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Crystallographers at NBS/NIST.

Crystallographic research at NBS/NIST began in the 1930s. Throughout the subsequent years, a large number of scientists have contributed to a long and distinguished history in this field. The following is a compilation of representative scientists who have pursued research in crystallography or closely related disciplines at NBS/NIST. It is not intended to be a complete list, but rather to provide an overview via the participants of the nature and diversity of crystallographic research at NBS/NIST. For each scientist, the list includes the name, the years of service and major research interests.

Andrew J. Allen (1991-present) Small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering, microstructure characterization, porous and nanocrystalline ceramics, thermal barrier coatings, cement systems, ceramic powders and suspensions.

John D. Barnes (1963-present) Polymer crystallization, quasielastic neutron scattering, lattice dynamics, molecular transport in polymers, small-angle scattering.

Alec J. Belsky (1999-present) Inorganic crystal data, data analysis, crystallographic software development.

Leonid A. Bendersky (1983-present) Electron microscopy, phase transformations, crystal structure.

Talapady N. Bhat (1999-present) Bioinformatics, Protein Data Bank, macro-molecular structures, software development, database.

David R. Black (1978-present) X-ray diffraction topography, synchrotron radiation instrumentation, x-ray optics, materials microstructure characterization.

Stanley Block (1954-1990) Diamond cell, ruby technique, x-ray diffraction at high pressures of single crystals, powders, polymers, RDF's, and IR spectroscopy.

Leonard H. Bolz (1948-1988) X-ray diffraction, free radical research.

Julie A. Borchers (1989-present) Neutron diffraction and reflectivity, magnetic thin films and multilayers.

Carroll S. Brickenkamp (1971-2001) Crystal structures using single crystal x-ray and neutron diffraction, NIST program planning, U.S. legal metrology, NIST calibration and other measurement services, measurement laboratory accreditation.

William S. Brower (1956-1980) Ceramic and crystal synthesis in energy related materials; crystal growth via melt, Czochralski, Bridgman, Verneuil techniques.

Walter E. Brown (1962-1993) Chemical physics, crystallography, calcium phosphate chemistry, thermodynamics.

Harold E. Burdette (1969-present) Synchrotron radiation instrumentation, x-ray topography, x-ray and real time imaging, crystal growth.

Gordon Burley (1954-1966) Silver iodide, rain making, crystallography.

Benjamin P. Burton (1983-present) First principle calculations, phase equilibria, crystal chemistry.

John W. Cahn (1977-present) Solid-state phase transformations, including ordering, crystal shapes, internal interfaces, surface anisotropy, rapid crystallization, and quasicrystals.

Chang S. Choi (1970-1995) Neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, energetic material structures, residual stress, texture.

Laurence C. Chow (1969-present) Calcium phosphates, solution chemistry, biomincralization, calcium phosphate biomaterials, dental caries.

James P. Cline (1986-present) X-ray powder diffraction, standard reference materials, instrumentation.

Sam R. Coriell (1961-present) Theory of crystal growth and alloy solidification, morphological and hydrodynamic instabilities.

Johan deGroot (1957-1979) Inorganic compound syntheses, standard powder diffraction patterns.

Richard D. Deslattes (1962-2001) Research in precision metrology, interferometry, and x-ray spectroscopy directed toward the determination of fundamental physical constants and masses of elementary particles, and toward testing basic theories.

Brian Dickens (1966-present) Groups land II (particularly calcium) phosphates and carbonates, their hydrates, and related compounds, hydrogen bonding, water in crystal structures, epitaxy, low temperatures, impurities/mixed populations in crystalline sites, computer programming.

Ross W. Erwin (1985-present) Structure and dynamics of nanoscale magnetic structures, relaxor ferroelectrics.

Eloise Evans (1958-1989) High quality reference powder diffraction patterns.

Edward N. Farabaugh (1960-present) X-ray diffraction topography, powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, crystal growth, diamond growth, phase equilibria.

Daniel A. Fischer (1991-present) Soft x-ray absorption speetroscopy, novel x-ray detectors, x-ray optics.

D. Travis Gallagher (1990-present) Protein and DNA crystallography, protein science, diffraction phase determination, macromolecular crystal growth,

Frank W. Gayle (1988-present) Physical metallurgy, electron microscopy, crystallography, aerospace alloys, and materials for microelectronics.

Gary L. Gilliland (1986-present) Protein crystallography, protein engineering, structural biology, structural biology databases (Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and Protein Data Bank).

