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Creativity Research in Education from 2005-2015: A Systematic Review and Synthesis.

Much attention surrounds the importance of teaching 21st century skills in schools (Zhao, 2009). Education is focused on developing these skills and competencies in order to produce a global workforce for the 21st century and retain the United States' position as a dominant country in the world. The focus on 21st century skills is rooted in the belief that students lack the most relevant, in-demand, and globally applicable skills. Workers in the 21st century will need different skills than those learned by students in the 20th century, and those skills must meet the specific demands necessitated by a complex, knowledge-based, information-driven economy and society (Great Schools Partnerships, 2014). Creativity is increasingly recognized as a critical component of education (Arraya, 2010; Florida, 2004; Newton & Newton, 2014; Shaheen, 2010; Zhao, 2012) and educational research is increasingly focused on defining, quantifying, and creating methods for teaching creativity (Caldwell & Vaughan, 2012; Carlile & Jordan, 2012; Harris, 2014). The workforce demands employees who can think creatively in order to support business's ability to survive and thrive in the turbulent modern economies. If creativity is such an important stake in the economic future of the world, then how are cultivating it in our schools and students? To understand what creativity is and how to encourage it in students, we must understand how we as researchers are engaging in the study of creativity in schools.

There are a number of baseline conceptions of creativity that research generally supports. For instance, the research community generally believes that cultivating creativity spans the intersection of students' personalities, their natural creative instincts, the classroom environment, and the teacher (Carlile & Jordan, 2012; Newton & Newton, 2014; Sawyer, 2012). Another conception of creativity is the notion that creative production requires a certain amount of base knowledge in a given subject, but also requires time and space for divergent thinking, revision and reflection (Carlile & Jordan, 2012; Sawyer, 2012). According to Sawyer (2012), creativity is "an incremental step beyond what has come before" (p. 421). Such "incremental steps" require divergent thinking (among other skills). Divergent thought takes a student beyond the first idea that comes to mind and allow the genesis of a multitude of ideas; those multiple ideas are then analyzed for their appropriateness and narrowed down from many to, perhaps, just one. However, deep knowledge of the subject is also important--creativity demands not only divergent thinking (multiple ideas) and convergent thinking (one idea), but also requires critical thinking, or the process of distilling information into one preferred solution. While we can create conditions that are fertile for creative thinking and behaviors--creativity cannot be produced on demand. The conception of creativity that we adopt in the current study is Plucker, Beghetto, and Dow's (2004) definition: "creativity is the interaction among aptitude, process, and environment by which an individual or group produces a perceptible product that is both novel and useful as defined within a social context" (p. 90). Product in this sense can be a physical product (such as a paper, science experiment, or artistic performance) or an intangible one (such as an idea, a new way to solve a problem, or a unique perspective on a concept).

Education represents an important area of creativity research (Runco, 2007), and creativity research is a particular area that stands to benefit substantially from field-based research approaches. Field-based research approaches allow the study of creativity within natural contexts and with diverse populations of students (Javorsky et al., 2000). As with many other educational domains, the study of creativity resides within the context of education and is influenced by its social trends, beliefs, and norms (Shavelson & Towne, 2000). School-based research approaches allow the examination of the foci of creativity within a natural context and with diverse populations of students (Javorsky et al., 2000). If we truly want to understand creativity in the educational setting in order to affect later outcomes in the workforce post-schooling, then there needs to be a clear picture of how we are engaging in the research of creativity. Is it possible that our research practices are undermining our understanding of the phenomenon? Do we need to change how and where we are collecting data, or are we on the correct path?

PURPOSE

The purpose of this research synthesis is to crystallize a picture of current practice in creativity research and the implications of these practices. The following questions guided the current study: (1) How much creativity research in the educational domain is being conducted in schools, relative to research being conducted outside schools? (2) What range of topics and questions are being investigated in school-based creativity research? (3) What research designs and methods are being used in school-based research? (4) What is the level of involvement of practitioners in school-based creativity research? and (5) What questions suited to school-based creativity research remain unanswered and warrant further investigation?

