Creation of the Universe: A Religious and Scientific Study.
Almost all people, very often ask several questions about the coming into being of the world, stages in the creation of the earth, birth of the light, darkness and life of the living and non-living organisms. In short, it is the essential part of the nature of the human being to think over the numerous aspects of Nature. Keeping in view the natural curiosity about Nature the religious review shall be given here. We have discussed these aspects of the universe in religious as well as scientific perspective. The article at hand lays emphasis on the facts discussed by Bible and the Holy Quran regarding the creation of the universe, its functioning order and the inception of life. In addition to that a very reasonable comparison of the scientific theories for example Big Bang and other related events have been presented with the above said Religious assertions.
Keywords: Religion, Science, Creation, Big Bang Model, Universe
Keeping in view the natural curiosity about Nature, the religious review shall be given as narrated in the following lines. This shall contain the religious review of the Holy Scriptures that is Bible-the Old Testament, and the New Testament. 1 While presenting the review, we shall restrict ourselves to the selected verses of the Bible, "Chapter Creation" and the general text of the Holy Quran along with their authentic explanations. Also, we shall compare the Quranic verses regarding the creation of the Universe, with that of the Bible, along with narrating all the facts as mentioned above to identify the basic truth and reality.
Creation of the Universe and the Bible
The first five verses of the Chapter I of the reviewed standardized manuscript of the Holy Bible, may be taken into consideration.
* In the beginning God created the earth and heavens.
* The earth was without form and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of waters.
* Then God said, "Let there be light"' and there was light.
* And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided (separated) the light from the darkness.
* God called the light day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day.2
Commentary on the Assertions of Bible
Commenting upon the above mentioned verses of the Holy Scripture Maurice Bocaille 3 writes that this is quite possible to believe that before the creation of the earth the thing which happened to appear in the shape of the Universe, that we know, must have been covered in the darkness, but in that era to mention the existence of water is totally a specific concept.4 However, explanation of this fact is available that during the preliminary stage of the construction process of the universe, some matter in the form of Gas was there. To substitute that by water is a mistake. It may be clarified that the reflection which is moving in a circle in the universe, that is the result of the complicated reactions of the stars, so as per statement of the bible at this stage of the creation the stars had not yet been evolved. In chapter "Creation the light of the heaven have not been discussed up to the verse 14th.
While on the 4th day the stars were created ,so that they may separate the day from the night and throw light in the earth" and all these happenings are quite true but this is very much illogical to assign the happening of all the mentioned incidents on the very First day (of the creation of the universe)while the main source of light (Stars)was created after three days and beside the mentioning of the reality of the existence of the evening and morning on the first days is totally a hypothetical and presumptive talk. We can understand the presence of evening or morning after the completion of one day which is its rotation around its star (Sun).5
Creation of the Earth and Heaven in Seven (7) days
Regarding the creation of the Earth and Heaven the 1st 6 verses of the chapter 2 of the holy Scripture are as given below:
* Thus the heavens and the Earth and all the host of them, were finished.
* And on the 7th day God ended His work which He had done, and
He rested on the 7th day.
* Then God blessed the 7th day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all his work which God had created and made.
* This is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.
* Before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any herb of the field had grown. For the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was to till the ground.
* But a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground.6
It may be clarified here that from the mentioned verses of the Holy Scriptures in the 1st glance the event that appears is the narration of the gradual stages of the creation that is birth and taking rest on the 7th day is Saturday (Sabbath).
The Holy Quran and Creation of the Universe
The Quranic Etymology for the word 'Creation'
In the holy Quran, the following words and terms have been used for creation.
1. (a Bara,a): To bring out a thing from nothingness into the existence, to put on the dress of life, to invent,7 as the holy Quran narrates. "Kill each other this is good for you in the eyes of your Creator". 8
2. (Bada`a) (i) To create for the 1st time, (ii) To make a thing without copying a sample. 9
3. (Badee`a): means builder or making a unique thing.10 Allah says: "Creator in a unique way of the Heaven and Earth".11
4. (Fatar`a): To create a thing making it beautiful with a process of trimming and cutting. 12 The Quran narrates: "Praise be to Allah who is the maker of Heaven and Universe".13
5. a(Khalaqa): This word is used with the following meanings:
* To make estimation.
* Prepare outlines for making a thing.14
* It means that ''Creation'' can also be that which is planned in the mind and it can be attributed to the process other than Allah.
The General connotation of word "Khalaqa" is to make another thing from the one already existing. When a matter is existing another one is to be created from that 15 as Allah says: "Oh, people be afraid of your Lord who created you from one soul and also created from that your pairs, then created as men and women from this in a large number and made them spread over the surface of the Earth." 16
In this condition, this (creation) can be attributed to person other than ALLAH, as Allah will say to the prophet Jesus: "And when you were making birds from the mud."17
On what Day did the Process of Creation Start?
