuba                        B
32   1843.03.07       Santiago de Cuba                        B
33   1843.03.08       La Habana                               B
34   1843.03.21       La Habana
35   1844.09.03       Santiago de Cuba                        B
36   1845.04.21       Santiago de Cuba-El Cobre               B
37   1846.03.23       Santiago de Cuba                        B
38   1846.04.28       Santa Cruz del Sur, Camaguey            B
39   1847.03.31       Cuba                                    B
40   1851.05.11-12    Santiago de Cuba                        B
41   1852.07.07       Cuba: Pinar del Rio-                    A
                      Santiago de Cuba
42   1852.07.17       Santiago de Cuba                        B
43   1852.08.20       Santiago de Cuba                        A
44   1852.08.21       Santiago de Cuba                        B
45   1852.08.22       Santiago de Cuba                        B
46   1852.08.28-29    Santiago de Cuba                        B
47   1852.09.05       Santiago de Cuba                        B
48   1852.09.20       Santiago de Cuba                        B
49   1852.10          Santiago de Cuba                        D
50   1852.11.06       Santiago de Cuba                        B
51   1852.11.26       Santiago de Cuba                        B
52   1852.11.26       El Cobre                                B
53   1852.11.26       Sierra Maestra                          B
54   1852.11.26       Manzanillo                              B
55   1852.11.26       Bayamo                                  B
56   1852.11.26       Holguin                                 B
57   1852.11.26       Nuevitas                                B
58   1852.11.26       Santa Cruz del Sur, Camaguey            B
59   1852.11.27       Santiago de Cuba                        B
60   1852.11.28       Santiago de Cuba                        B
61   1852.11.29       Sierra Maestra                          B
62   1852.11          Santiago de Cuba                        D
63   1852.12.14-17    Santiago de Cuba                        B
64   1852.12.28       Holguin                                 B
65   1853.01.11       Santiago de Cuba                        B
66   1853.01.25-26    Santiago de Cuba                        B
67   1853.02.01       Santiago de Cuba                        B
68   1853.11.08       Santiago de Cuba                        B
69   1853.12.29       Santiago de Cuba                        B
70   1853.12.30       Santiago de Cuba                        B
71   1854.01.23       Santiago de Cuba                        B
72   1854.02.02       Santiago de Cuba                        B
73   1854.03.17       Santiago de Cuba                        B
74   1854.03.19       Baracoa?                                B
75   1854.09.26       Santiago de Cuba                        B
76   1854.09.27       Santiago de Cuba                        B
77   1854.10.20       Santiago de Cuba                        B
78   1855.01          Santiago de Cuba                        C
79   1855.02.20       Santiago de Cuba                        B
80   1855.04.24       Santiago de Cuba                        B
81   1856.01.04       Santiago de Cuba                        B
82   1856.10.26       Santiago de Cuba                        B
83   1856.12.04       S.Yago (Cuba?)                          B
84   1857.02.10       Cuba                                    B
85   1857.06.11       Cuba                                    B
86   1858.01.28       Bayamo                                  B

Note: A = very well, B = well, C = less good, D: bad.

Table 3
Earthquakes in Poeys' catalogues

                            Earthquakes

Century   [SIGMA]   in Santiago de Cuba               Note

XVI          3               1            33%, but the highest density
                                          of inhabitants was in Bayamo
XVII         7               5                         71%
XVIII        9               6                         67%
XIX         67              42                         63%
[SIGMA]     86              54

Table 4
Some Caribbean catalogues

No   Author/s           Year        Title

1    Moreau de Jonnes   1843        Sur les anciens seismes des
                                    Antilles, Comp tes, Rendus de
                                    l'Academie des Sciences de Paris,
                                    16:1153-1154, (in French)

2    Perrey, A. M.      1843        Note Historique sur les
                                    tremblements de terre des
                                    Antilles, Comptes. Rendus de
                                    l'Academie des Sciences. de Paris,
                                    tomo XVI, pp. 1283 1303 (in
                                    French)

3    Perrey, A. M.      1845-1846   Catalogue chronologique des
                                    secousses de la terre resenties
                                    sur la superface entiere du globe,
                                    Reports of the British
                                    Association, Londres (in French)

4    Mallet, R.         1852-1854   Catalogue chronologique des
                                    secousses de la terre resenties
                                    sur la superface entiere du globe,
                                    "Reports of the British
                                    Association", Londres (in French)

5    Poey, A.           1855        Tableau chronologique des
                                    tremblements de terre ressentisa
                                    file de Cuba de 1851 a 1855,
                                    Paris, A. Bertrand (in French)

6    Poey, A.           1855a       Supplement au tableau
                                    chronologique des tremblements de
                                    terre ressentis a file de Cuba de
                                    1851 a 1855, Paris, A. Bertand (in
                                    French)

7    Poey, A.           1857        Catalogue chronologique des
                                    tremblements de terre ressentis
                                    dan les Indes Occidenteles de 1530
                                    a 1857, accompagne d'une revue
                                    bibliographique contenant tous les
                                    travaux relatife aux tremblements
                                    de terre des Antil les, Paris (in
                                    French)

8    Leseeps, F.        1882        Le tremblements de terre de
                                    l'isthme de Panama. Comptes,
                                    Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences
                                    de Paris, 95(19):817-821 (in
                                    French)

9    Montessus de       1884        Temblores y erupciones volcanicas
     Ballore, F.                    en Centroamerica. San Salvador, El
                                    Salvador, 246 pp. (in Spanish)

10   Salterain y        1884        Ligera resena de los temblores de
     Legarra, P.                    tierra ocurridos en la Isla de
                                    Cuba. Anales de la Academia de
                                    Ciencias de La Habana, 21:203-218
                                    (in Spanish)

11   Montessus de       1888        Tremblements de terre et eruptions
     Ballore, F.                    volcani ques an Centre Amerique
                                    depuis la conquete espagnole
                                    jusqu'a nos jours. Societe des
                                    Sciences Naturalles de Saone
                                    et-Loire, 293 pp., Dijon, 1888 (in
                                    French)

12   Milne, J.          1901        A catalogue of destructive
                                    earthquakes A.D. 7 to A.D. 1899,
                                    Bristish Association for the
                                    Advancement of Science, Porstmouth
                                    Meeting, London, 94 pp.