METHOD

Data Sources

Our source for data on field-based creativity research spanned five leading psychology journals that publish creativity research. Creativity Research Journal and Journal of Creative Behavior are the two oldest creativity journals, have published the most studies of creativity, and are the most highly cited journals in the field (Long, Plucker, Yu, Ding, & Kaufman, 2014). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts and Thinking Skills and Creativity both began publishing in 2006; although these two journals are relative newcomers, their impact continues to increase. The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, originally founded in 1991 as The Korean Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, has been publishing under its current title since 2009.

The five journals differ in scope. Creativity Research Journal covers a range of approaches to the study of creativity including behavioral, clinical, cognitive, cross-cultural, developmental, educational, genetic, organizational, psychoanalytic, psychometrics, and social approaches. The journal includes interdisciplinary research, research within specific domains such as art or science, and research on critical issues such as aesthetics, imagery, imagination, incubation, insight, problem finding and solving. Journal of Creative Behavior publishes the innovative research, theory, and applications of creativity. The journal's content covers a diverse range of approaches, settings, and contexts. Thinking Skills and Creativity provides a forum for communication and debate for researchers interested in teaching for thinking and fostering creativity. Content includes a variety of theoretical perspectives, methodological approaches, and settings. The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving publishes original empirical and theoretical work on human higher-order cognition, with a particular emphasis on creativity. The journal focuses on empirical research but also considers reviews that analyze, evaluate, or synthesize existing literature. Diverse topic areas include critical thinking, problem solving, decision-making, and other facets of creativity. The journal emphasizes studies in psychology, education, and business. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts promotes research on the psychology of the production and appreciation of the arts and all aspects of creativity. The journal includes original empirical research and papers that synthesize and evaluate extant research that relates to the psychology of aesthetics, creativity, and the arts. Unlike the other journal in the current study, however, PACA discourages qualitative research, essays, and reviews.

Search Terms

We limited our search of the five journals to studies conducted in the United States and internationally, published between January 2005 to July 2015. The time span was chosen to capture recent advances in research methods and methodologies. All searches were performed against the article titles and abstracts. Our literature search concluded in July 2015.

The process of compiling a list of search terms involved four steps. First, we drew upon an informal review of relevant literature to formulate a list of terms describing concepts related to teaching and classroom settings. Those search terms included classroom, student, teacher, classroom, school, creativity, and research. Second, we devised a central list of combined terms. Terms on the central list were selected and combined in order to align the search with our research questions. Third, we performed an initial search by visually inspecting the article abstract of each article published between January 2005 and July 2015 for mention of the individual search terms students, teacher, classroom, and school. Fourth, we performed a confirmatory electronic search of each journal's index for each combined search term. Table 1 lists the combined search terms and number of articles initially found in each journal.

Inclusion Criteria

A number of inclusion criteria were used to narrow the list of 452 articles located in the preliminary literature search. Table 2 summarizes those inclusion criteria. First, only empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) were included; other types of studies such as meta-analyses, literature reviews, and theoretical discussions were excluded. Second, we included only studies that presented field-based creativity research findings. We operationalized "field-based creativity research" in three ways: (1) creativity research carried out within a public or private K-12 classroom, (2) creativity research involving in-service or teacher-intern observations, and (3) creativity research involving pre-service and offsite data collection if and only if the research purpose was classroom-focused. Third, we included studies with research focused on areas that included learning environment, creative skills, ideation, student perceptions of creativity, creative curricula, creativity assessment, and socioemotional factors related to creativity. One hundred eighty-eight articles (Table 1) met our inclusion criteria and were retained for review.

