Courtland Lee: a global advocate for counseling.
Samuel T. Gladding (STG): Courtland, I have known you for at least 20 years and have observed and admired your passion, your scholastic accomplishments, and your national/ international influence on the world of counseling. Yet all of these factors have been developmental informing. Some career theorists state that a person's childhood influences later decisions regarding choice of vocation. What was your life like growing up? What family and peer influences had a bearing on your choice to enter the profession of counseling with such intensity? Where did all of your energy and achievement spring from?
Courtland C. Lee (CCL): I am the oldest of four children. I was born and raised in Philadelphia. My father worked for the U.S. Post Office, and my mother was a "stay-at-home mom." While my family was not poor, we were certainly not middle class. I would say that by today's standards, my family would be considered solidly working class.
My memories of growing up are basically happy ones. My mother, in particular, ensured that we had the benefits of healthy childhood activities. The most memorable feature of the house in which I grew up was that it had a huge yard in which my brother and two sisters could play all manner of games. Because of the size of our yard, our house became the center of activity for the entire neighborhood. It was not unusual to see scores of kids engaged in all types of fun activities in my family's yard. What I remember best is what I like to refer to as our "Charlie Brown--like baseball games," which went on for hours with much screaming and yelling over balls and strikes or who was out and who was safe.
Neither of my parents finished high school. My father dropped out in 12th grade to join the Army in World War II, while my mother did the same to work in a defense plant. Because of this fact, education was constantly stressed while we were growing up. It was a foregone conclusion that my sisters, brother, and I would go to college. This point was nonnegotiable in my family. To underscore this position, unlike many young people, my siblings and I did not have to wash dishes in the evening because my mother decreed that homework took precedence over dish washing and virtually everything else on school nights. As a result of this philosophy, my parents' legacy is four children with college degrees, two of them with advanced degrees.
In addition to a nurturing family, I grew up in a culturally diverse community that held high expectations for its young people. Most of my neighborhood peers came from lower middle-class families with parents who had high hopes for their children. Our activities revolved around school, community organizations such as the YMCA, and the church. It is interesting to reflect back that most of the kids I grew up with became successful in their chosen career path, be it as an educator; a physician; a lawyer; or, in one case, a world-renowned concert pianist.
My most significant educational experience occurred during high school. I was selected to attend Central High School in Philadelphia. Central is the second-oldest continuously public high school in the United States and consistently ranks among the top public schools in the nation for its academic standards. Central High School holds the distinction of being
the only high school in the United States that has the authority to confer the bachelor of arts degree upon its graduates. At the time I attended, Central was an all-boys school. On my 1st day as [a] freshman in the ninth grade, the president of Central stood before us and said, "Here at Central you will learn to be gentleman and scholars." For the next 4 years, my teachers ensured that this phrase became a reality. My undergraduate and graduate academic experiences were a breeze compared to the intellectual rigor of my Central years. I am grateful that while at Central I mastered two skills that were critical to my future success: the ability to write and to think critically.
Looking back, my church activities had a very strong influence on my choice to enter the counseling profession. I was very involved in the church from an early age. This involvement influenced my choice of a career in counseling and my leadership ability. As a teenager, I served as youth leader in my church and at the state level. I also served as an altar boy. My minister, who was an early mentor, encouraged me to think seriously about entering the ministry. He based this encouragement on his observations of my interactions with my peers as well as adults. He perceived me to be someone who could use my skills to help people and to impact their lives positively.
I have no doubt that my peer interactions directly related to my choosing to enter the counseling profession. My friends always saw me as the person they could talk to about issues, problems, or challenges. I remember that my first "client" was the boy who sat next to me for 4 years in homeroom. Almost every morning I would listen to his "girl problems" and help him cope with his adolescent angst over female acceptance and rejection. I did not realize at the time, but I was beginning to develop the listening and problem-solving skills that would characterize my work as counselor.