13   Mallet, R.         1906        Catalogue of recorded earthquakes
                                    from 1606 B.C. to A.D. 1850,
                                    "Reports on the State of Science",
                                    184 pp., London

14   Gonzalez Viquez,   1910        Temblores, terremotos,
     C.                             inundaciones y erupciones
                                    volcanicas en Costa Rica
                                    1608-1910, San Jose, 200 pp (in
                                    Spanish)

15   Scherer, J.        1912        Great earthquakes in the Island of
                                    Haiti. "Bull. Seism. Soc.Am.",
                                    2(1):161-180

16   Hall, M.           1912        Earthquakes in Jamaica from 1688
                                    to 1909. Kingston Government
                                    Pinting Office 58, Kingston

17   Fielding, H. and   1919        The Porto Rico earthquakes of
     Taber, S.                      October November 1918,
                                    "Bull.Seism.Soc.Am.", 9 (4):95-127

18   Hall, M.           1922        Earthquakes in Jamaica from 1688
                                    to 1919, Kingston Government
                                    Pinting Office 58, Kingston

19   Reid, H.F. and     1920        The Porto Rico earthquake of 1918
     Taber, S.                      with descriptions of earlier
                                    earthquakes, U.S. Government
                                    Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

20   Taber, S.          1920        Jamaica earthquakes and the
                                    Bartlett trough, Bull.
                                    Seism.Soc.Am., 10(2):84-88

21   Taber, S.          1922        The seismic belt in the Greater
                                    Antilles. "Bull.Seism.Soc.Am.",
                                    12(4):199-219

22   Taber, S.          1922a       The great fault troughs of the
                                    Antilles, Journal of Geology,
                                    Vol. XXX, No. 2, 89-114

23   Morales y          1931        Los terremotos de Cuba, Revista de
     Pedroso, L.                    la Socie dad Cubana de Ingenieros,
                                    25(2):123-166, La Habana (in
                                    Spanish)

24   Jimenez, T.F.      1952        Tabla cronologica preliminar de
                                    los terremotos mas intensos en El
                                    Salvador, Sanidad en El Salvador,
                                    1(2):191-196 (in Spanish)

25   Gutenberg, B.      1954        Seismicity of the earth. Princeton
     and Richter,                   University Press, Princeton, N.J.
     C.F.

26   Jimenez, T.F.      1954        Sismos historicos en El Salvador,
                                    Anales del Museo Nacional "David
                                    J. Guzman", 5(16-18) (in Spanish)

27   Montandon, F.      1962        Les megasesimes en Amerique. Revue
                                    pour Petude des calamites, "Bull.
                                    de l'Union Internationale de
                                    Secours aux enfants", Geneve,
                                    38:57-97 (in French)

28   Robson, G.R.       1964        An earthquake catalogue for the
                                    eastern Caribbean 1530-1960,
                                    "Bull. of the Seism.Soc. of Am.",
                                    54:785-832

29   Jorgensen, K.      1966        Seismological history of the Canal
                                    Zone and Panama, Balboa Heights,
                                    Canal Zone, Panama

30   Somohano, A.       1969        Catalogue of earthquakes felt at
                                    Cuba, Thesis of Diploma of
                                    Imperial College, London

31   Grases, J.         1971        La sismicidad historica del
                                    Caribe, Documen tos de Trabajo,
                                    Informe que presenta a la Junta
                                    Directiva del comite Conjunto del
                                    Concreto Armado, octubre, Caracas,
                                    Vene zuela (in Spanish)

32   Leeds, D.J.        1973        Catalogue of Nicaraguan
                                    earthquakes 1520 1973, Dames and
                                    Moore, Los Angeles, 26 pp., (in
                                    Spanish)

33   Iniguez, H.M.;     1975        Relacion de sismos en Republica
     Acosta, R. and                 Dominica na, 1551-1975, Inst.
     Vizcaino, J.A.                 Geografico, Universidad Autonoma
                                    de Santo Domingo, Republica
                                    Dominicana, 49 pp. (in Spanish)

34   Tomblin, J. and    1977        A catalogue of felt earthquakes
     Robson, G.R.                   for Jamaica with references to
                                    others islands in the Greater
                                    Antilles, 1524-1971, Mines Geol.
                                    Division, Special Publication,
                                    Jamaica

35   Martinez, M.       1980        Cronologia sismica y eruptiva de
                                    la Republi ca de El Salvador a
                                    partir de 1520, Departamento de
                                    Sismologia, Centro de
                                    Investigaciones Geotecnicas (CIG=,
                                    MOP, San Salvador (in Spanish)

36   Chuy, T. and       1980        Catalogo macrosismico de la region
     Gonzalez, B.                   occiden tal de Cuba,
                                    Investigaciones Sismologicas en
                                    Cuba, 1:18-32 (in Spanish)

37   Chuy, T.;          1980        Informacion macrosismica de las
     Gonzalez, B. and               provincias de Villa Clara,
     Escalona, S.                   Cienfuegos y Sancti Spiritus,
                                    Investigaciones Sismologicas en
                                    Cuba, 1:33-57 (in Spanish)

38   Chuy, T.           1982        Actividad sismica de la provincia
                                    Holguin, Investigaciones
                                    Sismologicas en Cuba, 2:20 45 (in
                                    Spanish)

39   Chuy, T. and       1982        Datos macrosismicos de los
     Pino, O.                       terremotos en la provincia
                                    Santiago de Cuba. Investigaciones
                                    Sismologicas en Cuba, 2:46-136 (in
                                    Spanish)

40   Chuy, T.;          1983        El sismo del 16 de diciembre de
     Vorobiova, E.;                 1982, Torriente-Jaguey Grande,
     Alvarez, L.;                   Investigaciones Sismologicas en
     Perez, E.;                     Cuba, 3, 44 pp. (in Spanish)
     Cotilla, M. and
     Portuondo, E.

41   Gonzalez, B. and   1983        Actividad sismica de la provincia
     Chuy, T.                       Pinar del Rio, Investigaciones
                                    Sismologicas en Cuba, 4:53-68 (in
                                    Spanish)

42   Chuy, T.;          1984        Sismicidad del territorio de las
     Gonzalez, B. and               provincias de Camaguey y Ciego de
     Vorobiova, E.                  Avila, Cuba, Investigaciones
                                    Sismologicas en Cuba, 5:61-94 (in
                                    Spanish)

43   Chuy, T.;          1988        Informe tecnico de las
     Dzhuraev, R.U.;                investigaciones macro sismicas en
     Alvarez, L.;                   el territorio de Cuba oriental y
     Alvarez, H. and                en la region de emplazamiento de
     Mirzoev, K.M.                  las variantes 2 y 10 de la CEN de
                                    Holguin, Archivo del Inst. de
                                    Geofisica y Astronomia, Academia
                                    de Ciencias de Cuba (in Spanish)

44   Grases, J.         1990        Terremotos destructores del Caribe
                                    1502-1990, UNESCO-RELACIS,
                                    Caracas, 132 pp. (in Spanish)

45   Gonzalez, B.;      1994        Estudio Sismologico Regional
     Chuy, T.;                      Complejo de Cuba Centro Oriental
     Alvarez, L.;                   Para el Emplazamiento de Objetivos
     Rubio, M. et al.               Nucleares, Informe cientifico-
                                    tecnico, p. 91, Centro Nacional de
                                    Investigaciones Sismologicas (in
                                    Spanish)

46   Pacheco, J.F.      1992        Seismic moment catalog of large
     and Sykes, L.R.                earthquakes. "Bull.Seism.Soc. of
                                    Am.", 82(3):1306-1349

47   Alvarez, L.;       1993        Catalogo de los terremotos fuertes
     Mijailova, R.S.                de la region l6[grados]-24[grados]
     and Chuy, T.                   LN y 78[grados]-86[grados] LW,
                                    desde el siglo XVI hasta 1988,
                                    Informe cientifico-tecnico del
                                    Inst. de Geofisica y Astronomia,
                                    Academia de Ciencias de Cuba (in
                                    Spanish)

48   Alvarez, L.;       1999        An earthquake catalogue of Cuba
     Chuy, T.;                      and neighbouring areas. The Abdus
     Garcia, J.;                    Salam International Centre for
     Moreno, B.;                    Theoretical Physics, Miramare --
     Alvarez,  H.;                  Trieste, Internal Report
     Blanco, M.;                    IC/IR/99/1
     Exposito, O.;
     Gonzalez, O. and
     Fernandez, A.I.