Quality of the Studies

To further narrow the selection of articles, we excluded articles that failed to meet a minimum quality standard. Each article was evaluated using a quality rubric consisting of 10 quality dimensions (Table 3). Each dimension was judged on a 4-point scale where 0 = "unacceptable," 1 = "poor quality," 2 = "good quality," and 3 = "high quality." Two experienced raters carried out scoring of the articles independently, resulting in a 95% interrater agreement. The 2 raters then conferred to resolve discrepancies resulting in a 100% interrater agreement. A total score for each article was calculated by summing the article's criterion scores over the 10 dimensions. Total scores ranged from 0 to 30. We excluded articles with a total quality score less than 10. The threshold score of 10 eliminated only "poor" and "unacceptable" studies. Our quality assessment eliminated 138 articles; after the quality assessment, our final data corpus consisted of 49 articles.

Data Analysis

Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, a qualitative analytic method for "identifying, analyzing, and reporting patterns (themes) within data" (Braun & Clarke, 2006, p. 79). A thematic analysis proceeds through six phases. The first phase involves becoming familiar with the data; in the current study, familiarity with the data was accomplished during the selection process and quality assessment. The second phase entails generating initial codes, which in our study was accomplished in the data extraction process. The next three phases involve searching for themes, reviewing themes, and defining themes. Finally, the process culminates in a rich description of the themes. To generate the initial codes, we developed a protocol to extract key data items from the 49 articles. Extracted variables included the study purpose, study relationship to our research goals, research context (geographic region and specific setting where the research was conducted), description of participants, study design, data collection method, evidence of validity and reliability, and key findings. A brief summary of extracted data is presented in Table 4. A theme "captures something important about the data in relation to the research questions and represents some level of patterned response or meaning within the data set" (Braun & Clarke, 2006, p. 82). The principal author selected themes independently.

FINDINGS

The findings of this research synthesis paint a broad picture of what aims and purposes were represented in creativity research from 2005-2015, where the research took place, and how the research was conducted. Our analysis revealed trends overall and within research conducted in elementary, middle, and high schools.

What: Research Aims

Overall, the research aims ran from multifaceted investigations of creativity in elementary schools to a more narrow concentration on cognitive processes and specific interventions in high schools. Research in elementary schools examined different types of creativity through teachers' and students' perspectives, and looked at the effects of environment, pedagogy, and cognitive processes on creativity. Studies in elementary schools reflected attempts to achieve a fuller grasp of creativity through multiple lenses, including those of teacher, student, and environment. Researchers asked what teachers thought about creativity and how they taught to engage it; they also asked students what creativity was, what creative teachers were like, what creative students "looked like in school, and how the school and classroom environments influenced creativity.

Middle school research narrowed focus by concentrating on specific interventions and pedagogies for improving or engaging creativity, and by examining interactions between school environment, student personality, cognitive processes and creativity. Most middle school research asked how environmental, personal and cognitive characteristics impacted creative ability in students. Similarly, research conducted in high schools aimed to understand the effects of specific interventions, programs, or pedagogies on students' creativity. High school research also looked at how students' personal characteristics and cognitive processes affected their creative capabilities. Specific methodologies and students' personal attributes were larger research themes. However, the higher the grade level, the less concerned the researcher appeared to be with classroom and school environmental impacts on student creativity, and the less interest in teachers' perceptions of or personal practices in creativity.

Where: Research Contexts

Most research was conducted in grades K-5 (28 studies), followed by grades 6-8 (12 studies) and grades 9-12 (11 studies). Grade 4 was the most researched (11 studies), followed by grade 5 (eight studies). The least research was conducted in grades K (two studies) and 1 (three studies). Thirty-two studies took place in a classroom and seven on school grounds; location was unspecified in ten studies. The most studies were published in 2010 and 2013 (nine and eight studies respectively), followed by 2006 (seven studies), and 2014 and 2009 (five studies each). Table 5 summarizes the number of studies by research context, grade level, and year of publication.