Finally, I must thank my mother for laying my foundation as a counselor. While she was not formally educated, she was by far the most brilliant individual I have ever known. She had a strong aesthetic sense that instilled in me a love of reading and the arts. Her love of learning inspired me to search and question in order to expand my horizons. Although she never traveled extensively, she instilled in me a desire to explore the world. I also learned from her the importance of helping other people. She went out of her way to assist others whenever she could. Significantly, she taught me to speak up whenever I saw injustice. This action was particularly important when injustice was being perpetrated against those who were less fortunate than I. My mother was a social justice advocate before there was such a term.
STG: College years are crucial in career decision making. Tell us about your collegiate experience and how it shaped your life. What was graduate school like for you, and what made you choose the schools you did? How much of that influence from your college and graduate days is still a part of you now?
CCL: Upon graduating from high school, I was admitted to Hofstra University. My undergraduate years there took place against a backdrop of great social upheaval. The civil rights movement and the Vietnam War permeated my college experience. As a student leader on campus, I marched for civil rights and protested the war. Three significant national events are vivid in my memory from college. The first two were the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert E Kennedy. The third was the bombing of Cambodia in 1969 and the subsequent shooting of four students at Kent State University. These events were instrumental in shaping the views on access, equity, and social action that form the core values which would become the foundation of my work in multicultural counseling.
While in college, my helping skills were put to good use in my role as a resident assistant in the dormitories. I was constantly helping students to process personal issues and challenges involving sex, drugs, roommates, and conflicts with parents.
After I graduated from college, I taught elementary school in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, New York, which at the time was one of the largest African American and Puerto Rican communities in the country as well as one of the most economically disadvantaged. Since I was the only African American male teacher in the school, the other teachers would send their problematic boys to me in hopes that interacting with a male teacher would be helpful. The school's guidance counselor noticed that I had a gift for connecting with these students and suggested that I might make a good school counselor. She convinced me to enroll in a counseling graduate program and pursue a master's degree.
Following her advice, I applied to and was admitted to the master's counseling program at Hunter College of the City University of New York. In all honesty, I found the 1st year of the program to be boring. The theoretical readings were uninteresting and the counseling faculty uninspiring. I was basically sleepwalking my way through a program that had little relevance to me as a 23-year-old Black man.
Then, I met Dr. Alfred Pasteur and the course of my life was changed. Pasteur was the first (and only) African American professor I had in my training program and he became my mentor. The first class I took with him had a rather nondescript title: Counseling and Social Systems. However, when Dr. Pasteur walked into class the first night, he announced that the focus of the class would be on counseling Black people. This immediately piqued my interest. I can still see him on the first night of class, stylishly dressed, full of passion, but most importantly, talking about the psychology of Black people--the psychology of me and my life! His was the first class I had ever taken which elicited a profound visceral response in me. He talked about Black people in a scholarly, creative, and nonpathological way. In fact, he took common pathological notions about Black people and brilliantly reframed them in terms of psychological and social strengths. Significantly, he was doing this in a down-to-earth manner (e.g., he used the term brother for Black men and sister for Black women), which implied that he had experienced firsthand the realities of Black life. Pasteur made me see, for the first time, that "scholarly" did not have to mean "boring." He showed me the relative, rather than the absolute, nature of scholarship. He validated my life and the lives of all Black people when in that first class he introduced his scholarly ideas on Black expressiveness. I remember how proud I was and thinking "this brother has his s--- together." I also remember I spoke up proudly and confidently in that class (something I had never done before, and much to the shock of my White classmates!).
By the end of the first class session, I looked at Al and said to myself, "I want to be like him when I grow up!" On that night, Al Pasteur became my mentor and my friend. His pride in, love of, and passion about his own Blackness and unswerving commitment to the optimal development of people of African descent became the inspiration for completing my master's degree and subsequent doctoral work. It is the basis for my professional work and personal life to this day. Every time I teach a class, or advise a student, or engage in a scholarly activity, I strive to do it in the manner Al Pasteur would. He challenged me to be the best I could and to make myself an instrument of change for those individuals whose worldviews differed from the dominant view and who found themselves facing challenges in meeting their basic needs on a daily basis. Importantly, Al showed me how to do this with style, flair, and creativity.