Table 5
Part of the earthquake catalogues of Montelieu-Morales without Poey data

No   Date          Time                  Site

1    1835                                Pinar del Rio
2    4.1857        05:30 p.m. (local)    Santiago de Cuba
3    1.1858        05:00 p.m. (local)    Santiago de Cuba
4    4.186         05:30 p.m. (local)    Santiago de Cuba
5    4.1861                              Santiago de Cuba
6    8.1862                              Santiago de Cuba
7    22.01.1880    11:05 p.m. (local)    Pinar del Rio
                                         (San Cristobal -- Candelaria)
8    24.12.1912                          Santiago de Cuba
9    27.02.1914                          Gibara -Holguin
10   29.02.1914                          Gibara -Holguin
11   03.08.1926                          Manzanillo
12   20.04.1929                          Santiago de Cuba
13   17.01.1930                          Maffo--Pedregoso
                                         (Eastern region)
14   03.02.1932    06:16:03 UT           Santiago de Cuba

Table 6
Intensity comparision between two earthquake catalogues
{Ch: Chuy and Gonzalez, (1980); G: Gonzalez et al., (1984)}

                                Intens(MSK)

Events    ?    3.0   3.5   4.0   4.5   5.0   5.5   6.0   7.0   8.0
Ch        23    18     1    26   --     17   --      2   --      1
G         29    57    16   103    15    32     2     8     1     1

Table 7
Time data for two earthquake catalogues (as Table 6)

                    Without                          With

Events in     Month   Day   Hour   Hour and Minute   Hour-Minute-Second

Catalogue 1     22     29     57          57                 --
Catalogue 2     91    122    137         158                 14

Table 8
Data of Santiago de Cuba earthquakes from Chuy and Pino (1982)

                                 Without

Intensity (MSK)   Year   Month   Day   Hour   Minute

9                    2       2     2      2        2
8                    8       8     6      4        4
7                   10       8     8      6        6
6                   19      19    19     18       18
5                   71      71    71     59       58
[SIGMA]            110     108   106     89       88

Table 9
Summary of the analysis by periods to Santiago de Cuba earthquake
catalogues by two sources {A = Alvarez et al. (1993); Ch = Chuy and
Pino (1982)}

                     Period

1492-1800   1800-1932   1932-1998   1492-1998

A      Ch     A    Ch     A    Ch     A    Ch    Intensity (MSK)

1       1     1     1   --    --      2     2   IX
3       4     1     3     1     1     5     8   VIII
5       4     7     6     1     1    13    11   VII
1       1    14     7     1    11    16    19   VI
11     10    22    17     3    13    36    40

Table 10
Data of earthquake catalogue (Alvarez et aL, 1999)

No   Note

1    9.241 earthquakes

2    Time period of 1502-1995

3    Coordinates: 16[grados]N / 24[grados]N, 67[grados]W /
     86[grados]W

4    800 events without magnitude

5    All the events has geographical coordinates

6    Earthquakes by magnitude and time period

                                  1502-  1615-  1701-  1800-  1900-
     M                             1580   1693   1793   1899   1995

     [mayor que o igual a] 8.0      --     --     --       1      1
     [mayor que o igual a] 7.0        2      4      3      7     12
     [mayor que o igual a] 6.0        4      8     11     14     33
     [mayor que o igual a] 5.0        7     13     22     36    163

7    Earthquakes without time

     1502-1580                     1693   1793   1899   1995

     6                               13     24     44    232

8    Earthquakes (1900-1990) without depth

     1900-1909                        7
     1910-1919                       25
     1920-1929                       23
     1930-1939                       39
     1940-1949                       37
     1950-1959                       44
     1960-1969                       40
     1970-1979                      310
     1980-1989                      389
     1990                         1,194

9    Earthquakes with origin time and coordinates modifciated.

     1) 28.02.1914 = 05:03:21 and 18,00[grados]N, 67.00[grados]W; by
     05:19:00 and 21.30[grados]N, 76.20[grados] W (British
     Association for the Advancement of Science--Seismological
     Committe)

     2) 03.02.1932 = 06:16:03 and 19.7[grados]N, 75.5[grados]W
     (International Seismological Summary) by 06:15:55 y
     19.75[grados]N, 75.58[grados]W

     3) 07.08.1947 = 00:40:03 and 19.8[grados]N, 75.8[grados]W
     (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Service) by 00:40:20 y 19.90[grados] N,
     75.30[grados] W

     4) 01.01.1910 = Ms =7.3 by Ms = 7.40 (Pacheco and Sykes, 1992)

     5) 20.02.1917 = 19.50[grados]N, 78.50[grados]W by
     19.00[grados]N, 80.00[grados]W (Pacheco and Sykes, 1992)

Table 11
Tsunamis in Cuba (Rubio, 1982)

No    Date          Site                      Note

1     1755.01.11    S. de Cuba                Lisboa earthquake
2     1852.07.17    S. de Cuba
3     1931.10.01    Playa Panchita, Rancho
                    Veloz (Las Villas)
4     1932.02.02    S. de Cuba
5     1939.08.15    Cayo Frances

Table 12
Tsunamis in Cuba (Lander et al., 2002)

Date / time              Site                     Note

12.06.1766 / 04:45 UT    Santiago de Cuba         Difference respect
                                                  Cotilla (2003)
01.11.1775 / 09:50 LT    Santiago de Cuba
18.12.1775               Santiago de Cuba
17.07.1852 / 0/:25       Santiago de Cuba
03.02.1932 / 06:16 UT    Santiago de Cuba         Difference respect
                                                  Montelieu (1933)
1.10.1931                Playa Panchita-Rancho
                         Veloz
15.08.1935 / 03:52 UT    Cabo Frances

Table 13
First reports of Caribbean earthquakes

Year     Site                         Year    Site

1502     Santo Domingo, Hispaniola    1530    Venezuela
1516     Panama                       1538    Honduras
1526     Guatemala                    1538    El Salvador
1528     Cuba                         1608    Costa Rica
1528     Nicaragua                    1690    Puerto Rico

Table 14
Former names and dates of foundation of some Cuban localities

Site                                        Founded in

Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion de Baracoa    1511
San Salvador de Bayamo                      1513
Batabano (La Habana)                        1514
Sancti Spiritus                             1514
La Santisima Trinidad                       1514
San Cristobal de La Habana                  1519
Santa Maria de Puerto Principe              1528
Minas de Jobabo                             1533
Baitiquiri                                  1539
San Juan de los Remedios                    1545
Gloriosa Santa Clara                        1689
San Cristobal de los Pinos                  1743
Sagua de Tanamo                             1750
San Isidro de Holguin                       1751
Tunas de Bayamo                             1752

Table 15
Selection of studies and informations about the 11.06.1766 earthquake

Author/s          Date/ Local Time            Note

Pichardo, 1854    11.06.1766 / -              Horrendous

Poey, 1855 a,b,   11.06.1766 / midnight       Strong shocks for seven
1857                                          minutes. Destroyed many
                                              buildings. After shocks
                                              up to 1st August

Pezuela, 1863     11-12.06.1766 / midnight    A lot of injured.
                                              Destruction of Santiago
                                              de Cuba and Bayamo
                                              cities

Salterain and     11.06.1766 / 11 3/4 night   Horrendous. Around 30
Legarra, 1884                                 earthquakes

Morales and       11.06.1766 / midnight       Used Poey's
Pedroso, 1933                                 information. The
                                              epicentre is located in
                                              the knot of faults
                                              Kingston with Bartlett-
                                              Caiman (19.75N, 76.65W)

Chuy and Pino,    11.06.1766 / 23:45          I=9 (MSK), 120 dead and
1982                                          more than 600 injured.
                                              Many aftershocks

Grases, 1990      11.06. 1766 / 23:45         I=9 (MSK)

Zapata and        12.06.1766 / 00:14          Ms=7.5, Io=9 (MSK),
Chuy, 1992                                    h=30km, 19.90N, 76.10W.
                                              120 dead and more than
                                              600 injured

Chuy, 1999        12.06.1766 / 00:14          Ms=7.6,1=9 (MSK),
                                              h=35km, 19.80N, 76.1OW.
                                              120 dead and more than
                                              600 wounded

Alvarez et al.,   12.06.1766 / 00:14          As Chuy, 1999
1999

Cotilla, 1999     12.06.1766 / 00:14          As Zapata and Chuy,
                                              1992

Cotilla and       11.06.1766 / 00:00          Ms=6.8, I=9 (MSK),
Udias, 1999                                   h=20km, 19.92N, 76.OOW.
                                              No tsunami. 34-40 dead
                                              and 700 injured (only
                                              in S. of Cuba).
                                              Aftershocks for 66 days

Cotilla and       11.06.1766 / 00:00          Ms=6.8, 1=9 (MSK),
Udias, 2000                                   h=25km, 19.9N, 76.1 W.
                                              No tsunami. 34-40 dead
                                              and 700 injured (only
                                              in S. de Cuba).
                                              Aftershocks during 66
                                              days

Cotilla, 2003     11.06.1766 / 00:00          As Cotilla and Udias,
                                              2000

Table 16
Evaluations of the 23.01.1880 earthquake by two sources

                            Catalogue

Chuy and Gonzalez (1980)    Chuy et al. (1988)   Locality

6                                   6            La Habana
-                                   5            Artemisa
-                                   6            Santiago de las Vegas
6                                   6            Guanabacoa - Regla
-                                   5            Jaruco
4                                  5-6           Matanzas
4                                   4            Cardenas
3                                   3            Cienfuegos
3                                   4            Key West, Florida

Table 17
Cuban seismic stations (1964-1994)

                              Location       Coordinates

Denomination      Altitude     (Province)
/Acro                (m)         /Year          N         W

Soroa / SOR          206      Pinar del      22.740    83.000
                              Rio / 1964
Rio Carpintero       100      S. de Cuba     19.994    75.696
/RCC                          /1965

Pinares de           647      Holguin        20.067    75.467
Mayari /PIN                   /1979

Las Mercedes         200      Granma         20.167    77.017
/LMG                          /1979

Maisi/MAS            350      Guantanamo     20.200    74.233
                              /1979

Cascorro/CAS         90       Camaguey       21.200    77.433
                              /1982

Holguin/HOL          50       Holguin        20.540    76.400
                              /1985

Tumbadero/TUM        20       Holguin/       21.400    75.580
                              1986

Manati/MAN            ?       Camaguey       21.283    76.917
                              /1986

Bazan/BAZ             ?       Holguin/       20.600    75.267
                              1987

La Julia/JUL          ?       S. de Cuba     19.954    75.580
                              /1988

Villalon/VIL          ?       S. de Cuba     20.077    75.737
                              /1988

Boniato/BON           ?       S. de Cuba     20.081    75.901
                              /1988

Baconao/BAC           ?       S. de Cuba     19.920    75.455
                              /1989
La Margarita          ?       S. de Cuba     20.030    76.044
/MAG                          /1989

Loreto/LOR            ?       S. de Cuba     20.095    75.588
                              /1989

Palenque/PAL          ?       S. de Cuba     19.988    75.450
                              /1989

Trucutu/TRU           ?       S. de Cuba     20.010    75.500
                              /1989

Juragua/JUR          20       Cienfuegos     22.065    80.516
                              /1995

                  Type of station

Denomination      Regional     Component/
/Acro              /Local      Seismometer

Soroa / SOR           R         3 (SKM-3)

Rio Carpintero        R         3 (SKM-3)
/RCC

Pinares de            R         3 (SKM-3)
Mayari /PIN

Las Mercedes          R         3 (SKM-3)
/LMG

Maisi/MAS             R         3 (SKM-3)

Cascorro/CAS          R       3 (SKM-3. KS-
                                   M1)

Holguin/HOL           R         3 (SKM-3)

Tumbadero/TUM         R         3 (SKM-3)

Manati/MAN            R         3 (SKM-3)

Bazan/BAZ             R         3 (SKM-3)

La Julia/JUL       L (UN)        1 (SK)

Villalon/VIL       L (TLN)       1 (SK)

Boniato/BON        L (TLN)       1 (SK)

Baconao/BAC        L (UN)        1 (SK)

La Margarita       L (TLN)       1 (SK)
/MAG

Loreto/LOR         L (TLN)       1 (SK)

Palenque/PAL       L (TLN)       1 (SK)

Trucutu/TRU        L (TLN)       1 (SK)

Juragua/JUR           R         3 (SKM-3)

Table 18
Cuban seismic stations according with Moreno (2002)

Coordinates

No   Acronym    Date            N                 W

1    RCC       02.1998   19.9953[grados]   75.6965[grados]
2    CCC       03.1998   21.1937[grados]   77.4172[grados]
3    LMG       05.1998   20.0673[grados]   77.0047[grados]
4    PARC      05.1998   20.2000[grados]   76.2200[grados]
5    PINC      05.1998   20.4870[grados]   75.7910[grados]
6    SABC      05.1998   20.3800[grados]   75.1900[grados]
7    SOR       08.1998   22.7830[grados]   83.0180[grados]
8    CIES      10.1998   20.0020[grados]   75.7710[grados]
9    MAS       11.1998   20.1760[grados]   74.2310[grados]
10   MOA       01.1999   20.6583[grados]   74.9568[grados]
11   MCG       07.1999   22.3333[grados]   80.0000[grados]