Table 6 summarizes studies by geographic location and grade level. The largest number of research studies were conducted in China or Taiwan (15 studies; 11 in China), followed by the United States (10 studies) and Europe (10 studies). Overall there was a balance between Eastern and Western perspectives, with 20 studies from countries of eastern origin and 21 from those in the west. The majority of studies from China were in elementary schools, with no studies from China in middle school and only one in high school. The United States conducted four studies in grades K-5 and 6-8 and only two studies in grades 9-12. European countries conducted seven studies in grades K-5, but only two studies in both grades 6-8 and 9-12. Reported research was heavily skewed towards grades K-5, with both eastern and western countries largely distributed in grades K-5 and 6-8. With two studies in grades 9-12 from eastern countries and four from western, the research reported in high school from 2005-2015 may be more reflective of western culture.

How: Research Design

Quantitative research designs were by far the majority of studies, with thirty-three quantitative research studies, thirteen qualitative, and three mixed-methods (Table 7). We examined the research designs used in the quantitative studies and found that of the quantitative studies and mixed methods studies, only one study used an experimental design. Seven studies used quasi-experimental designs, 25 used correlational designs, and one study used a descriptive design. We also looked at the research methods used in the qualitative studies; three studies used grounded theory, one used an ethnographic approach, one used discourse analysis, and one used framing methodology. The other six studies used generic qualitative methods or approaches including inductive or open coding (3), case study (2), and deductive coding (1).

Grade divisions retained a quantitative design dominance with eighteen studies in grades K-5, nine in grades 6-8, and seven in grades 9-12. Data collection methods reflected a quantitative design as well with testing as the majority data collection method in 23 studies, closely followed by self-reports or surveys and interviews (22 studies). Observations were used in seven studies with intervention and creative products in six studies. When viewed by grade divisions, the dominance of testing as a data collection method is more noticeable with 13 studies in grades K-5, seven studies in grades 6-8, and 5 studies in grades 9-12. Of note is that observation was heavily relied upon in grades K-5 (seven studies) but only in two studies in grades 6-8, and none in grades 9-12. Interviews were a data source in all grade divisions, and creative products were used in grades 6-8 (four studies), once in grades 9-12 and not at all in grades K-5.

Gaps and Limitations

The effects of teacher characteristics and learning environments were missing from research conducted in upper grades. Further, elementary grades were represented in a broad range of global contributions of research, but global diversity considerably as grade level increased. Research aims reflected the standardized testing culture in schools; the older the students, the more quantitative and outcome-focused the research aim. Similarly, the research favored quantitative methods.

IMPLICATIONS

Effects of Assessment Driven Education on Creativity Research

The largely quantitative approach to research in creativity may reflect funding opportunities geared towards quantitative results, and researcher preference for the simplicity of using standardized protocols that can be easily administered and analyzed. The long terms effects of NCLB have created school environments that are not amenable to qualitative research, particularly in upper grades. This is reflected in the heavier use of observation in elementary grades but not in middle and high school. Administrators, teachers and curricular demands in upper grades leave little room for experimental interventions or changes in pedagogy with so much riding on annual test results. Therefore, we see more diverse research in elementary grades as it is easier for researchers to access the time to observe, try interventions, and interview students and teachers. This creates a lop-sided research agenda that relies heavily on tests for divergent and creative thinking. Resting our understandings of creativity solely in quantitative studies leaves out the human element of creativity that is best observed through observation, interview, self-reflection and review of creative products (Beghetto, 2009; Beghetto & Kaufman, 2014).

An Incomplete Picture of Creativity in Education

The field of creativity research is missing out a well- rounded understanding of creativity in middle and high school grades as the influence of the teacher and the environment on student creativity disappears from studies in these grades. Research aims are a reflection of a standardized testing culture in schools; the older the student, the more quantitative and outcome focused the research aim. This different focus in elementary vs. middle vs. high school gives us an incomplete view of creativity and its different incarnations. We don't know how creativity manifestations change from elementary to high school. The focus in middle and high school is on improving use of creativity and student personal creativity which seems to be an extension of standardized practices and pressures in those grades as opposed to an organic understanding of creativity. However, in order to cultivate creative practices in students, support and understanding of the creative process must exist in all levels of schooling.