In my final year at Hunter, Pasteur informed me that I was going to pursue my doctorate degree in counseling and that I had no choice in the matter. With his help, I obtained admission to Michigan State University, where I participated in a program funded by the National Institute of Mental Health to prepare doctoral-level professionals to work with ethnic minority client groups in urban settings. This program had been developed by Dr. Thomas S. Gunnings, who became another of my mentors. Long before the current popularity of the scholarly focus on social justice, systemic intervention, and counselor advocacy competencies, Gunnings was writing extensively about these concepts. Before notions of multicultural or advocacy competencies came into vogue, Gunnings developed a model and philosophy of counseling that emphasizes cultural responsiveness and systemic intervention. His scholarly concepts became the basis of my doctoral training and remain a primary focus of my work as [a] counselor educator.
STG: You have been a college professor at three different universities--North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. What has each one taught you? How do you see yourself having grown as a professional at each one?
CCL: When I began my career as a counselor educator as an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill [UNC-CH], it proved to be extremely challenging. I came into an institution and a training program that had limited experience with cultural diversity. I began to develop my line of research and teaching around counseling people of color. However, this scholarly area did not resonate with many of my white senior colleagues and many students. I was seen by many of them as a "token" hire, and they expected me to fail in my attempt at promotion and tenure.
I was fortunate to be befriended by a senior African American faculty member (one of the few at UNC-CH at the time). He was in the School of Public Health, and he told me that I needed to stay true to my agenda, work hard, and that it would take 7 years to achieve a degree of success. His prophesy proved to be right. I received tenure in my 5th year, and by the time I reached my 7th year at UNC-CH, I had begun to achieve a national reputation for my scholarly work. Importantly, by this time I had developed a support network of African American counselor educators from across the country that provided me with the cultural, personal, and professional validation I often lacked on campus.
My years at UNC-CH taught me a number of important life lessons. First, I learned never to waiver from my professional or personal philosophy, no matter the pressures to do so. Second, if you make up your mind to make things happen for yourself and believe in yourself and work hard, things will break your way. This reality was underscored for me when, against considerable odds, I achieved tenure--early! Third, I discovered that sometimes your accolades do not come from your home institution and that you need an external support network. I developed such a network of counselor educator friends and associates. My involvement with these individuals in professional counseling activities is what gave me my support, recognition, and validation. I developed friendships with many fellow counselor educators that continue to this day.
In 1987, I accepted the position as director of the Counselor Education program at the University of Virginia (UVA). I consider my years at UVA to be the most prolific period of my career. I published two of my major scholarly works there. The first, Multicultural Issues in Counseling: New Approaches to Diversity, is now in its fourth edition and is one of ACA's [American Counseling Association's] best selling books. I donated the royalties from this book to the ACA Foundation to provide financial support for counseling graduate students who demonstrate a commitment to multicultural and diversity issues in their work. The second book, Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males, has been a best seller among mental health professionals and has been used as a source by youth workers in a number of foreign countries.
My years at Virginia were my most active in terms of professional leadership. In 1988-89, I served as president of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development [AMCD]. I also served for 6 years as the editor of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. My leadership positions with AMCD provided me with opportunities to interact with leaders throughout the counseling profession.
It was during my time at UVA that I began my involvement with counseling on an international level. I was on the planning committee for AACD's [American Association for Counseling and Development's] first bilateral conference held in London in conjunction with the British Association for Counselling [BAC]. As a result of this conference, I developed friendships with members of BAC, became one of its members, attended its annual training conference, and over time became actively involved in its professional development activities. I presented workshops at BAC annual training conferences, served several times as a keynote speaker, and was actively involved in the BAC division that dealt with multicultural issues. In 1999, I was made a fellow of BAC (then the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy), the first and only American to be awarded this honor.
