Printer Friendly

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among health care workers, Turkey.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) has been described from Africa, Asia, southeastern Europe, and the Middle East (1). The CCHF virus (CCHFV) belongs to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus, and causes severe disease in humans; the reported case-fatality rate is 3%-30% (1). Humans become infected through the bites of ticks, contact with infected patients' body fluids, or contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock. Health care workers (HCWs) are at occupational risk for CCHFV infection. Health care-related CCHFV infections have been reported in Pakistan (2-5), the United Arab Emirates (6), South Africa (7), Iran (8), India (9), Tajikistan (10), and Turkey (11). We describe the outcomes of 9 HCWs in Turkey who had occupational exposure to CCHFV.

The Cases

The 9 HCWs and all CCHF patients under their care were admitted to the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology clinic (IDCM) of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) during 2004-2011 with confirmed CCHF. All 9 HCWs were aware of possible or confirmed CCHFV infection in their patients. During this period, [approximately equal to] 7,000 confirmed CCHF cases were recorded in Turkey; nearly 300 of these patients were hospitalized in IDCM. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from the index patients were sent to the national reference laboratory of Turkey. CCHFV infection was confirmed through IgM positivity by ELISA and/or positive PCR results for CCHFV in blood. After episode 1, the HCWs' serum samples were sent to the Pasteur Institute (Lyon, France) for contact tracing. The HCWs' infections were scored according to a severity score index (12). In episode 3, to investigate the source of infection, molecular techniques were used. Oral ribavirin for treatment was administered at the dosage recommended by the World Health Organization (4 g/d for 4 d, 2.4 g/d for 6 d), and for prophylaxis (2g/4x/d for 7 d). The index patients and the HCWs were given erythrocyte, fresh frozen plasma, and total blood preparations depending on their homeostasis.

Episode 1

In 2005, CCHFV infection was diagnosed in a woman on the day of delivery by cesarean section. She was transferred to IDCM, and her baby was transferred to the newborn service at the Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital (Ankara, Turkey). A nurse in IDCM, who had fever and myalgia, was later found to have CCHFV infection (Table 1). Transmission was related to the improper use of gloves during the care of the mother's surgical wound. The mother recovered, but the infant died 5 days after birth. A nurse in the neonatal clinic in the children's hospital also acquired CCHFV infection, which was attributed to the intubation and aspiration of bloody secretions from the baby without proper use of gloves and mask. For both HCWs, the incubation period was 2 days. The first HCW was given ribavirin at symptom onset. The second nurse's illness was mild; because she had a potential for getting pregnant, ribavirin was not started. Both nurses recovered completely (Table 2).

After this episode, the index patient's contacts were traced. Serum samples from 37 HCWs at IDCM and the obstetrics and newborn clinics at the children's hospital who were at risk for infection were investigated for CCHF. In addition to the 2 nurses, 2 nurses from the neonatal clinic were CCHF IgM positive but were asymptomatic.

Episode 2

In 2006, a nurse received a needlestick injury during a phlebotomy of a CCHFV-infected patient. She was using gloves but no gown, and the needle stuck to her forearm. The infected patient died. The nurse's symptoms began 2 days after the incident, and she was transferred to IDCM 4 days after the incident. At admission, her severity score index was high. She had ecchymosis, epistaxis, hematemesis, melena, vaginal bleeding, and somnolence (Table 1). She received oral ribavirin 5 days after the incident, which possibly had limited effect because her illness already had progressed to confusion and gastrointestinal bleeding. She died on the second day after hospital admission.

Episode 3

In 2008, a patient with CCHFV infection and a high viral load ([10.sup.8] copies/mL) was hospitalized with hemoptysis, hematemesis, melena, epistaxis, and intraalveolar bleeding. He died 3 days after admission. One infectious diseases resident and 2 otorhinolaryngology residents acquired CCHFV infection. All HCWs had worn personal protective equipment during the intervention. One otorhinolaryngology resident performed nasal tamponade. After the intervention, the other otorhinolaryngology resident handled and cleaned a head mirror without using gloves, although he was not in face-to-face contact with the patient. The infectious diseases resident resuscitated the patient without apparent direct contact with the patient's bloody secretions. For the 3 residents, fever, malaise, and myalgia developed 2-5 days after exposure. Ribavirin was started at symptom onset. No contact was observed between the patient and the HCWs, but the RNA sequences from the patients and HCWs were identical by molecular techniques. All of the HCWs recovered.