Effect of Gatekeepers of Published Research

We limited our review to specific journals; however, creativity research is published in other outlets. The decision to search only the five journals and utilize these specific key words limits this study due to excluding other field-based creativity studies published in other journals with subjects outside the predetermined search terms. However, we assumed that researcher, teachers, and laypersons interested in creativity would most likely start with the major journals dedicated to the topic. If these journals are the leaders in the field, then what they decide to publish shapes the narrative and conceptions of creative research. Our findings reflect what the editors decided was of value to share with readers by choosing largely quantitative studies, based in elementary grades, focusing on generating creative results in students.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The goal of school-based education research is to produce credible, relevant evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to facilitate movement of knowledge between the research and education communities. By determining what works, what does not work, and explaining why, school-based research strives to systematically improve educational outcomes for all students, particularly those at risk of failure (U.S. Department of Education, 2013).

Based on our findings, we make the following recommendations for future research. First, future research should examine how creativity manifestations change over time. Second, more research that includes the effects of context in high schools is needed to round out the picture creativity in school settings. Third, more research on teacher influence is needed in middle and upper grades.

In order to meet these recommendations, we further suggest a larger emphasis on the use of creative products that utilize a visual image analysis studies of students' products for data. A more systematized process of creative product evaluations based on research outcomes could help teachers evaluate products more accurately and efficiently. A larger number of qualitative studies, in particular, ethnographic studies based on extended observations of teachers and their students would allow for a richer understanding of creativity in education. Specifically, two studies are needed. The first is a study that focuses on typical teachers, with the goal of describing how they foster and conceive of creativity in their classrooms; the second on teachers who are extremely successful at teaching for creativity (for example, what are they doing that works?). Further, a greater use of single-subject research design (SSRD) studies is also recommended. SSRDs could be used to evaluate the effects of creativity interventions on individual (or small groups of) students. Although results do not generalize, they do have limited transferability and bring attention to creativity interventions with high potential for success. The findings from these studies could then be used as the basis for larger quantitative and mixed-methods studies of creativity in schools.

Creativity does not happen in a vacuum. Creativity research in schools must fully explore all the facets of the classroom that encourage and detract from developing creative habits of mind in students. To accomplish this, a richer understanding of creativity must be explored though qualitative and quantitative studies that take the environment, teacher, subject matter, and student characteristics into account.

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(*) Smith, L. F., & Graham, S. (2009). Children's conceptions of thinking: Developing thinking skills with primary school children. The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, 19(1), 33-52.

(*) Tan, A., & Rasidir, R. (2006). An exploratory study on children's views of a creative teacher. The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, 16(2), 17-28.

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. (2013). Common guidelines for education research and development: A report from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education and the National Science Foundation. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544215.pdf

(*) Vass, E. (2007). Exploring processes of collaborative creativity--The role of emotions in children's joint creative writing. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2, 107-117. doi:10.1016/i.tsc.2007.06.001

(*) Wong, W., Xu, H., Li, Y., & He, W. (2014). What can we know about the creative potentials of teachers and students? What can we hope for in terms of the cultivation of creativity? The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, 24(2), 23-42.

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Zhao, Y. (2012). World class learners: Educating creative and entrepreneurial students. CA: Corwin Press.

(*) Denotes article included in research synthesis.

Amy Willerson and Dianna R. Mullet

University of North Texas, USA

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Amy Willerson, Department of Teacher Education and Administration, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 USA. E-mail: awillerson@yahoo.com.
Table 1
Search Terms and Initial Results

Combined Search Terms        Journal                     Initial
                                                         Results

"classroom research" AND     Creativity Research          27
"creativity"                 Journal
"creativity" AND "research"
"creativity" AND "research"  International Journal of     27
AND "education"
"creativity" AND "research"  Creativity and Problem
AND "classroom"
                             Solving
                             Journal of Creative          17
                             Behavior
                             Journal of Psychology,        7
                             Aesthetics, and Creativity
                             in the Arts (PACA)
                             Thinking Skills and          32
                             Creativity
                             Total                       188