In addition to my involvement with the BAC, I became actively involved in the professional activities of the International Roundtable for the Advancement of Counselling [IRTAC]. I presented at IRTAC conferences throughout the 1990s and was the association's secretary. Beginning in 1995, I served as the association's nongovernmental representative to the United Nations, which gave me the opportunity to promote counseling internationally.
During the late 1980s and into the early 1990s, I was offered a number of leadership positions within AACD/ACA that took me beyond the limits of multicultural counseling. I also served on the CACREP [Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs] Board of Directors and chaired the ACA Council of Journal Editors. In addition, I served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling & Development and The Career Development Quarterly.
In 1995, I was elected president of Chi Sigma Iota, the International Counseling Honor Society. In that role, I particularly enjoyed speaking to the next generation of professional counselors about what was important to me with respect to leadership in counseling. In 1997, I was honored to be one of the inaugural members to be inducted into the Chi Sigma Iota Academy of Leaders for Excellence. The capstone experience of my UVA years was being elected president of the American Counseling Association in 1997-98.
During my years at UVA as my professional stature and visibility rose, I found greater opportunities to become a mentor, assisting young scholars and graduate students both at the university and beyond. For these students and young professionals, I was perceived as a mentor, parent figure, confessor, and advocate--an experience which caused me to reflect on how powerful Al Pasteur's influence had been, as I was now passing on his wisdom and insights to a new generation.
My years at UVA also left with me with some valuable lessons and insights about the nature of counseling and counselor education. I learned the importance of professional service and how it is crucial that as citizens of the profession, we must be actively involved in advancing counseling through our involvement in professional associations and related activities. I have learned that with professional stature comes the responsibility to mentor and reach behind you to extend a hand to those who are coming after you. One of my greatest points of pride is the number of young professionals I have mentored who have gone on to scholarly and leadership prominence in the profession.
Finally, my UVA years brought home to me the true meaning of the bumper sticker "Think Globally, Act Locally." Through my international activities, I came to realize the world is truly interconnected and the problems faced by people in one part of the world are generally mirrored in another. My international counseling-related activities have shown me the great potential that counseling, as a process and a profession, has in addressing the global challenges that confront humanity.
In the fall of 2001, after a 2-year stint in academic administration in New York City, I accepted a faculty position in the Department of Counseling and Personnel Services at the University of Maryland [UMD] at College Park. Since 1999, the department has been ranked number one in counseling according to U.S. News and World Report. I joined the Counselor Education Program in the department and was able to return to my counseling-related scholarship and leadership activities that I had to curtail when I was an academic administrator.
The highlight of my experience at UMD thus far has been the efforts that my colleagues and I have engaged in to revitalize the Counselor Education Program, which had grown increasingly moribund. We have redesigned the program according to the principles of access, equity, and social justice and focused our training mission on preparing counselors and counselor educators who are leaders and advocates. The program curriculum centers on preparing professional counselors who can address human development challenges in urban environments. This restructuring of the program has given me the opportunity to employ many of the concepts I learned from Tom Gunnings.
It is gratifying to see UMD Counselor Education graduates becoming leaders in the profession and advancing concepts of multiculturalism and social justice. It gives me a great deal of pride and a true sense of satisfaction that the UMD Counselor Education Program is now considered one of the best in the country and on the cutting-edge of multicultural and social justice practice and research.
STG: For a year and a half, you were dean of the School of Education at Hunter College of the City University of New York. What did you learn from that experience?
CCL: In retrospect, I view my experience as dean as an aberration in my career trajectory. While I had thought I would enjoy the leadership role inherent in being a dean, I did not. Hunter College, indeed the entire City University of New York, is a huge political bureaucracy where education and the development of students often get lost. I went into the deanship with high expectations. I wanted to help Hunter's School of Education become a strong national presence in urban education. However, instead of being a leader, I was relegated to the role of manager, consistently dealing with bureaucratic issues that had little to do with my vision for the School of Education.