The transmission of CCHFV could have resulted from indirect contact with contaminated devices, such as the head mirror; the improper removal of gowns, masks, gloves; inadequate hand hygiene; or failure to use N95 masks during aerosolizing procedures. During the procedures that could generate aerosols, HCWs should wear an N95 mask or FFP2 respirator (13). The patients with higher viral load were reported to be more severe disease (14).

Episode 4

In 2008, a phlebotomist working in a children's hospital had a needlestick injury during phlebotomy of a CCHFV-infected child. He was hospitalized 1 day after symptom onset, and ribavirin was started. His severity score index was moderate, and he recovered.

Episodes 5 and 6

A nurse in 2007 and a pediatric resident in 2008 incurred needlestick injuries during phlebotomy of a CCHFV-infected patient. Postexposure prophylaxis with ribavirin was started immediately after the injuries, and no infections developed.

Conclusions

Six of the 9 CCHF-infected HCWs reported here had histories of needlestick injuries or contact with contaminated blood without adequate barrier precautions. An integrated strategy for controlling accidental exposure to body fluids was developed to protect HCWs against CCHFV infection. All personnel, including cleaning staff in health care units on all shifts were informed and trained about the transmission risks, protection, and clinical symptoms of CCHF (13). The standard, contact, and droplet precautions were usually sufficient to protect against CCHFV infection during the routine care of CCHF patients. In addition to the practices of previous years, the airborne infection isolation precautions during aerosol-generating procedures were performed. The number of HCWs caring for patients with severe CCHF was limited. After all of these measures were enforced, occupational CCHFV infection did not occur in IDCM.

Ribavirin is an effective treatment for CCHFV infection (12) and beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis (13,15). Therapy should be started as early as possible. In the 2 HCWs reported here who received ribavirin for postexposure prophylaxis, no symptoms developed; similar reports will be useful for increasing the power of this conclusion. We used a ribavirin dosage of 2g/day, but no consensus exists about the dosage for postexposure prophylaxis.

DOI:http://doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131353

References

(1.) Ergonul O. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: new outbreaks, new discoveries. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:215-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2012.03.001

(2.) Athar MN, Khalid MA, Ahmad AM, Bashir N, Baqai HZ, Ahmad M, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, February 2002: contact tracing and risk assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:471-3.

(3.) Altaf A, Luby S, Ahmed AJ, Zaidi N, Khan AJ, Mirza S, et al. Outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Quetta, Pakistan: contact tracing and risk assessment. Trop Med Int Health. 1998;3:878-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3156.1998.00318.x

(4.) Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB, Swanepoel R, Van Middlekoop A, Harvey S, Kustner HG. Risk of human infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a South African rural community. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;47:33 7-45.

(5.) Burney MI, Ghafoor A, Saleen M, Webb PA, Casals J. Nosocomial outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean hemorrhagic fever-Congo virus in Pakistan, January 1976. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980;29:941-7.

(6.) Suleiman MN, Muscat-Baron JM, Harries JR, Satti AG, Platt GS, Bowen ET, et al. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Dubai. An outbreak at the Rashid Hospital. Lancet. 1980;2:939-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(80)92103-0

(7.) van de Wal BW, Joubert JR, van Eeden PJ, King JB. A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever at Tygerberg Hospital. Part IV. Preventive and prophylactic measures. S Afr Med J. 1985;68:729-32.

(8.) Mardani M, Rahnavardi M, Rajaeinejad M, Naini KH, Chinikar S, Pourmalek F, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among health care workers in Iran: a seroprevalence study in two endemic regions. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:443-5.

(9.) Mishra AC, Mehta M, Mourya DT, Gandhi S. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in India. Lancet. 2011;378:372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60680-6

(10.) Tishkova FH, Belobrova EA, Valikhodzhaeva M, Atkinson B, Hewson R, Mullojonova M. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Tajikistan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:722-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0769

(11.) Tutuncu EE, Gurbuz Y, Ozturk B, Kuscu F, Sencan I. Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, precautions and ribavirin prophylaxis: a case report. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:378-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365540902882434

(12.) Dokuzoguz B, Celikbas A, Eren S, Baykam N, Eroglu MN, Ergonul O. Severity scoring index for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection and the impact of ribavirin and corticoste roids on fatality. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1270-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit527

(13.) Tarantola A, Ergonul O, Tattevin P. Estimates and prevention of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever risks for health care workers. In: Ergonul O, Whitehouse CA, editors. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective. Dordrecht (the Netherlands): Springer; 2007. p. 281-94.