The author of kitab al-maslak - wa-al-mamlik writes, "They have differed in the day on which the process of the creation (of the universe) had started but the day of Sunday is the most correct one."18
Science and Creation
The modern science circles have a consensus view that the only one reasonable and proof aided explanation is the 'Big Bang' which is a concept of the physical cosmology. According to this theory, the universe had come into existence about 13.7 million years ago from the breaking up of an extreme condensed and solid matter. It has been constantly expanding since then, because before this no matter existed. It was the 'Condition of non-existence' where there was neither matter and energy nor time. Metaphysically it can be defined that matters, energy and time were created simultaneously. The modern physics has discovered this reality quite recently.19
Commentary on the Assertions of Scientists
In 1989, a team of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), this is a National Institute for Research in the Space which is working in the auspices of the United States of America since 1946 20 headed by George Smoot who is an American Physicist. He was born on 20th February 1945. He won Noble Prize in the field of physics in 2006, for carrying out a successful research on COBE planet (This was a manufactured planet with the help of which the Emitting of Rays by universe and then measurement is done).21 Just with in eight minutes of its beginning, the artificial planet verified the measurements of the scientist as mentioned above. The instruments contained in this (artificial) planet identified and measured the rays which are the remains of the Big Bang. This research is named as the biggest of all Eomological discoveries. The first planet COBE-1 provided the evidence of the possible existence of the main source of these rays, while the 2nd planet COBE-2 has pointed out the difference found between the temperature levels of their Rays, i.e. it proved that its degree of temperature is different at two different points. We can include from this that after Big Bang difference continued happening in the temperature of these radiations.
It is clarified that Astrophysics (This is that branch of Astronomy which discusses the natural quality and behavior of the universe) has briefly stated the latest concepts of experts in this regard. (They say) that the universe, at 2010 level of time, along with its matter and time Dimensions, came into existence just after Big Bang. Before Big Bang, there was no concept of time. Matter, came into existence from nothingness, In this state of nothingness, nothings like energy and time existed, hence we can define this (nothingness or) in the known terms of Physics. This great fact (reality) was discovered by man in the last part of the twentieth century.22
Conclusion of Big Bang Process in Real Sense
According to the Big Bang theory, not only the universe came into existence out of nothingness, but it happened under an organized and disciplined process rather in line with the regular planning after the Big Bang, a special process surfaced that is Generally, explosions cause disorder and destruction- the nuclear and hydrogen explosions, and explosions of volcanoes, explosions of Natural gasses and oil, all these produce destruction and disintegration, But the case of Big Bang is quite different. After this explosion we see such an ordered process, the complete details of which were determined minutely. As a result of this explosion, the particles (parts of matter which had "scattered" (hare & there) had spread under a special process and speed. Thereafter, they started circling in special orbits. It appears that it all did not happen at random.
A Realistic Approach of Sir Fried Havle Keeping in View the
Sir Freid Hayle, (35) was an English Astronomic and Mathematician. He was born in June, 1915 and died on August 2001. The Black cloyed is his valuable book, which was published in 1957,23 after a disagreement years, recognized the reality of the universe started with this (Big Bang). "Explosion (usually) scatters the things, but the result of the Big Bang very mysteriously contrary to the general observation."
It recollected the matter in the clusters of Collieries. "Calling the end of the explosion of the Big Bang in and organized and disciplined form to be a contradiction, he has expressed a biased concept about
Material philosophy. He is not ready to accept this explosion a controlled process, but contradiction, as matter of fact lies in his own statement. He fell, became prey to this contradiction because of his (futile) struggle to avoid believing in the ox lance Zone Creator i.e. Allah: If this explosion has resulted in order so it cannot be called an uncontrolled Explosion. It means that we have to believe that this Explosion "had happened under an extra-ordinary strict vigilante observance with regular and special objectivity".
This orderly perspective (appearance) is seen to be in process in at each stage and level after the Big Bang. The matter which had emitted in the shape of atomic particles, at the time of explosion, today the same are still called "Atomic particles" Those smallest particles which consisted of Nucleus and Atoms (24). But according to Hoyle, all these particles very mystically gathered and transformed into an "Atom" replenishing the universe. These particles very condensed on one center and they took the shape of galaxies. There came into being stars in these galaxies and planets around them (stars). Revolving in the length and breadth of the universe, all these heavenly bodies move freely. When it is said that the member of galaxies in the universe is 300 billion (three hundred billions), and each galaxy consists of about 300 billion of stars, so one is compelled to feel the extra ordinary constant balancing and order as well as organization working in the universe.
The conditions which are Essential simultaneously the process of life on a planet; and the condition which are unviable to be computed and so numerous that, it is beyond reason and intellect to believe that they all might have come into existence quite accidentally Paul Davies, Paul Davies is an English physicist. He was born on 22nd April, 2012 in London.
Paul Davies writes, "For coming into being of a planet containing conducive environment for life, it is very much essential that the universe must spread with a specific speed. In the ratio of this speeding if difference out of one billion happens the; lathe cannot come into existence. The speed of expansion of the universe that he discovered through Mathematical formula is just in consonance with the speed found through experimentation. He writes, "had the ratio of the speed (if the expansion of the Universe) been little more" Than the present one, the universe would have never remained controlled by its Gravitational Force. Had the value of the ratio of the speed of expansion been less than the specified volume, the universe due to its gravitational force would have spread a little and after retrenching again it would remain controlled by its Gravitational force.