Perhaps the most disconcerting aspect of being a dean was that I found myself being pulled away from my work and identity as a counselor educator. I was not able to teach, and I had little time for scholarship or ACA activities. From this experience, much like Spock points out to James T. Kirk in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan that "commanding a starship is your first, best destiny," I learned that being a counselor educator is my first, best destiny. When the opportunity to return to a faculty position at the University of Maryland was offered to me, I accepted it without a second thought.
STG: You have made a large impact on the counseling profession in a number of areas. What drew you to these areas [multicultural counseling and international counseling], and what do you think you have contributed to each?
CCL: While I prefer to leave it to others to judge my contributions in this area, I feel that over the years I have become a forceful voice for advancing issues of multiculturalism and diversity in the profession of counseling.
I was attracted to international aspects of counseling by the dynamic personality of Hans Z. Hoxter. Hoxter was a visionary pioneer. He was a true giant who worked tirelessly to advance the profession of counseling globally. From his birth in 1909 to his death, at age 93, in 2002, he witnessed the historic sweep of the 20th century, including the devastation of World Wars I and II. His personal experiences during those conflicts made him a lifelong champion of peace and social justice. He saw the potential of counseling as a global force to fight social injustice and ensure access and equity for all people. I hope that one of my legacies will be that I helped to forge working alliances between counselors from different countries to advance the profession of counseling as a force to promote human dignity and development.
STG: You were the first African American male elected president of the American Counseling Association. Talk about that and what you learned.
CCL: The great historical irony of my ACA presidency is that I was sworn in almost fifty years to the day that Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in baseball. Given the historical significance of my presidency and its alignment with the anniversary of this important event, I dedicated my presidency to the legacy of Jackie Robinson.
I knew that I would be under great scrutiny as the first Black man to hold this office. Fortunately, I had two great role models in Drs. Thelma Daley and Beverly O'Bryant, who were the first and second African American ACA presidents. I consulted with both often during my tenure. They became important anchors for me. My hope was I could serve as an inspiration to young counselors of color, particularly males.
I chose as my presidential theme "Empowerment Through Social Action." This theme embodied all that I believed in about the power of counseling to help make the world a better place. My theme resulted in a book coedited with Dr. Garry Walz, titled Social Action: A Mandate for Counselors.
When I assumed the presidency, ACA was in a precarious state financially and several divisions that were philosophically opposed to the mission of ACA were threatening to disaffiliate. My leadership objective was to build consensus around our core values as professional counselors regardless of our various work settings or specialties. For this reason, I convened the Millennium Commission, which had representatives from all ACA stakeholders, and charged it with developing a governance model that would allow stakeholders a degree of autonomy while maintaining their ties to ACA. Concurrently, the ACA Governing Council approved a policy that allowed members a degree of choice regarding their membership in the association and its divisions. Both of these measures helped to stave off division measures to disaffiliate.
Also during my presidency, I convened a Multicultural/ Diversity Summit and charged ACA leaders with developing a multicultural/diversity agenda for the association. From this summit came a document that charted a course for the association on issues of access and equity. Of all my accomplishments during my presidency, I am proudest of the work accomplished at this summit.
My year as ACA president was an incredible learning experience. I took away three important leadership/life lessons from that year. First, I learned that as a leader you must stay true to your vision. Second, the experience underscored for me the importance of having people you consider to be anchors in your life. As I traveled the country, I was constantly energized by friends, both old and new, whose integrity, humor, vision, humility, passion, and common sense provided me with great support and honest feedback on my presidential performance. Third, despite all of the tumult around philosophical issues of disaffiliation, I learned that the profession of counseling is greater than any division, branch, or region. Despite our work settings, we are all professional counselors.
STG: You are the first American to be elected president of the International Association [for] Counselling [IAC]. What has this experience been like for you? How has it impacted your perspective on the profession?
CCL: I attended my first IAC conference in Helsinki, Finland, in the summer of 1990, and it changed the course of my professional life. At that conference, I was exposed to new ideas and people, which challenged my parochial views of counseling. Over time, I became involved in the leadership of IAC and was elected president in 2006.
Serving as IAC president has been a rewarding but humbling experience. I have learned how to facilitate dialogue and administrative
action among counseling leaders from a number of different countries and cultures, which often proves to be challenging. I have also learned that even though much of the world looks to the U.S. counseling profession for leadership, we do not have all of the answers. Indeed, the counseling profession in this country has much to learn from other helping practitioners. I have traveled to every continent except Antarctica in my role as IAC president. My journeys have increasingly underscored for me the notion that counseling, as we know it in this country, is a uniquely 20th-century, North American profession.
STG: You are one of the most accomplished authors and presenters in the American Counseling Association. How have you managed to stay so productive? What has been your most satisfying accomplishment in the area of publications and presentations?
CCL: In answering these questions, two things come to mind. First, I have always loved to write. Second, I love the theater and I am a frustrated actor. Therefore, writing and presenting are great creative outlets for me. My most satisfying accomplishment in this area is the publication of the books I have mentioned before.
STG: You have chaired the American Counseling Association Foundation and chaired a number of committees for ACA and its divisions. What has energized you to work so hard for the good of the counseling profession?
CCL: While I can say that service to the profession has been an important criterion for my promotion and tenure, it has gone far beyond that. Active service to the profession was modeled to me during both my master's and doctoral training. As I became involved in leadership positions in ACA, I developed a network of friends and colleagues who have now become an important personal and professional support system. Over the years, I have accumulated a large repository of memories of good times spent with ACA colleagues as we engaged in counseling/leadership activities in all parts of the world.
Most importantly, however, my service to ACA has given me an opportunity to give back to a profession which has been very good to me. It gives me a great sense of pride and accomplishment when I see that my service efforts benefit my colleagues, students, or the profession as a whole.
STG: What have I not asked you about any aspect of your personal or professional life that you would want to share with readers?
CCL: I currently live in Bowie, Maryland, with my wife, Vivian, and our Labrador retriever, Snoopy. In nay free time I enjoy reading (mysteries and historical novels, in particular) and gourmet cooking. As mentioned previously, I am a frustrated actor and love the theater. I enjoy attending theatrical performances in Washington, New York, and London. Vivian and I love to travel. We are also fanatical owners of season tickets to the Washington Redskins. Finally, I would like to share a quote that strongly underscores the message in my story. It comes from my hero, Jackie Robinson, whose social action helped to change the face of America. Robinson reflected on his achievements as a trailblazer with the Brooklyn Dodgers with the following statement: "A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives." This quote is the credo for my life and work as a counselor educator.
STG: What advice would you give to young professionals in regard to their careers in counselor education?
CCL: In thinking about advice I would give to young counselor educators, there are five lessons I have learned in my journey.
Lesson 1 is to strive for balance. While you work hard, it is important that you find time to play hard too. Make sure that in the midst of focusing on developing a professional life you do not lose sight of your personal life. I have learned that, sometimes the hard way. Take time for yourself and the significant others in your personal life. While there are times when the demands of your professional life can consume you, it is important to put those demands in perspective and consider what and who is really important in the broad scheme of your life.
Lesson 2 is to adopt a holistic perspective. Along with working for balance in your life, it is important that you take care of your body, mind, and soul. Physical exercise and wellness are imperatives. It is crucial that you continue to stimulate your mind. Always remember that learning is a lifelong process. Discover what is truly sacred in your life and ensure that whatever this is, you cherish it and ensure that it enriches your spiritual well-being.
Lesson 3 is to reach behind you. As you experience success and achieve professional stature, it is imperative that you extend your hand to those who are coming behind you. Always take seriously your potential position as role model or mentor to the next generation of professionals.