Charles J. Glinka (1975-present) Small-angle neutron scattering, mesoporous materials, neutron optics and scattering instrumentation.

Thomas A. Hahn (1963-1981) Thermal expansion standards and reference data.

Qingzhen Huang (1990-present) X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, crystal structure, magnetic properties, Rietveld refinement.

Camden R. Hubbard (1971-1988) Single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction methods, software, standard reference materials, and reference patterns collection and evaluation.

Herbert Insley (1923-1953) Petrographic microscope, devitrification, composition of cement clinker, powder x-ray diffraction, initiated course in petrographic microscopy.

Debra L. Kaiser (1988-present) Single crystal growth, x-ray diffraction, high temperature superconductors.

Vicky L. Karen (1978-present) Crystallographic databases, latticetheory, converse- transformation analysis, symmetry, x-ray and neutron diffraction, crystal structure determination, algorithm design.

Ernest C. Kessler, Jr. (1969-present) X-ray diffraction, precision x-ray wavelengths, x-ray wavelength database, crystal lattice parameter measurements.

Masao Kuriyama (1967-1990) Synchrotron radiation, x rays, dynamical diffraction, topography, inelastic scattering, real time imaging.

Jane E. Ladner (1992-present) Protein crystallography, structural biology, biological macromolecule crystallization database.

Ernest M. Levin (1945-1974) Phase equilibria, x-ray powder diffraction, phase diagrams for ceramists.

Igor Levin (1997-present) Crystal structures, phase transitions, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray and neutron powder diffraction.

Lyle E. Levine (1995-present) Ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering imaging, diffraction and small-angle-scattering from dislocations, fundamental theory of deformation, statistical physics.

David R. Lide (1954-present) Molecular spectroscopy, standard reference data and data evaluation methodology, development of electronic databases in crystallography, chemistry and physics.

Gabrielle G. Long (1980-present) X-ray and neutron scattering, x-ray optics, synchrotron radiation instrumentation, materials microstructure characterization.

Jeffrey W. Lynn (1976-present) Neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering phase transitions and critical phenomena.

Charles F. Majkrzak (1987-present) Neutron reflectometry studies of the chemical and magnetic nanostructures of thin films and multilayer materials.

Mathai Mathew (1975-present) Crystal chemistry of calcium phosphates, biomineralization, single crystal structural studies.

Floyd A. Mauer (1948-1989) Instrumentation for studies of the effects of temperature and pressure on the physical properties of solids.

Howard F. McMurdie (1928-present) Phase equilibria, x-ray diffraction, high temperature x-ray diffraction, phase diagrams for ceramists.

Alan D. Mighell (1964-present) Lattice analysis, symmetry determination, identification, structure determination, powder indexing, crystallographic databases.

Rose Mooney (1953-1956) Single crystal structure determination, phosphate structure analysis, initiated single crystal work at NBS.

Marlene Morris (1955-1986) High quality reference powder diffraction patterns, powder indexing.

Bernard Mozer (1968-1991) Neutron scattering, small-angle neutron-scattering, structure of quasicrystals, RDFs.

Ronald G. Munro (1976-present) Theory, high pressure RDFs, molecular dynamics, materials property relations, data evaluation methodology.

Mary M. Mrose (1983-1999) Phosphate minerals, powder diffraction, crystal data evaluation, single crystal diffraction.

Taki Negas (1968-1983) Electronic ceramics, high temperature defect chemistry, x-ray powder and single crystal diffraction, crystal structure and chemistry, analytical SEM/EDX, microstructure, phase diagrams.

Helen M. Ondik (1958-present) Phosphate crystal structures, Crystal Data compilation, data compilation of materials of construction for coal gasification plants, Phase Diagram data compilation, and database design.

Fred Ordway (1949-1964) Structural disorder, computer modeling, instrumentation, water structure.

Boris Paretzkin (1961-1994) X-ray powder diffraction, reference powder diffraction patterns.

Harry S. Parker (1951-1988) Crystal growth of ceramic materials from vapor and fluxes and synthesis of complex oxides, halides and chalcogenides.

H. Steffen Peiser (1957-present) Crystal growth, symmetry, and characterization for free-radical research, relative atomic mass values, and the fundamental constants.

Alvin Perloff (1951-1984) Single crystal x-ray analysis, phosphate and borate structure determination.

Gasper J. Piermarini (1957-present) Diamond anvil cell, ruby technique, high pressure x-ray diffraction of single crystals, powders, polymers, RDFs and IR spectroscopy at high pressures.