(14.) Duh D, Saksida A, Petrovec M, Ahmeti S, Dedushaj I, Panning M, et al. Viral load as predictor of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outcome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1769-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1311.070222

(15.) Ergonul O. Treatment of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Res. 2008;78:125-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.11.002

Dr Celikbas is an infectious disease and clinical microbiology specialist at the Ankara Numune Training and Education Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Her primary research interests include emerging infections and brucellosis.

Author affiliations: Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey (A.K. Celikbas, B. Dokuzoguz, N. Baykam, S.E. Gok, M.N. Eroglu); Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey (K. Midilli); Institut Pasteur, Lyon, France (H. Zeller); Koc University, Istanbul (O. Ergonul)

Address for correspondence: Onder Ergonul, Koc University, School of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Department, Istanbul, Turkey; email: oergonul@ku.edu.tr
Table 1. Clinical and laboratory findings of HCWs in whom
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever developed after occupational
exposure, Turkey, 2004-2011 *([dagger])

 Body
 temperature, Leukocytes/
HCW, outcome [degrees]C Bleeding [mm.sup.3]

1, survived 38.5 No 800
2, survived 37.2 No 1100
3, died 40.5 Ecchymosis, 11,100
 hematemesis,
 melena,
 hematuria
4, survived 40.5 No 2,900
5, survived 39 Epistaxis 1,800
6, survived 40.5 No 1,800
7, survived 39.1 No 3,100

 Platelets/
HCW, outcome [mm.sup.3] AST ALT

1, survived 42,000 425 346
2, survived 53,000 145 81
3, died 40,000 251 277
4, survived 78,000 150 110
5, survived 58,000 167 129
6, survived 44,000 123 216
7, survived 13,000 418 132

HCW, outcome APTT Fibrinogen SSI

1, survived 44 225 Moderate
2, survived 43 270 Mild
3, died 90 171 Severe
4, survived 37.4 250 Mild
5, survived 64 218 Moderate
6, survived 40.5 165 Moderate
7, survived 40.9 170 Moderate

* HCW, health care worker; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT,
alanine aminotransferase; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin
time; SSI, severity score index.

([dagger]) Reference values: leukocytes, 4,000-11,000/[mm.sup.3];
platelets, 150,000-450,000/[mm.sup.3]; AST, <50 IU/L; ALT, <50
IU/L; APTT, 24-36 sec; fibrinogen, 200-400 mg/dL.

Table 2. Demographic features of HCWs with occupational exposure
to Crimean-Conger hemorrhagic fever virus, Turkey, 2004-2011 *

Episode, HCW age,
outcome ([dagger]) y/sex/profession Procedure

Episode 1; 36/M/nurse Wound care
survived, her
baby died 31/F/nurse Intubation,
 aspiration

Episode 2; died 28/F/nurse Phlebotomy

Episode 3; died 41/M/physician Resuscitation
 26/M/physician Nasal tamponade
 29/M/physician Nasal tamponade

Episode 4; 30/M/nurse Phlebotomy
survived

Episode 5; 30/F/nurse Phlebotomy
survived

Episode 6; 24/F/physician Phlebotomy
survived

 Ribavirin for
Episode, postexposure
outcome ([dagger]) Transmission route prophylaxis

Episode 1; Contact with No
survived, her surgical wound
baby died without protective
 equipment
 Aerosol and droplet No
 and contact without
 protective
 equipment

Episode 2; died Needlestick No

Episode 3; died Aerosol and droplet -
 Indirect contact -
 Indirect contact -

Episode 4; Needlestick No
survived

Episode 5; Needlestick Yes
survived

Episode 6; Needlestick Yes
survived

Episode, Ribavirin for therapy
outcome ([dagger]) (d after symptom onset) Fatal

Episode 1; Yes (0) No
survived, her
baby died No No

Episode 2; died Yes (3) Yes

Episode 3; died Yes (0) No
 Yes (0) No
 Yes (0) No

Episode 4; Yes (1) No
survived

Episode 5; - No
survived

Episode 6; - No
survived

* HCW, health care worker; -, ribavirin not necessary.

([dagger]) Outcome for the index case-patient in each episode.
COPYRIGHT 2014 U.S. National Center for Infectious Diseases
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:DISPATCHES
Author:Celikbas, Aysel Kocagul; Dokuzoguz, Basak; Baykam, Nurcam; Gok, Sebnem Eren; Eroglu, Mustafa Necati;
Publication:Emerging Infectious Diseases
Article Type:Author abstract
Geographic Code:6ZAIR
Date:Mar 1, 2014
Words:2244
Previous Article:Infective endocarditis in northeastern Thailand.
Next Article:Influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 virus infection in giant pandas, China.
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2017 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters