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Creating home and country: the centennial life of Emma Ducie.

Here the Saskatchewan prairie is neither rolling nor flat. The gentle ripple in the land is covered with yellow carpets of canola and tall and tender green wheat. On a clear day and at a high point on the gravel road, you can see Mt. Blackstrap against the southern horizon; on the eastern horizon is the water tower of the Dundurn Military Camp. But from the edge of the Ducie farm, off the old #11 highway north-east of Dundurn, there are only fields against an endless prairie sky.

The Ducie farm is now owned by Lester Dittmer, who has lived in the district all of his life. (1) At the age of eighty-one, he has fond memories of when the Ducies lived on this land. The only buildings that remain are the bunkhouse, a pig barn with a sagging roof, and an old wood-sided garage where a metal baby crib, an ornate heater, and a pair of home-made skis are stored. The farmyard is surrounded by a thick grove of trees. In the centre of the front yard is a blue spruce that towers over the property. It was planted over eighty years ago; these trees remain a true testament to the pioneering spirit of the Ducies.

Standing in the farmyard, it is not hard to imagine this is where a young woman by the name of Emma Ducie, and her husband, established a home and a family in the early part of the century. Emma made a remarkable impact on the community, particularly when she organized a Homemakers' Club in 1913. (2) The club served as the perfect vehicle for Emma to acquire and share knowledge with rural women striving to survive the hardships on the prairies. Emma's ability to initiate, organize, and educate were qualities she gained early in life.

Emma Jane Roberts was born April 28 1883 in the little town of Morley, in Yorkshire, England. She was the only daughter of John Major Roberts and his wife. She had three brothers: Scarth, Harold, and Luther. Within the first decade of her life the Roberts moved several times within the Yorkshire region. Her father taught school, but did not like to stay in one place too long due to a roving disposition. (3)

One of their homes was not too far from where was the Bronte sisters lived, and wrote their books. Emma's favourite books by the Brontes were Wuthering Heights and Jane Eyre. She used to wonder how they managed to create their stories when their living conditions had been so poor and their world limited within the walls of their home. She concluded that they must have read a great deal. (4) This was an important connection to have made at an early age.

Emma's father was an avid reader and had a library that was off limits to the young girl. However, she managed to sneak into his library to take books to read off in some secluded spot. Part of her needed to satisfy a longing to acquire knowledge; another part of her was curious as to why there was a restriction on her reading material. For example, one book her father strictly forbade her to read was Tolstoy's Resurrection. Not surprisingly, she read it the first chance she could! (5)

This rebellious nature was evident in other areas of her life. For example, as the only girl in the family she was expected to serve her brothers. But at the age of twelve she refused to continue to polish their shoes! (6) She believed in equality and was ready to stand up to her socialist ideals. Emma was quickly growing up to be an independent and free thinker. She was a "doubting Thomas" and questioned everything. Her parents, who were rigid and conservative Anglicans, often warned their daughter that she would come to a 'bad end,' (7) yet they appeared supportive of their daughter's quest for knowledge.

The family moved again, and the father taught at an Anglican School at Finchley, located ten miles out of London. When Emma was thirteen she apprenticed as a pupil teacher in the same school as her father. The school was understaffed and her father had to teach most of the grades himself. Often she spent the days marking spelling books, and assisting younger children with their education. In the evenings she worked on her high school studies. This was a very difficult period for her; everyone else was enjoying leisure activities when she had to work and study. (8) Yet she gained a great deal of experience during those four years.

Emma's love of education, and her ability to encourage others to learn, were clear indications she would pursue teaching. She passed the Entrance Exam for teacher training and received a scholarship to attend the Home and Colonial Teachers Training College in London for two years. For the first year she lived at home; the next year she boarded at the college, which gave her the opportunity to develop friendships and expand her knowledge of the world around her. This period of her life was like an awakening, as she began to read and learn about countries and cultures beyond the one she knew in England. Her teachers were broad-minded, including the ones who taught Religious Instruction, and were very much ahead of their time. (9)

After graduating Emma taught at Finchley. Two of her brothers had emigrated to the Canadian prairies, and her parents decided to join them as they were lonely for their sons. The father envisioned he would make his fortune in this new land. (10) In 1907, Emma accompanied her parents to live in Saskatchewan. Her one and only trip across the Atlantic was memorable only because she was seasick the entire way! (11) The family homesteaded near Lloydminister where the Barr colonists had settled. They lived in a "not too rainproof" log shack at that time, a far cry from the modern house they had in London with running water and indoor toilets. (12)

The settlers had to learn how to farm. Often the land was of such poor quality it was only fit for pasture. Some farmers gave up and returned home. Emma's father taught school at Onion Lake and elsewhere, but he too eventually returned to England with his wife. (13) By 1908, Emma was teaching at Neuhoffnung (which means 'New Hopes') a Mennonite community near Langham. Living in a rural Saskatchewan community was extremely challenging for the young woman from urban England. She boarded with a German-speaking family, which was rather a lonely experience in light of the language barrier. (14)

Even though Emma only stayed a few months at Neuhoffnung, she managed to create quite a stir within the school district when she directed the children in the play "Cinderella". By the time the parents became aware of this, the production was over. However, it created a great unrest and parents were apparently horrified. They enforced the fact that they wanted their children to study English, not frivolous fairytales! (15) Emma Roberts clearly did what she wanted to, and she was not about to change despite what others thought.

Emma moved to another teaching position, this time at Coates School (located on the old #11 highway about eight miles north-east of Dundurn). Little did she realize this area was to be home for the next forty-two years. There she met Harry Ducie who was a homesteader and a school trustee.

Like Emma, Harry was also from England (Leeds). As a young boy, he had lost his father (a sailor) who was presumed to have drowned at sea. (16) He and his brothers were sent to Canada as orphans around the turn of the century. Harry was placed on a farm in Ontario where he attended school in the winter-time. After completing high school, he came out west with little money or possessions, and homesteaded in the Coates District in 1902. (17) One winter he attended agricultural school in the newly formed province of Manitoba. Harry attained very high marks that earned him a small scholarship. Instead of returning to school, however, he bought a 'top-down' buggy to take Emma riding. They were married on August 2, 1909. (18)

Originally, the Ducie home consisted of a bedroom and kitchen. Two more bedrooms were added. A long room that had been the home of another settler was moved in and attached. This served both as living room and dining room and was ideal for hosting meetings and celebrations over the years. A porch was a later addition. The home was made comfortable by Harry's ingenuity and Emma's diligence. (19)

When the couple started a family, Emma resigned from teaching. She often thought she would teach again but never did. (20) Harry and Emma had three children--Harold (1910), Rose (1911), and Emmie (1916). The first delivery was life-threatening even with a local doctor present. At one point the doctor asked Harry, that if he was only able to save one of them, who should it be? Harry begged him to save his wife. Fortunately their baby son lived. Emma delivered her second child on her own after she lifted a bucket full of coal. The doctor arrived just in time to "stitch her up", and without anaesthetic! (21) By the time their third child was born, the beloved Dr. Finn had arrived in Dundurn which was a great blessing to women of the area. (22) They were no longer as worried about childbirth after that.

Emma had not done much in the way of housekeeping or cooking before she married. Harry, on the other hand, had experience cooking for threshing crews during his bachelor days on the farm. When Emma and Harry were first married, it was he who taught her the basics, which included how to make bread. (23) But he was anxious to give the task of cooking over to his wife, even though he made pies just as good as she could! (24) In the beginning, Emma made awful mistakes, but she never made the same mistake twice. (25) She was determined to learn everything she needed to know, and so she read up-to-date books and magazines on cooking and canning. (26) She soon became a very good cook and provider.

Harry kept a large vegetable garden, a grove of fruit trees, and bees. He was one of the first farmers in the province to order trees from the experimental tree farm in Indian Head. He planted carragana to prevent soil drifting, and alfalfa and sweet clover in an attempt to improve the soil. He was one of the first farmers to purchase a harvest combine in the area. (27) Harry was always seeking new ways to farm. His quest for new knowledge about farming complemented Emma's desire to learn about raising a family and taking care of the home.

One day in 1913, Harry and Emma were making the twenty-five mile trip to Saskatoon by horse and buggy. They stayed overnight with some friends, the John Evans who lived close to Saskatoon. Mrs. Evans asked Emma if she had heard of the Homemakers Clubs. Emma replied she had not heard very much, so Mrs. Evans told her about the new organization. (28)

At that time, the Association of Homemakers' Clubs of Saskatchewan had just been formed in January 1911 during the Agricultural Societies meetings in Regina. Dr. Auld, Director of Agricultural Extension at the new University of Saskatchewan was a key figure in launching the provincial organization. By the end of 1911 he foresaw the organization of a Homemakers' Club in every school district of the province. (29) Any woman over the age of 15 could be a member; the annual membership fee was 25 cents. (30)

Mrs. Evans encouraged Emma to organize a club in the Coates School District. Emma felt that it was something that she could do, and "thought it was rather a nice idea." (31a) After all, she knew women on the farm, including herself, were very isolated and lonely. They did not get together unless there was a church service in the area. The men, on the other hand, often saw each other on a regular basis when they went into town on errands or to have machinery repaired. The women did not have the same opportunity. Emma recognized that women were in need of support and anxious to see one another.

Emma took the initiative and wrote to the Extension Division at the University of Saskatchewan. A Department of Women's Work had been established for the purpose of assisting in the formation and support of Homemakers' Clubs in the province. Abigail Delury, the first director of the department, sent Emma the material she requested. Emma was ready to set up a meeting date with women in the Coates community:</p> <pre> Mrs. Ducie dropped a bundle of letters into the post office inviting the neighbour ladies to her home to organize a Homemakers' Club. The day of the meeting came to the Ducie home ... but the ladies didn't. Bitterly disappointed, Mrs. Ducie decided her idea was low on the popularity poll. But then a happy explanation came. There had been a Grain Growers' meeting that same day and the men had climbed into their buggies and gone to it, leaving the women afoot and stranded at home. The women decided to try again and this time they succeeded

in organizing their club. (31b) </pre> <p>The Coates Homemakers' Club was formed in 1913 at Mrs. Whiting's home with fourteen charter members in attendance. (32) Emma became secretary for the club at that initial meeting and remained in the position for thirty-seven years.

The club was a great boon to the women in the district. In the beginning years, like other Homemakers' Club in Saskatchewan:</p> <pre> Under the guidance of the University they became agents of adult

education, providing courses in the skills of homemaking. They

continued the tradition that the first women's clubs had started off providing a social outlet for the isolated rural women, and for the rural community as a whole, and they expanded their social efforts into real community service very rapidly. (33) </pre> <p>Emma realized that that they were not only building a Homemakers' Club, but they were building a community. As early pioneers in the area they had to build their own farmstead and their own homes.</p> <pre>

A new field was plowed, a fence erected, a building was made. Everyday something happened. They had an objective. They had a vision and that vision extended to the community ... to needing a

school and then a church, then a hall so the young people had a

place to meet. (34) </pre> <p>The Homemakers' Club took this task into their hands and Emma, with confidence and competence, led the way.

Some of the original members of the Coates Homemakers' Club were schoolteachers, but most of the women had less than a Grade Eight education. Nevertheless, Emma felt all the women were very intelligent, and were anxious to learn how to run their home, take care of their children, how to help their husbands with the farm work, and how to take care of the garden. In the early years the club busied themselves with learning about everything that was connected with the farm and the running of the farm. (35)

The monthly meetings were programmed using the directions provided in The Homemakers' Handbook. A typical meeting opened with the Homemakers' Creed, reading of the minutes from the last meeting, then the treasurer's report. A business meeting followed which included the convenor's (or committee) reports. Then there was 'roll call' where every member of the group gave their thoughts or suggestions on a pre-determined topic. Topic were chosen that related to the home and garden, such as baking bread, planting a garden, or taking care of a sick child. Since Emma was the secretary she made sure some of the topics had some literary focus (e.g., patriotic verses), or an issue pertinent to the day (e.g., consolidated schools). (36) The meetings always included tea and lunch.

Initially, the women were not accustomed to formal business-like gatherings and had to learn how to conduct a meeting. Emma was prepared to teach Parliamentary Procedures at the club meetings otherwise, "you did not get anything done." (37) She realized that the women were very shy. Even "to stand up and to make a motion ... was really something to do." (38) They lacked not only the skills, but the self-confidence to fully participate in the initial meetings.

Emma was a true adult educator in that she encouraged participation of members by tapping into their experience:</p> <pre> For instance, we had a canning demonstration. A woman was chosen who knew how to can very well. The woman who made good butter shared her expertise with the club, as did the woman who made good cookies or cake, or who was good with children ... we'd have them do just the things which they liked to do best. (39) </pre> <p>Her motto was: "begin where you are with what you have." (40) Emma had the wonderful ability to encourage and engage the women in the process of sharing their natural and acquired skills.

Emma thrived on learning new information and helping others learn as well. The Homemakers' club was the perfect vehicle for her to use all her skills and talents, particularly her literary interests:</p> <pre>

One thing about belonging to an association like that when you're

Out in the country you must read because you're going to help

someone else ... keep right on with your own research of that kind

... you really get more than you give because otherwise you might

have remained static. But if I had to give a paper on education or any topic I'd have to read and research. (41) </pre> <p>Emma initiated a travelling library in the district. The travelling library was a government project where communities could receive a box of books from Regina for a period of time and then exchange it for another shipment of books. The Ducie's front porch was home to a big grey box filled with books for the whole community to use:</p> <pre> I used to arrange for a box of books to come and when we had our meetings I used to look over these books before the people would come. I knew them very well and I knew what books would suit who, so when we came to the end of the meeting I was always prepared to direct them to the books I knew they would like. I knew their families and I knew them and I knew what their tastes were and what books would suit. Those travelling libraries were really excellent. (42) </pre> <p>Emma encouraged all the women in the club to read. She would often be at the front door with a member of the club saying: "Have you read this? Come and see this one ... here's a book you would like," (43) and she sent them home with books from the box. As far as Emma was concerned reading was the most important activity. She organized reading courses and gave book reviews at meetings throughout her years with the club. Reading was far more important than sewing or crafts, which held no interest at all for her. She gladly left those topics and activities to the other women in the club.

Emma drove her own horse and buggy to meetings, which was a brave thing to do since she was not accustomed to handling animals. Their first horse was an Indian pony, with a mind of its own. On one trip with Emma at the rein, the horse met a flock of sheep and instead of waiting to pass, the horse turned around and went home. There was nothing Emma could do to redirect the horses' intention; this was very frustrating to have her plans changed by a horse! (44)

The Ducies bought their first car in 1918. (45) Emma attempted to learn how to drive from her husband. On one occasion with Harry in the passenger seat, she accidentally reversed the car too quickly. She landed the rear wheels in a hot bed where Harry kept his precious seedlings beneath a protective covering made from the storm windows. Emma refused to drive again after that mishap. Fortunately, she was not stranded on the farm. Harry was so supportive of her involvement in Homemaker's projects, that he often drove a carload of women to the local meeting or district convention over the years. (46)

When the Coates Homemakers' Club first started, topics and events were relatively simple and straight forwards. Eventually, Emma began inviting guest speakers to their meetings to expand their horizons. Women from other clubs were invited to teach a specific skill, such as how to make hats, or how to convert flour sacks into underwear or table cloths. (47) On one occasion Emma invited a nurse from Regina to talk about baby care. And often she invited Abigail DeLury from the University out for their meetings:</p> <pre> We would set up a tent and set up tables and she would come out and would talk to the women. It was a gala occasion. The men would come too and they would play baseball, then after lunch in the evening she would talk to them. (48) </pre> <p>Emma and Abigail developed a deep and lasting friendship through their association with the Homemakers' Clubs. They both had been teachers and subsequently shared a love for learning.

The College of Agriculture sent people from their department out to rural areas to give talks and demonstrations. The Coates Homemakers' Club enthusiastically welcomed these opportunities. The women brought their cooking and garden produce, and the men showed their wheat, oats and barley for judging by the staff from the university. It was a very educational event for everyone. (49)

The Coates Homemakers' club often hosted garden parties, field affairs, and picnics. Many of these events were held at Horden's Grove which the club helped established as a community project with a baseball diamond and picnic tables. (50) The community bought an old school, which the men moved to the site with teams of horses. The building served as a meeting place for a young people's club during the 1930s. Emma was actively involved as the drama director. The highlight for over thirty years, however, was the annual Homemakers' Christmas party which was always held at the Ducie home, often with 100 people present. (51) Emma greatly enjoyed organizing and hosting such events.

Emma was elected first president of the Blackley district. She went on to serve as provincial president of the Association of Homemakers Clubs in Saskatchewan from 1926-1929. (52) At that time there were over 200 clubs in the province. (53) In a speech to an annual convention, Emma reminded the members of their sense of duty to their communities and their responsibilities as citizens:</p> <pre> You have opportunities as citizens. You have opportunities for Untold influence because the simple, earnest utterance, direct and sincere, never falls on entirely stony ground. (54) </pre> <p>Emma wrote well and she spoke well. As a public speaker, she would be so involved with her message and the audience, that she came close to stepping off the edge of the platform on more than one occassion! (55)

The annual conventions at the University of Saskatchewan were always a wonderful event for Emma. (56) Harry was very proud and supportive of his wife. In fact, before she attended a convention he was the one who curled her short light brown hair by heating the curling iron in the glass chimney of the kerosene lamp. (57) (Emma was just over five feet tall, had a fair complexion, and spoke with a slight Yorkshire accent). (58)

Emma served as a member of the Provincial Council of Agricultural Instruction where she lobbied for an educational program for young women through the Department of Agriculture. 'Farm Girls Week' at the University of Saskatchewan was instituted toward the end of the 1920s. "Girls from all over the province, largely sponsored by the local Homemakers' Clubs, came to stay in residence and study scientific homemaking, care of gardens and poultry, handicrafts, and the many tasks with which the farm wife might find herself confronted." (59)

Beginning in 1929, Emma served for many years as a member of the Advisory Council of the College of Agriculture, in support of higher education. It is not surprising then that all three of the Ducie children attended the University of Saskatchewan. Harold received a diploma in agriculture. Rose graduated with a B.A. in English and History in 1931. After the Depression, Emmie had her opportunity to go to the University where she studied Home Economics. The Depression was a difficult period but the Ducies never lacked food. Their mixed farm of cows, pigs, and always a vegetable garden saw them through the lean years. (60)

In 1937 Emma, along with Miss Bertha Oxner (who succeeded Abigail Delury as Director of Women's Work at the University), put together a reading list for a course of study for the Homemakers. As always, Emma was adamant that reading resources should be available to the clubs:</p> <pre> They were not disappointed with the response of the Homemakers, but they were disappointed by the response of the local libraries

contacted. Miss Oxner's assessment of the situation reads remarkably

like a blueprint for the regional library system that was to begin

developing in the province in the following decade. (61) </pre> <p>The difficulty in obtaining the necessary books through local libraries was of prime concern for Emma at that time.

Emma's involvement in Homemakers' Clubsled her to being the Saskatchewan representative on the board of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada. This gave her the opportunity to attend meetings in Toronto, sometimes accompanied by one of her daughters. (62)

Harry and Emma retired to Saskatoon in 1950 after farming for forty-two years at Coates. Prior to moving to the city, Emma offered to entertain the club one last time for their July meeting. The members, however, surprised Emma with a garden party in her honour. They invited charter members, plus the provincial executives to which she had belonged. Old photographs of the early activities of the club were gathered, and letters of appreciation were read from faraway friends, including Abigail Delury who was retired and living in Ontario. Emma was presented with a life membership in the Saskatchewan Homemakers' Association in recognition for her outstanding service. (63)

Emma continued to be active by volunteering with several organizations in Saskatoon. Of course, she remained very much connected with the Homemakers' Association. In 1953 she attended the 7th Triennial Conference of Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW) in Toronto with her daughter Rose. In 1967 she was awarded a Canadian Centennial medal for her volunteer work. (64)

The Coates Homemakers' Club disbanded in 1971. (65) Emma understood there was not the same need or demand for women's clubs as there had been when she was young and they had nothing else. With radio, television, better roads and cars, women were not as isolated as before. Emma had witnessed the gradual decline in the number of members over the years as the rural environment continued to change. She was not surprised when clubs, including her own, folded. (66)

In 1977, Emma was inducted into the Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame for her efforts to improve the living conditions of rural women through the Saskatchewan Homemaker's Association. (67)

Emma continued her quest for knowledge throughout her later years, as she felt that there was always more to learn. She attended an evening university class for seniors on literature, and when she disagreed with the professor on a piece of history she stood up and "took issue with" him! (68) Her house in Saskatoon was full of books and magazines often stacked around each room. (69) And at the age of ninety-nine, she was still giving book reviews, advice and interviews to people who were interested in pioneer activity. (70)

In April 1983, her daughters Emmie, and Rose, daughter-in-law Helene, and friend Jean Oddie Wenhardt organized a party for her one hundreth birthday. Approximately 150 guests dropped by over a two day period to her home at 1037 13th St. East in Saskatoon. (71) At the party, Emma asked a younger friend what she was reading. The friend told Emma that she was studying Chaucer at university, to which Emma replied, how she wished she could be studying Chaucer too. Then she promptly recited the first few lines from The Canterbury Tales! (72)

Later that year, Rose Ducie Jardine, Emmie and Langford Oddie accompanied Emma to Ottawa where she received the Persons Award on November 1st, 1983 at Rideau Hall. The Award was established just four years earlier to commemorate the 1929 amendment to the British North American Act which granted women "persons" status, and won them the legal right to be appointed to the Senate. Emma, with a cane to support her slight and frail frame, gave a commanding handshake as she received the medal from Governor General Ed Schreyer. (73)

At the age of 101, Emma admitted that she was still thinking and still searching:</p> <pre> I feel very ignorant. I don't know very much. I have had a long life but I like to hear other people's points of view and different ways of thinking still and always will so long as I live. (74) </pre> <p>Soon after, Emma moved to live with her daughter Rose in Oyen, Alberta. When her health deteriorated it was suggested she move into the long-term care facility at the hospital. Rose told her that they could give her better care than she could, and Emma replied: "I don't know about that!" (75) Emma was concerned with the distance she would be from Rose. But when Rose reassured it was only three blocks, and that she would visit her every day, Emma asked, "then when do I move?" Emma's vision decreased to the point she could no longer read; Rose read to her every day up until her death. Emma died on December 3, 1990 at age of 107.

Emma Ducie was an extraordinary woman. She had an incredible thirst for knowledge throughout her entire life-reading was her passion and her pursuit. Not only was she a dedicated to lifelong learning, she was an adult educator through her active involvement with the Homemakers' Association of Saskatchewan. Emma was the driving force of the Coates Homemakers' Club from 1913 to 1950. During that time she encouraged and enabled other prairie women to not only cope, but to thrive on the prairies. Through her remarkable contributions to her community and the province, Emma Ducie is an important person in the history of adult education in Saskatchewan.

Notes

(1) Lester Dittmer grew up on a farm a few miles to the east of the Ducie farm. His mother was a member of the Coates Homemakers' Club, as was his wife.

(2) Saskatchewan Women's Institute (SWI) History Committee, Legacy--A History of Saskatchewan Homemakers' Clubs and Women's Institutes (1911-1988), Regina: FOCUS Publishing, 1988.

(3) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley for The Challenge, Unitarian Fellowship of Saskatoon Newsletter, October 9, 1984. Transcribed copy obtained from Terry Harley during a personal interview on July 19, 1999.

(4) Ibid.

(5) Ibid.

(6) 100th Birthday Invitation--copy received during personal interview with Emma Ducie on July 9, 1999.

(7) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley, Oct. 9, 1984.

(8) Saskatchewan Archives Board (SAB), DUCIE, Mrs. Emma. Tape recorded interview by Ms. June Bantjes, July 1973, acc.no. 763, V1.64b.

(9) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley, Oct. 9, 1984.

(10) Personal conversation with Emmie Oddie in Regina, July 9, 1999.

(11) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley, Oct. 9, 1984.

(12) Ibid.

(13) Personal conversation with Emmie Oddie, July 9, 1999.

(14) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley, October 9, 1984.

(15) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine in Oyen, Alberta, July 17, 1999.

(16) Dundurn History Committee, Dundurn Memories, Dundurn and District. Altona, Manitoba: Friesen Printers, 1982.

(17) Personal conversation with Emmie Oddie July 9, 1999.

(18) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 17, 1999.

(19) Correspondence from Emmie Oddie, August 30, 1999.

(20) SAB, DUCIE, Mrs. Emma. Tape recorded interview by Ms. June Bantjes, July 1973, acc.no.763,V1.64b.

(21) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 24, 1999.

(22) Ibid.

(23) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 24, 1999.

(24) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley, Oct. 9, 1984.

(25) SAB, Tape recorded interview by Ms. June Bantjes, July 1973.

(26) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 24, 1999.

(27) Ibid.

(28) The Western Producer, 3 August 1950.

(29) SWI History Committee, Legacy, 1988, p.5.

(30) The Western Producer, 29 July 1971.

(31a) SAB, Tape recorded interview by Ms.JuneBantjes.July 1973.

(31b) Family Herald, Dec. 1, 1960,p.32.

(32) Ibid.

(33) SWI History Committee, Legacy, 1988, p.9.

(34) SAB,Tape recorded interview by Ms. June Bantjes, July 1973.

(35) Ibid.

(36) University of Saskatchwan Archives, Saskatchewan Homemakers' Clubs/Women's Institute Fonds-RG11s.4A. Association of Homemakers' Clubs of Saskatchewan 15. Club/District Records: a) Blackley District, viii) Mrs. H. Ducie--1913--Box 9, Folder 2.

(37) SAB,Tape recorded interview by Ms.June Bantjes, July 1973.

(38) Ibid.

(39) Ibid.

(40) Ibid.

(41) Ibid.

(42) Interview of Emma Ducieby Terry Harley, Oct. 9, 1984.

(43) Personal conversation with Emmie Oddie, July 9, 1999.

(44) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 17, 1999.

(45) SAB, Taped interview by June Bantjes, July 1973.

(46) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 17, 1999.

(47) Undated written document by Emmie Oddie from her personal collection.

(48) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley, October 9, 1984.

(49) Ibid.

(50) SAB, Taped interview by June Bantjes, July 1973.

(51) The Western Producer, 3 August 1950.

(52) University of Saskatchewan Archives, Sask. Homemakers' Clubs/Women's Institutes Fonds-RG 11s.4.A. Association of Homemakers Clubs of Sask.15. Club/District Records: a) Blackley District, viii) Mrs.H. Ducie-1913--Folder 2. Booklet: Retrospect and Prospect, Saskatchewan Homemakers' Clubs.

(53) The Western Producer 29 July 1971.

(54) The Second Penny, Newsletter of the Women's Institutes of Saskatchewan, Jan.-Feb.-March, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1991.

(55) Personal conversation with Emmie Oddie, July 9, 1999. She recalled as a young girl sitting in the audience at a Homemakers' convention, and being worried that her mother would fall of the edge of the stage.

(56) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 24, 1999.

(57) Personal conversation with Emmie Oddie, July 9, 1999. Both daughters have vivid memories of their father curling their mother's hair by the kerosene lamp.

(58) Telephone conversation with Rose Jardine, July 24, 1999.

(59) SWI History Committee, Legacy--A History of Saskatchewan Homemakers' Clubs and Women's Institutes (1911-1988), p.21.

(60) Conversations with both Emmie Oddie (July 9) and Rose Jardine (July 17, 1999). 61 SWI History Committee, Legacy-A History of Saskatchewan Homemakers' Clubs and Women's Institutes (1911-1988), p.28.

(62) Rose was a writer for the women's section of The Western Producer and covered Homemakers' events; Emmie was actively involved in Homemakers' Clubs in Saskatchewan; she wrote a column "I'd Like to Know" for The Western Producer for over forty years.

(63) The Western Producer, 3 August 1950.

(64) Federated News, Quarterly Newsletter by Federated Women's Institutes of Canada, Oct./Nov./Dec., 1983. Emma had been living with Rose until she moved away in 1960. Harry died after they moved to Saskatoon.

(65) SWI History Committee, Legacy--A History of Saskatchewan Homemakers' Clubs and Women's Institutes (1911-1988), p.149. The Homemakers' Association of Saskatchewan changed their name to the Women's Institute in 1972.

(66) SAB, Taped interview of Emma Ducie by Ms. June Bantjes, July 1973.

(67) Emma, her two daughters Rose and Emmie, and her daughter-in-law Helene are all in the Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame at the Western Development Museum in Saskatoon.

(68) Personal interview with Terry Harley, July 19, 1999.

(69) Ibid.

(70) Federated News, Oct./Nov./Dec., 1983.

(71) Guest list in personal collection of Emmie Oddie.

(72) Personal interview with Terry Harley, July 19, 1999.

(73) Federated News, Oct./Nov./Dec., 1983.

(74) Interview of Emma Ducie by Terry Harley, October 9, 1984.

(75) Personal conversation with Rose Jardine, July 24, 1999.

Sharon Elliott

University of Saskatchewan
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Author:Elliott, Sharon
Publication:Vitae Scholasticae
Article Type:Biography
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Mar 22, 2005
Words:6114
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