Table 2
Article Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

              Criteria for Inclusion

Participants  K-12 students
Study         Empirical quantitative and/or qualitative
Design        designs

Study         Research conducted in the field
Setting       * Public or private K-12 classrooms
              * In-service teacher observations
              * Teacher-intern observations if
              conducted in acceptable in classroom
              * Pre-service or offsite setting if and only
              if research purpose is classroom-focused
Relevance     Purpose aligns with our research goal

              Criteria for Exclusion

Participants  University and pre-K students
Study         Non-empirical studies (e.g.
Design        monograph, editorial, review,
              meta-analysis)
Study         Exclude studies conducted
Setting       outside K-12 classrooms if
              not classroom focused

              No in-service teacher was
              involved in the research

Relevance     Exclude all others

Table 3
Quality Appraisal Rubric

Criterion                                    Excellent  Good  Poor
                                             (3)        (2)   (1)

Qualitative Studies
  Findings are credible/trustworthy
  Knowledge/understanding been
  extended by this study
  Analysis addresses original
  aims/purpose
  Sampling strategy, sample, data
  collection, and analysis
  approach are clearly described
  Contexts are portrayed with detail
  Diversity of perspective is explored
  Detail, depth, and complexity are
  clearly conveyed
  Clear links between data,
  interpretation and conclusions
  Reporting is clear and coherent
  Theoretical perspectives/values
  that have shaped the form and
  content of the finding are clearly
  articulated
Quantitative Studies
  Sampling strategy clearly articulated
  Participants clearly and completely
  described
  Comparison group (if applicable) is
  appropriately
  matched to the intervention group
  Use of appropriate statistical
  controls
  Intervention (if applicable) clearly
  described
  Independent and dependent variables
  objectively and
  adequately measured (i.e. valid and
  reliable)
  Measures used in the study are the
  most relevant
  measures for answering the research
  questions
  (For longitudinal or survey studies)
  Attrition or response rates reported
  Length of the study and/or sample
  size long/large enough to allow
  changes to be detected (i.e.
  adequate statistical power and
  sensitivity)
  Outcome assessment blind to exposure
  status (i.e. free of bias introduced
  by the researchers measuring the outcome)

Criterion                                    Unacceptable
                                             (0)

Qualitative Studies
  Findings are credible/trustworthy
  Knowledge/understanding been
  extended by this study
  Analysis addresses original
  aims/purpose
  Sampling strategy, sample, data
  collection, and analysis
  approach are clearly described
  Contexts are portrayed with detail
  Diversity of perspective is explored
  Detail, depth, and complexity are
  clearly conveyed
  Clear links between data,
  interpretation and conclusions
  Reporting is clear and coherent
  Theoretical perspectives/values
  that have shaped the form and
  content of the finding are clearly
  articulated
Quantitative Studies
  Sampling strategy clearly articulated
  Participants clearly and completely
  described
  Comparison group (if applicable) is
  appropriately
  matched to the intervention group
  Use of appropriate statistical
  controls
  Intervention (if applicable) clearly
  described
  Independent and dependent variables
  objectively and
  adequately measured (i.e. valid and
  reliable)
  Measures used in the study are the
  most relevant
  measures for answering the research
  questions
  (For longitudinal or survey studies)
  Attrition or response rates reported
  Length of the study and/or sample
  size long/large enough to allow
  changes to be detected (i.e.
  adequate statistical power and
  sensitivity)
  Outcome assessment blind to exposure
  status (i.e. free of bias introduced
  by the researchers measuring the outcome)