Lesson 4 is to give back to the profession. As the profession rewards you, make sure that you find ways to give back. Whether with time, effort, or money, find ways to return your good fortune to the profession.
Lesson 5 is to think globally and act locally. In these challenging times, it is important to extend thinking and action beyond national boundaries. To be a professional counselor means being a true citizen of the world. It is important to adopt a global perspective. While you are thinking globally, it is imperative that you become a force for positive change. Commit yourself to linking with colleagues to collaborate on addressing common human challenges. Use the knowledge gained from your international collaborations to promote the empowerment of those in your local community.
STG: What has brought you the most satisfaction in your career as a counselor educator?
CCL: This is perhaps the easiest question to answer: writing, mentoring students and junior faculty members, and serving the profession of counseling both in the United States and internationally.
STG: Thank you, Courtland: It has been a pleasure getting to know the man behind the legacy.
CCL: It's been my pleasure. Thank you!
* Courtland C. Lee: A Time Line 1949 Born, Philadelphia, PA 1963-1967 Attended Central High School, Philadelphia, PA 1967-1971 Attended Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 1972-1976 Elementary schoolteacher, Brooklyn, NY; attended Hunter College of the City University of New York for master's in counseling 1976-1979 Attended Michigan State University for PhD in counseling 1979-1987 Assistant/associate professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1987-2000 Associate professor/professor, University of Virginia 1991 First edition of Multicultural Issues in Counseling: New Approaches to Diversity published 1997-1998 Served as president of the American Counseling Association 2001 Professor, University of Maryland at College Park 2006 Elected president of the International Association for Counselling
* Courtland C. Lee: Selected Publications
Lee, C. C. (2003). Empowering young Black males--III. A systematic modular training program for Black male children & adolescents. Greensboro, NC: CAPS.
Lee, C. C. (Ed.). (2007). Counseling for social justice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Lee, C. C. (Ed.). (in press). Multicultural issues in counseling: New approaches to diversity (4th ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Lee, C. C., Burnhill, D. A., Butler, A. L., Hipolito-Delgado, C., Humphrey, M., Munoz, O., & Shin, H. (Eds.). (2009). Elements of culture in counseling. Columbus, OH: Pearson.
Lee, C. C. (2001). Defining and responding to racial and ethnic diversity. In D. C. Locke, J. E. Myers, & E. L. Herr (Eds.), The handbook of counseling (pp. 581-588). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lee, C. C. (2006). Ethical issues in multicultural counseling. In B. Herlihy & G. Corey (Eds.), ACA ethical standards casebook (6th ed., pp. 159-162). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Lee, C. C., & Wagner, A. M. (2007). Counseling in urban schools: Context, challenges, characteristics, and competencies. In J. Wittmer & M. A. Clark (Eds.), Managing your school counseling program: K-12 developmental strategies (pp. 267-274). Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media.
Lee, C. C. (1997). The global future of professional counseling: Collaboration for international social change. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21, 279-285.
Lee, C. C. (2001). Culturally responsive school counselors and programs: Addressing the needs of all students. Professional School Counseling, 4, 257-261.
Lee, C. C. (2005). Urban school counseling context, characteristics, and competencies. Professional School Counseling, 8, 184-188.
Lee, C. C., Oh, M. Y., & Mountcastle, A. R. (1992). Indigenous models of helping in nonWestern countries: Implications for multicultural counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20, 3-10.
Lee, C. C., & Rodgers, R. A. (2009). Counselor advocacy: Affecting systemic change in the public arena. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 284-287.
Lee, C. C., & Six, T. L. (1992). Counsellor licensure: The American experience. Counselling: The Journal of the British Association for Counselling, 3, 93-95.
Samuel T. Gladding, Department of Counseling, Wake Forest University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Samuel T. Gladding, Department of Counseling, Wake Forest University, 7406 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
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|Author:||Gladding, Samuel T.|
|Publication:||Journal of Counseling and Development|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2011|
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