Had the value of the ratio of the speed of its expansion a bit less than the specified volume, the universe due to its gravitational force would have speed with an explosion. The balanced speed of the expansion of the universe is guaranty of the existence or the universe.25
Stephen Hawking the renowned physicist, writes in his book, A brief History of Time, Had the speed of the expansion of the universe greater or less than the specified one, it would either have fallen down and ended in itself or it would have essentially continued expanding.
Why did this expansion happen with this specified process? Why is it expanding approximately with the same specified speed after the passage of about 10,000 million years on the Big Bang? If the speed of the expansion of the universe, just 3 seconds after the happening of Big Bang had been one part out of one hundred thousand million parts less than the specified speed, the universe would have finished with itself before reaching its present volume.26
In reference to this evidence, the American Professor of Astronomy, George Greenstine writes in his book, The Symbiotic Universe that "As (and when) we review this evidence, it results a constant belief (in us) that a Metaphysical power is definitely involved in this whole process." 27
It is clarified that this is not a traditional and a philosophical theory. This is such a reality which has to concern with Faith. Science has proved it today, hence Human has no choice but to say, o, you are sacred; O Allah and you are the best Creator.
* Allah brought the universe out of nothing to the life. Universe has neither come into existence by itself nor the universe has taken the present shape haphazardly or by chance, rather it has been created under a disciplined and intended plan.
* This physically existing universe and this earth where we live have especially been made the most appropriate (place) for life of human beings. The movements of stars, planets, geographical bodies' water and the atmosphere are subservient to a specified objective so that the human life is made possible here.
* All shapes of life (here) have come into existence under the will of Allah and his creative plan.
* As per view point of Islam the universe is the result of the Allah's tribute of creation, and it has come into being due to his intention. When Allah said "become" so it became. So, what is now existing is the "universe" However, different view can be offered regarding the past of the universe which we can see and those which we cannot So to the extent He has allowed us to see sources have also been provided for that but regarding the pasts about which the decision of Allah was other than that, hence the result was different.
* As per the view point of science the only cause of the creation of the universe is merely the ''Big Bang''.
Notes & References
1. Bible, the standard reviewed manuscript of the Holy Scripture series Bible Chapter-I, Verses 1-5 (Lahore: Pakistan Bible society, n.d), 15
3. Maurice Bocaille, Born on July 19, 1920 AD at France and died on February 17, 1998.
4. Tanner Edis, An Illusion of Harmony, Science and Religion in Islam (New York: Prometheus Books, 2007)
5. Mourice Bocollie, (Trans.) Sana ul Haq Siddiqi, Bible Quran and science, (New Delhi: Fareed Book PVT,.n.d), 40
6. The Holy Scripture, chapter 2, verse 1-7, The GENESIS 1, 2. p.6,
7. Abu hilal Askari, Mujam-Alforooq al lughawiyya, (biqum Almuqaddasiyya, n.d), 113
8. Sura Al-Baqara, 2:52
9. Alhusain bin Muhammad Alraghib, Al-Mufradat fi Ghareeb-Al-Quran (Damishq: Darul ilm Alda`ar Alshamiya, ,1412.A.H.), 296
11. Sura Al-Baqara, 2:117
12. Abu hilal Askari, Mujam-Alforooq al lughawiyya, loc.cit., 640
13. Sura Al-Fatir 35-1
14. Al-Mufradat fi Ghareeb-Al-Quran Lil-Raghib, loc.cit., 296
15. Abu hilal Askari, Mujam-Alforooq al lughawiyya, loc.cit., 296.
16. Sura Alnisa 4:1
17. Sura Alma`aida 5:110
18. Albukdari,Abu bakar, kitab-Almasa`alik wa Almama`alik (Egypt: Dar- Alturth-Alarabia.N.D), 54
19. Edward.J. Wollack, Cosmology, the Study of the Universe (Washington: NASA, 2010)
20. Gary H. Kitmacher, Reference Guide to the International Space Station (Canada: Apogee Boncs, 2006), 71-80
21. Oder word, S.J.New mark, and G-smart, "A study of external glacises Detected by the COBE, diffuse infrared background 'experiment', for cosmic Background Radiation Discovery", Astronomical Journal, 500(2): (1998): 554-568
22. "Astrophysics, meme-riam-website, incorporated". (Accessed on May 22, 2011)
23. Mc.Graw Hills, Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Edition 9, Vol.15 (New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2012)
24. Haruded Fritzch, Elementary Particles (World Scientific, 2005), 11-20
25. Paul Davis, "The 'Give me a job, microbe", Wall Street Journal, (accessed on December 5, 2010).
26. Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time, op.cit., 6-15
27. George Greensteen, The Symbiotic Universe, op.cit., 51
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|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2013|
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