Table 4
Research Aims

Major Research Aims        Subtopics

Teachers and students,     Students' perceptions of creativity,
creativity, and schooling  creative teachers and teaching, creative
                           environments, and creative learning
                           experiences
                           Teachers' perspectives on students'
                           creativity, creative curricula, creative
                           teaching, creative climate in the classroom,
                           and evaluating creativity
                           Creative student personality, experience,
                           and motivation: students as creative persons
                           and factors that impact their development of
                           or use of creativity
                           Improving student creativity using specific
                           approaches
                           Student academic performance and creativity
                           curricula or pedagogy
                           Creative potential in teachers and students
Specific types or domains  Assessment, evaluation, comparison, or
of creativity              investigation of
                           Specific programs to activate or improve
                           access to
                           Issues and tensions surrounding the domain
                           Relationship of the domain to intelligence
                           and problem solving
Math and creativity        Relationship between math creativity and
                           achievement
                           Indicators of student creativity in math and
                           effects of external influences and student
                           personality
                           Specific programs designed to improve or
                           activate math creativity
                           Improving students' math creativity

Major Research Aims        Studies

Teachers and students,     Beghetto (2006)
creativity, and schooling  Chan & Yuen (2014)
                           Cheng (2011)
                           Cho et al. (2013)
                           Claxton et al. (2006)
                           Forrester & Hui (2007)
                           Lassig (2013)
                           Tan & Rasidir (2006)
                           Yi et al. (2013)
                           Cheng (2010)
                           Eason et al. (2009)
                           Huang & Lee (2015)
                           Long (2014)
                           Kim (2010)
                           Kousoulas & Mega (2009)
                           Sarsani (2008)
                           Fernandez-Cardenas (2008)
                           Garaidgordobil (2006)
                           Hu et al. (2013)
                           Koren et al. (2005)
                           McLellan & Nicholl (2013)
                           Missett et al. (2013)
                           Nogueria (2006)
                           Pagona & Costas (2008)
                           Peng et al. (2013)
                           Sahin (2014)
                           Gralewski & Karwowski (2012)
                           Han (2013)
                           Hu et al. (2010)
                           Rule et al. (2009)
                           Schacter et al. (2006)
                           Wong et al. (2014)
Specific types or domains  Chen & Zhou (2010)
of creativity              Cheng et al. (2010)
                           Liu et al. (2010)
                           Sak & Oz (2010)
                           Smith & Graham (2009)
                           Vass (2007)
                           Myhill & Wilson (2013)
                           Kao (2014)
                           Kousoulas (2010)
                           Woodel-Johnson et al. (2012)
Math and creativity        Mann (2009)
                           Leu & Chiu (2015)
                           Sak & Maker (2006)
                           Levenson (2011)
                           Jeon et al. (2011)

Table 5
Number of Studies by Context

Context                   Number of Studies

Research Setting
  Classroom               32
  Unspecified             10
  School Grounds           7
Grade Level
  Elementary (K-5)        28
  Middle Secondary (6-8)  12
  Upper Secondary (9-12)  11

Table 6
Number of Studies by Geographic Region and Grade Level

    Region       Total  Elementary/K-5  Middle         Upper
                                        Secondary/6-8  Secondary/9-12

     Asia        15     14              0              1
(China, Taiwan)
 North America   10      4              4              2
    (U.S.)
    Europe       10      7              2              2
     Total       45     25              6              5

Table 7
Design and Data Collection Approaches Used in the Research

                          All Grades  Elementary  Middle  Upper
                                                          Secondary
                                      (K-5)       (6-8)   (9-12)

Research Design
  Quantitative            33          18          9       7
  Qualitative             13
  Mixed                    3
Data Collection Strategy
  Assessment              23          13          7       5
  Survey or self-report   22
  Observation              9           7          2       0
  Creative product         5           0          4       1
Quantitative Design
  Experimental             1
  Quasi-experimental       7
  Correlational           25
  Descriptive              1
Quantitative Approach
  Inductive coding         3
  Deductive coding         1
  Grounded theory          3
  Ethnography              1
  Discourse analysis       1
  Image analysis           1
  Framing methodology      1
  Case study               2
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Author:Willerson, Amy; Mullet, Dianna R.
Publication:The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving
Article Type:Report
Date:Oct 1, 2017
Words:6713
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