Aaron S. Posner (1950-1961) X-ray diffraction and IR absorption studies of the structure of calcium phosphates, bone and tooth mineral and collagen and related synthetic polymers, single crystal structure analysis, powder diffracsometry and low angle x-ray scattering studies.

Henry J. Prask (1970-present) Neutron diffraction, energetic materials, residual stress, texture, coatings.

Edward Prince (1966-present) Neutron diffraction instrumentation, Rietveld method, maximum entropy, statistical methods.

Nikos P. Pyrros (1981-1983) Single crystal analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, software development, reference powder diffraction patterns.

Curt W. Reimann (1962-present) Structural and spectroscopic properties of transition metal complexes involving a variety of co-ordinate and hydrogen bonding arrangements creating unique environments.

Carl R. Robbins (1956-1986) Inorganic structural chemistry (e.g., oxides, silicates, germanates, aluminates), x-ray powder diffraction, single crystal, phase equilibria.

Robert S. Roth (1951-present) Phase equilibria of oxide ceramics, crystal chemistry, crystal structure analyses, x-ray powder diffraction, single crystal growth, single crystal structure analyses, neutron diffraction, electron diffraction, HREM lattice images.

John Rumble, Jr. (1980-present) Standard Reference Data, materials, chemistry and physics databases; crystallographic databases.

Antonio Santoro (1964-present) X-ray and neutron diffraction, crystal structure determination, lattice geometry, bond valence analysis.

Charles Saylor (1931-1968) Chemical microscopy relating to the formation of crystalline phases, crystalline rubber, optical properties of crystals.

LeRoy W. Schroeder (1969-1977) X-ray, Raman, and neutron scattering, hydrogen bonding, molecular motion in crystals, interlayered structures, 2-D (surface) atom pair distributions.

Richard D. Spal (1969-present) Dynamical x-ray diffraction, x-ray optics, x-ray microradiography, x-ray microtomography, materials microstructure characterization, high temperature superconductor composite tape.

Judith K. Stalick (1975-present) Neutron powder diffraction, Rietveld method, quantitative phase determination, partial disorder in intermetallic structures.

Paul Stutzman (1987-present) Cement clinker, cement hydration products, concrete durability, compositional analysis, microstructure, Portland cement, x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy.

Howard E. Swanson (1945-1974) High quality reference powder diffraction patterns, internal standards.

Shozo Takagi (1978-present) Calcium phosphate biomaterials, prevention of dental caries, quantitative digitized microradiography, single crystal and powder x-ray crystallography.

Robb Thomson (1971-present) Fundamental theory of fracture and deformation.

Brian H. Toby (1994-present) Powder diffraction crystallography, zeolitic materials, neutron diffraction, crystallographic software, local structure via PDF measurements.

John Torgesen (1948-1972) Growth and purification of large single crystals from aqueous solutions under extreme control of temperature and temperature gradients, measurement of impurity retention and resulting crystal habit modifications.

Samuel F. Trevino (1970-present) Neutron diffraction, small angle scattering and inelastic scattering, polymers, bio-materials, nano-particles, porous materials, quantum tunneling.

Shirley Turner (1986-present) Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, manganese oxide minerals, asbestos.

Terrell Vanderah (1993-present) Phase equilibria, crystal chemistry, structure-property relationships, x-ray powder data.

Mark D. Vaudin (1986-present) Crystallographic texture analysis, x-ray diffraction, high temperature x-ray diffraction, electron backscattering diffraction.

Jennifer R. Verkouteren (1988-present) Micro XRD, electron backscattering diffraction, asbestos analysis by XRD.

Charles E. Weir (1943-1970) High pressure, diamond anvil cell, x-ray diffraction of single crystals and powders, high pressure instrumentation, polymers and IR spectroscopy at high pressure.

Alexander Wlodawer (1976-1987) Protein crystallography, neutron diffraction, synchrotron radiation, enzyme structure, AIDS drug design.

Joseph C. Woicik (1989-present) X-ray scattering, x-ray absorption, x-ray photoelectron emission, electronic and geometric structure of surfaces and interfaces.

Winnie Wong-Ng (1983-present) Crystal structure determination, crystal chemistry, phase equilibria, x-ray powder reference patterns, molecular orbital calculations, high temperature superconductors.

Marcello Zocchi (1964-1967) X-ray and neutron single crystal analysis, crystallographic computing, simultaneous diffraction.
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Title Annotation:National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology
Publication:Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2001
Previous Article:Crystallography at NBS/NIST. (Preface).
Next Article:High pressure x-ray crystallography with the diamond cell at NIST/NBS.

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