No   Altitude (m)    Equipment

1        100        Broad band
2         90        Broad band
3        200        Broad band
4        100        Short Perod
5        647        Short Period
6        100        Short Period
7        206        Broad band
8         40        Short Period
9        350        Broad band
10       140        Broad band
11       100        Broad band

Table 19
Seismic stations (according three sources)

USGS (2003)

                 Coordinates
               (N, W) [Altitude
Station              (m)]

CCCC         21.2000, 77.7660
             [0.0]

CISC         20.0020, 75.7710
             [0.0]

GTMO         20.0800, 75.1400
             [0.0]

HOL          20.8940, 76.2630
             [350.0]

LMGC         20.0640, 77.0050
             [0.0]

MASC         20.1750, 74.2310
             [0.0]

MGV          22. 1100, 79.9800
             [0.0]

MOAC         20.6600, 74.9600
             [0.0]

PINC         20.4870, 75.7910
             [0.01]

RCC          19.9942, 75.6958
             [100.0]

SABC         20.3800, 75.1900
             [0.0]

SOR          22.7840, 83.0080
             [206.0]

YAR          20.3700, 76.3600
             [200.0]

Moreno et al. (2002)

                 Coordinates
               (N, W) [Altitude
Station              (m)]

CCC          21.1937, 77.4172
             [90]

CIES         20.0020, 75.7710
             [40]

LMG          20.0673, 77.0047
             [200]

MAS          20.1760, 74.2310
             [350]

MOA          20.6583, 74.9568
             [140]

PINC         20.4870, 75.7910
             [647]

RCC          19.9953, 75.6965
             [100]

SABC         20.3800, 75.1900
             [100]

YARC         20.2000, 76.2200
             [100]

Moreno (2002)

                 Coordinates
               (N, W) [Altitude
Station              (m)]

CCC          21.1937, 77.4172
             [40]

CIES         20.0020, 75.7710
             [40]

LMG          20.0673, 77.0047
             [200]

MAS          20.1760, 74.2310
             [350]

MOA          20.6583, 74.9568
             [140]

PINC         20.4870, 75.7910
             [647]

RCC          19.9953, 75.6965
             [100]

SABC         20.3800, 75.1900
             [100]

SOR          22.7830, 83.0180
             [206]

YARC         20.2000, 76.2200
             [100]

MCG          22.3333, 80.0000
             [100]

Table 20
Cuban scientific institutions related with the Seismology

Denomination                                  Description

Real Colegio de Belen                Founded by the Compania de Jesus.
                                     Closed in 1962

Real Academia de Ciencias Medi-      Located in La Habana city. Closed
cas y Naturales de La Habana         in 1962

Sociedad Cubana de Ingenieros        Located in La Habana. Edited the
                                     "Revista de la Sociedad Cubana de
                                     Ingenieros"

Academia de Ciencias de Cuba         Founded in 1962 by the called
                                     Cuban revolutionary goverment.
                                     From 1962 to 1990 several
                                     specialists collaborated in
                                     different institutes and in
                                     particularly in the Geophysics
                                     and Astronomy Institute. Between
                                     these specialists there are: a)
                                     Soviet Un ion: Z. Aranovich, V.I.
                                     Bune, V.M. Frend, A.A.
                                     Godzikovskaya, V.L.
                                     Golubiatnikov, L.M. Lyskov, S.V.
                                     Medvedev, R.S. Mijailova, V.N.
                                     Krestnikov, L.A. Kogan, T.G.
                                     Rautian, N.V. Shebalin and F.S.
                                     Tregub; b) German Domcratic
                                     Republic: P. Bank witz, P.
                                     Borman, J. Ellenberg, H.1.
                                     Franzke, G. Grunthal, M. Teuser,
                                     W. Strauch, J. Pilarski, M.
                                     Pilarski and K. Teuser; c) Chezck
                                     Republic: V. Karnik, V. Schenk
                                     and Z. Schenkova

Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia    Founded in 1995 from the Academia
y Medio Ambiente                     de Ciencias de Cuba

Ministerio de la Industria Basica    It was a large institution. Also
                                     it was dealing with the
                                     seismotectonic investigations in
                                     the areas of nuclear power
                                     plants. In such tasks
                                     collaborated some soviet
                                     specialists

Table 21
Seismotectonic results

No   Year        Author/s         Region              Title

1    1980   Orbera, L.            Eastern   Informe sobre las
                                            condiciones
                                            sismotectonicas de las
                                            provincias orientales para
                                            la ubicacion de la CEN
                                            norte de Holguin. Archivo
                                            de la Emp. Integral de
                                            Proyectos para la
                                            Industria Basica, Ministe-
                                            rio de la Industria
                                            Basica, p. 55 (in Spanish)

2    1983   Orbera, L.            Western   Estudio sismotectonico de
                                            la region occidental.
                                            Archivo de la Emp.
                                            Integral de Proyectos para
                                            la Industria Basica,
                                            Ministerio de la Industria
                                            Basica, p. 62 (in Spanish)

3    1983   Belousov, T.P.;       Central   Delimitacion de zonas
            Krestnikov,                     sismogeneradoras en Cuba
            V.N. and She-                   Central y estimacion de su
            balin, N.V.                     magnitud maxima.
                                            Investigacion de la
                                            sismicidad de las zonas de
                                            baja actividad sismica
                                            (Cuba Central), Moscu,
                                            Nauka, pp. 81-85 (in
                                            Russian)

4    1987   Orbera, L.;           Cuba      Las investigaciones
            Ramirez, R.;                    sismotectonicas y la
            Lopez, M.;                      estabilidad de las
            Arias, A.; Mar-                 construcciones energeticas
            quetti, M. and                  en Cuba. Primer Congreso
            Crespo, R.                      Internacional sobre
                                            Desastres Naturales, 27-30
                                            ene. 1987, Habana,
                                            Resumenes, Comision de
                                            Sismologia, pp. 45-46 (in
                                            Spanish)

5    1989   Orbera, L.;           Eastern   Estudio sismotectonico
            Rodriguez, J.;                  para el complejo
            Sola, B.; Arias,                hidroenergetico Toa-Duaba,
            A.; Marquetti,                  Archivo, Empresa Integral
            M.; Lombardero,                 de Proyectos de la
            T. and Gutierrez,               Industria Basica,
            I.                              Ministerio de la Industria
                                            Basica (in Spanish)

6    1989   Babaev, A.;           Eastern   Informe de las
            Tokariov, V.;                   investigaciones geologo-
            Lyskov, L and                   tectonicas del territorio
            Orbera, L.                      de Cuba Oriental y de la
                                            region de emplazamiento de
                                            las areas Nos. 2 y 10 de
                                            la CEN Holguin, tomo 1,
                                            libro 3, parte 1/1,
                                            Archivo de la UPI--CEN,
                                            Holguin, Ministerio de la
                                            Industria Basica (in
                                            Spanish)

7    1990   Orbera, L.;           Western   Investigaciones sismicas
            Gonzalez, B.;                   en la region de
            Chuy, T. and                    emplazamiento del Centro
            Oro, J.                         de Investigaciones
                                            Nucleares, Vol. 1,
                                            Secretaria Ejecutiva para
                                            Asuntos Nucleares, Cuba,
                                            344 pp. (in Spanish)

8    1991   Cotilla, M.; Bank-    Cuba      Mapa sismotectonico de
            witz, P.; Alvarez,              Cuba, a Escala
            L.; Franzke, H.J.;              1:1,000,000,
            Gonzalez, E.;                   Comunicaciones Cientificas
            Grunthal, G.;                   Sobre Geofisica y
            Pilarski, J.; Diaz,             Astronomia, 31, 40 pp. (in
            J. and Arteaga, F.              Spanish)

9    1991   Comision Ad           Eastern   Dictamen de la Comision Ad
            hoc                             hoc para la determinacion
                                            de las zonas
                                            sismogeneradoras de la
                                            region Oriental de Cuba y
                                            sus zonas adyacentes.
                                            Inst. de Geofisica y
                                            Astronomia, Academia de
                                            Ciencias de Cuba, lo. 6
                                            (in Spanish)

Table 22
Reports and papers with some Cuban seismological information
(1774-1968)

No   Year          Title                 Location            Author

1    1730   Descripcion de las     Madrid (in Spanish)    Herrera, D.
            Islas Occidentales

2    1774   Sur les tremblements   History of Jamaica.    Long
            de terre de la         vol. III. 617 pp.
            Jamaique               (in French)

3    1782   Historia filosofica    Sevilla (in Spanish)   Raynal
            y politica de los
            establecimientos y
            comercios de los
            europeos en ambas
            Indias

4    1786   Diccionario            5 tomos (1786-1789)    de Alcedo,
            geografico historico   Madrid, traducida al   A.
            de las Indias          ingles por G.A.
            Occidentales o         Thompson, Londres
            America                (1812)

5    1822   Tableau                Historie Physique      Moreau de
            chronologique des      des Antilles           Jones
            tremblements de        Francaises, Paris,
            terre des Antilles     tomo I, 110-115 (in
                                   French)

6    1824   Chronology             Londres, 138 pp.       Tegg, W.

7    1826   Tremblements de        Annales de Chimie et   de Alcedo,
            terre                  de Physique, tomo      A.
                                   33, 402-413, Paris
                                   (in French)

            Dates exactes des      Bull. De Ferussac.     Moreau de
            tremblements de        des Sc. Nat., tomo     Jones
            terre des Antilles.    XVIII, 195 pp. (in
            Communiquees. en       French)
            1826, a l'Academie
            des Sciences

8    1827   Chronological          Londres, vol. II,      Southey, Th.
            history of the West    552 pp.
            Indies

9    1829   Cuadro estadistico     La Habana, (1829 y
            de la siempre fiel     1846) (in Spanish)
            Isla de Cuba

10   1842   Historia fisica,       Ed. Libreria de A.     de la Sagra,
            politica y natural     Bertrand, Paris, 10    R.
            de la Isla de Cuba     tomos (in Spanish)

            Cuba and the Cubans.   New York               Kimbell,
                                                          R. B.

11   1843   Note historique sur    Compt. Rend. De        Perrey, A.
            les tremblements de    l'Acad. Des Sc. De     M.
            terre des Antilles     Paris, tomo XVI,
                                   1283-1303 (in
                                   French)

            Letter concerning      Jameson's Journ,       Fayers
            the earthquake in      tomo XXXV, No 69,180
            West Indies            pp.

            Sur les anciens        Comptes, Rendus de     Moreau de
            seismes des Antilles   l'Academie des         Jones
                                   Sciences de Paris,
                                   tomo 16, 1153-1153
                                   (in French)

12   1845   Historia fisica        Libreria de Arthus     de la Sagra,
            politica y natural     Bertrand, Paris, 12    A. M.
            de la Isla de Cuba.    tomos, (1845-1846)
                                   (in Spanish)

            Sur les tremblements   Mem. De l'Acad. Des    Perrey, A.
            de terre aux           Sc. De Dijon, 325-     M.
            Antilles               392 (in French)

13   1846   Listes de              Mem. De l'Acad. Des    Perrey, A.
            tremblements de        Sc. De Dijon, pp.      M.
            terre resentis         393-400 (in French)
            pendant les annes
            1845 et 1846

14   1847   Temporales,            Memoria Sobre los      Herrera, D.
            huracanes, tormentas   Huracanes en la Isla
            y terremotos que ha    de Cuba, La Habana,
            habido en esta Isla    46-63 (in Spanish)
            de Cuba

15   1850   Cuba and the cubans    New York, Second       Kimball,
                                   Edition                R.B.

16   1852   Terremotos de          Madrid (in Spanish)    Lorie, A.
            Santiago de Cuba.
            Descripcion en verso
            de los dos
            terremotos sufridos
            en dicha ciudad en
            los dias 20 y 21 de
            agosto de 1852, por
            un testigo ocular

            Apuntes para la        Habana y Santiago de   Estorch, M.
            historia sobre el      Cuba (in Spanish)
            terremoto que tuvo
            lugar en Santiago de
            Cuba y otros puntos
            el 20 de Agosto de
            1852, y temblores
            subsiguientes

            Catalogue              Reports of the         Mallet, R.
            chronologique des      British Association,
            secousses de la        Londres, 1852-1854
            terre ressenties sur
            la surface entiere
            du Globe

17   1853   Tabla cronologica de   Nueva York (in         Valiente, G.
            los sucesos            Spanish)
            ocurridos en
            Santiago de Cuba

            Almanack               Jamaica                Henderson

            Apuntes para la        Imprenta Espinal,      Estorch, M.
            historia sobre el      2da parte de los
            terremoto que tuvo     apuntes, Folleto,
            lugar en Santiago de   Imprenta Cuba,
            Cuba y otros puntos    Santiago de Cuba (in
            el 20 de agosto de     Spanish)
            1852 y temblores
            subsiguientes

            Segunda parte de los   22 pp. (in Spanish)    Estorch, M.
            apuntes para la
            historia sobre el
            terremoto que tuvo
            lugar en Santiago de
            Cuba desde mediados
            de septiembre de
            1852 hasta el 31 de
            diciembre de ese
            mismo ano

18   1854   Geografia de la Isla   Establecimiento        Pichardo, E.
            de Cuba                Tipografico de D.M.
                                   Soler, Habana, 3
                                   partes (in Spanish)

            Geografia de la Isla   La Habana (in          de la Torre,
            de Cuba                Spanish)               J. Ma

            Dictionary of          Londres, 188 p.        Tegg, W.
            chronology

19   1855   Tableau                Nouvelles Annales      Poey, A.
            chronologique des      des Voyages, 6a
            tremblements de        serie, tomo 2, 301
            terre ressentis a      pp. de Malte-Brun,
            I'ile de Cuba de       Paris (in French)
            1551 a 1855

            Supplement au          Nouvelles Annales      Poey, A.
            tableau                des Voyages, tomo 4,
            chronologique des      286 p. de Malte
            tremblements de        Brun, Paris (in
            terre ressentis a      French)
            I'ile de Cuba de
            1530 a 1855

20   1856   Catalogues annuels     Bull. de l'Acad. Des   Perrey, A.
            des tremblements de    Sc. De France. tomo    M.
            terre                  XXIII, No 23; tomo
                                   XXIV, No 1 (in
                                   French)

            Suplemento a la        Ed. Libreria de        de la Sagra,
            seccion economico-     Hachette y Cna.,       R.
            politica               Paris (in Spanish)

21   1857   Catalogue              Annuarie de la         Poey, A.
            chronologique des      Societe
            tremblements de        Meteorologique de
            terre ressentis dan    France, tomo 5,
            les Indes              Parte 2, 75-127 p. y
            Occidenteles de 1530   227-253 pp., Paris
            a 1857. Accompagne     (in French)
            d'une revue
            bibliographique
            contenant tous les
            travaux relatife aux
            tremblements de
            terre des Antilles

22   1860   Relacion de los        Editorial Thunot,      de la Sagra,
            trabajos fisicos y     Paris, p. 40, 1860     R.
            meteorologicos         (in Spanish)
            hechos por Andres
            Poey

23   1863   Diccionario            Tomos I, II y III,     de la Pezue-
            geografico,            Ed. Imprenta del       la, J.
            estadistico e          Establecimiento de
            historico de la Isla   Mellado, Madrid (in
            de Cuba                Spanish)

24   1866   Diccionario            Tomo IV, Ed.           de la Pezue-
            geografico,            Imprenta del Banco     la, J.
            estadistico e          Industrial y
            historico de la Isla   Mercantil, Madrid
            de Cuba                (in Spanish)

25   1876   Naturaleza y           Primera Parte,         Rodriguez-
            civilizacion de la     Naturaleza (tomo l)    Ferrer, M.
            grandiosa Isla de      (in Spanish)
            Cuba y estudios
            variados y
            cientificos, al
            alcance de todos y
            datos historicos,
            estadisticos y
            politicos

26   1878   Calendario historico   Santiago de Cuba (in   Bothino,
            de Santiago de Cuba    Spanish)               L.E.

27   1880   Excursion a Vuelta     Ediciones "La Voz de   Vines, B.
            Debajo de Vines y      Cuba", La Habana, 68   and
            Salterain en ocasion   pp. (in Spanish)       Salterain,
            de los fuertes                                P.
            temblores de tierra
            ocurridos en la
            noche del 22 al 23
            de Enero de 1880

            Notices of recent      American Journal of    Rockwood.
            earthquakes            Science, vol. XIX,     C.G.
                                   No 109:295-299

28   1882   Die vulkanischen       16 Jahres bericht      Fuchs
            Ereignise des Jahres   Mineral, Un
            1880                   Petrographi,
                                   Mittelungen, Neue
                                   Folge, Band IV, 51-
                                   96. Wien (in German)

29   1884   Ligera resena de los   Anales de la           Salterain y
            temblores de tierra    Academia de Ciencias   Legarra, P.
            ocurridos en la Isla   Medicas, Fisicas y
            de Cuba                Naturales de La
                                   Habana, 21, pp. 203-
                                   218 (in Spanish)

            Temblores y            San Salvador, El       Montessus
            erupciones             Salvador, 246 pp.      de Ballore
            volcanicas en          (in Spanish)
            Centroamerica

30   1886   Coleccion de           Madrid (in Spanish)    Vines, B.
            articulos sobre los
            terremotos de la
            Isla de Cuba

            Tremblements de        Societe des Sciences   Montessus
            terre et eruptions     Naturalles de Saone    de Ballore
            volcaniques an         et-Loire, Dijon, p.
            Centre Amerique        293 (in French)
            depuis la conquite
            espagnole jus'a nos
            jours

31   1894   La Peninsula Iberica   Anales de la Soc.      Montessus
            seismica y sus         Espanola de Historia   de Ballore
            colonias               Natural, vol. 23,
                                   serie 2, tomo 3,
                                   175-184, Madrid (in
                                   Spanish)

32   1904   Apuntes historicos     El Avisador            Gutierrez-
            acerca del             Comercial, La Habana   Lanza, M.
            Observatorio del       (in Spanish)
            Colegio de Belen de
            La Habana

33   1906   Catalogue of           Reports of the         Mallet, R.
            recorded earthquakes   British Association,
            from 1606 B.C. to      London, 184 pp.
            A.D. 1850

34   1911   A catalogue of         British Association    Milne, J.
            destructive            for Advancement of
            earthquakes A.D. 7     Science, Portsmouth
            to A.D. 1899           Meeting, London, 94
                                   pp.

35   1912   Great earthquakes in   "Bull.Seism.Soc.Am.",  Seller
            the Island of Haiti    2 (1):161-180.

36   1914   Conferencias de        Imprenta y Libreria    Gutierrez-
            Seismologia,           de Lloredo y Cna.,     Lanza, M.
            pronunciadas en la     La Habana, p. 178
            Real Academia de       (in Spanish)
            Ciencias de La
            Habana

37   1917   Sismologia de la       Memorias de la         Jover, J.
            region oriental de     Sociedad de Historia
            la Republica de        Natural "Felipe
            Cuba. El macrosismo    Poey", vol. 11,
            del 27 de febrero de   1916-1917 (in
            1914                   Spanish)

            Al margen de un        Memorias de la         Pastor, A.
            trabajo sismologico    Sociedad Cubana de
            del Dr. Jover          Natural "Felipe
                                   Poey", vol. 11,
                                   1916-1917 (in
                                   Spanish)

38   1920   Jamaica earthquakes    "Bull.Seism.Soc.Am.",  Taber, S.
            and the Bartlett       10 (2):84-88
            trough

39   1922   The seismic belt in    "Bull. Seism.          Taber, S.
            the Greater Antilles   Soc.Am.", 12
                                   (4):199-219

            The great fault        "Journal of            Taber, S.
            troughs of the         Geology", vol. XXX,
            Antilles               No. 2,89-114.

            Jamaica earthquakes    "Bull.                 Taber, S.
            and the Bartlett       Seism.Soc.Am.", 10
            trough                 (2):84-88

40   1925   Cronicas de Santiago   Reimpresion en         Bacardi, E.
            de Cuba                Santiago de Cuba (in
                                   Spanish)

41   1930   Anales y efemerides    La Habana (in          Martinez-
            de San Juan de los     Spanish)               Fortun y
            Remedios y su                                 Follo, J.A.
            jurisdiccion

42   1931   Los terremotos de      Revista de la          Morales y
            Cuba                   Sociedad Cubana de     Pedroso, L.
                                   Ingenieros, vol.
                                   XXIII, No. 5, 264-
                                   308, La Habana (in
                                   Spanish)

            Sismologia de Cuba     Actas de la Oficina    Monteulieu,
            Informe para el        de Gobierno, Cuba      E.
            censo de la            (in Spanish)
            Republica de Cuba de
            1931

43   1932   Sismologia mundial     Revista de la          Monteulieu,
            en 1931 y notas        Sociedad Cubana de     E.
            sobre el terremoto     Ingenieros, vol.
            de Santiago de Cuba    XXIV, No. 3, La
            de febrero 3 de 1932   Habana (in Spanish)

44   1933   Informe de la          Revista de la          Monteulieu,
            comision nombrada      Sociedad Cubana de     E.
            para el estudio del    Ingenieros, vol.
            terremoto de           XXV, No. 1, 1-79
            Santiago de Cuba de    pp., La Habana (in
            febrero de 1932        Spanish)

            El terremoto de        Revista de la          Morales y
            Santiago de Cuba de    Sociedad Cubana de     Pedroso, L.
            3 de febrero de 1932   Ingenieros, vol.
                                   XXV, No. 2, pp. 123-
                                   166, La Habana (in
                                   Spanish)

            El megasismo de        Revista de la          Monteulieu,
            Santiago de Cuba. de   Sociedad Cubana de     E.
            3 de febrero de 1932   Ingenieros, vol. XX,
            a la luz de la         No. 4, La Habana (in
            Sismologia Moderna     Spanish)

            Observaciones sobre    Revista de la          Duque
            el informe emitido     Sociedad Cubana de     Estrada, E.
            por la Sociedad        Ingenieros, vol.
            Cubana de Ingenieros   XXV, No. 2, pp. 261-
            referente al           267, La Habana (in
            terremoto que el dia   Spanish)
            3 de febrero de 1932
            destruyo los
            edificios de la
            ciudad de Santiago
            de Cuba

45   1934   Panorama historico.    La Habana (in          Castellanos,
            ensayo de una          Spanish)               G.
            cronologia cubana
            desde 1492 hasta
            1933

46   1935   Importancia de         Actas de la Real       Monteulieu,
            Geologia Aplicada      Academia de            E.
            ala Economia           Ciencias. Fisica,
                                   Medicas y Naturales
                                   de La Habana (in
                                   Spanish)

47   1939   Aspecto geografico     Revista de la          Monteulieu,
            del macrosismo         Sociedad Geografica    E.
            sentido el 15 de       de Cuba, ano XX,
            agosto de 1939 en la   Nos. 1-2, La Habana
            region Central de      (in Spanish)
            Cuba

48   1945   Estudio de las         La Habana (in          Hernandez
            principales fallas     Spanish)
            de Cuba y sus
            consecuencias mas
            importantes

49   1948   Meteorologia           Caibarien (in          Martinez-
            historica cubana       Spanish)               Fortun y
                                                          Follo, J.A.

50   1949   Datos sobre sismos     Archivo del            Vinas, B.
            perceptibles en la     Instituto de
            provincia Santiago     Geofisica y
            de Cuba (inedito)      Astronomia, Academia
                                   de Ciencias de Cuba
                                   (in Spanish)

51   1954   Seismicity of the      Princeton University   Gutenberg,
            Herat                  Press, Princeton,      B. and
                                   N.J.                   Richter,
                                                          Ch.F.

52   1958   Elementary             Ed. W.H. Freeman and   Richter,
            Seismology             Company, San           Ch.F.
                                   Francisco, 768 pp.

            Anales y efemerides    Cuba (in Spanish).     Martinez-
            de San Juan de los                            Fortun y
            Remedios y su                                 Follo, J.A.
            jurisdiccion

            Temblores y            Santiago de Cuba (in   Cruz, C.
            terremotos             Spanish)

53   1968   Notas y apuntes        Archivo del            Monteulieu,
            acerca de terremotos   Instituto de           E.
            ocurridos en Cuba      Geofisica y
            (inedito)              Astronomia, Academia
                                   de Ciencias de Cuba
                                   (in Spanish)

Tabla 23
Cuban scientific journals with seismological contributions

Denomination                                      Period     Language

Revista de la Sociedad Cubana de Ingenieros      1900-1960   Spanish

Revista Investigaciones Sismologicas en Cuba     1980-1985   Spanish

Comunicaciones Cientificas sobre Geofisica       1987-1991   Spanish
y Astronomia

Table 24
Cuban earthquakes by the foreign press, 1756-1858

Year                    Publicated in

1756-1766    Gazete de France (in French)

1766         Gentlements Magazine

1826         Moniteur et Constitutionel (in French)
             Allgemeine Zeitung (in German)

1847-1852    Moniteur Belge (in French)

1852         Boston Traveller
             L'Independence Belge, Supplement (in French)

1852-1853    New York's Herald

1852-1855    L'Independence Belge (in French)
             L'Emanciapation Belge (in French)

1855         Daily National Intelligencer, Washington

1858         Jour. des Debats (in French)

Table 25
Cuban earthquakes by the national press, in Spanish, 1842-1954

Year                                Published in

1842, 1845                  Faro Industrial, La Habana

1849                        El Correo, Trinidad

1851, 1852, 1854, 1856      El Redactor, Santiago de Cuba

1852                        Revista de La Habana, La Habana
                            Fanal de Puerto Principe, Camaguey
                            El Orden
                            Diario de La Habana
                            La Verdad
                            La Prensa

1853, 1854, 1855, 1856,     El Diario La Marina, La Habana
1880, 1914, 1932, 1939,
1947

1854                        La Aurora de Matanzas
                            Gaceta de La Habana

1854, 1880                  El Triunfo, La Habana

1880                        El Diario de Cienfuegos, Cienfuegos
                            La Voz de Cuba, La Habana
                            Diario de Matanzas, Matanzas

1880, 1914                  La Discusion, La Habana

1896                        El Remediano, Remedios

1907, 1916                  La Lucha, La Habana

1914                        El Heraldo de Cuba, La Habana

1914, 1920, 1921, 1928,     El Tanameno, Sagua de Tanamo
1944

1914, 1927, 1937, 1932,     El Mundo, La Habana
1946, 1947, 1957, 1958

1932                        El Magazine Las Noticias, Santiago de Cuba

1932, 1947                  El Camagueyano, Camaguey

1939                        El Faro, Remedios

1939, 1943                  La Correspondencia, Cienfuegos

1939, 1943, 1949            El Comercio, Cienfuegos

1947                        La Voz del Pueblo, Santiago de Cuba
                            Revista Bohemia, La Habana
                            Revista Carteles, La Habana

1953                        Tradiciones Gibarenas, Gibara

1954                        Prensa Libre, La Habana

Table 26
Earthquakes felt in Cuba from other seismic sources
(Alvarez et al., 1999)

Date            Epicentral zone     Magnitude

07.06.1692    Jamaica                Mc = 7.5
01.11.1755    Lisboa, Portugal
04.06.1770    Haiti Republic         Mc = 7.5
07.05.1842    Haiti Republic         Mc = 8.2
07.07.1852    Virgin Islands         Mc = 7.5
03.09.1887    Haiti Republic         Mc = 7.9
04.08.1946    Dominican Republic     Ms = 8.1

Note: Mc = magnitude calculated from seismic intensity.
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