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County records and major range extensions for angiosperms from somervell county. texas.

Floristic work in Somervell County, mainly in and around Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC), a 704 ha breeding facility for threatened and endangered animals located in Glen Rose, Texas, in Somervell County was conducted in association with restoration projects at the facility. Extensive grazing and browsing by exotic herbivores has occurred on nearly 1200 acres and about 60 ha in native-grazed portions of the park have been part of habitat restoration programs for the black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica cluysoparia). Treatments for habitat restoration in these areas included razing, burning and seeding projects. During the course of these restoration projects at FRWC, plants were collected as voucher specimens; many of which had not been reported in Somervell County.

Plants were collected primarily from areas of limited grazing or ungrazed areas during the period of March - November 2005. Additionally, previous collections from Somervell County were located in the Tarleton State University Herbarium (TAC) and included in the study. Plant specimen identification and taxonomy was determined using Shinners and Mahler 's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas (Diggs et al.1999). Specimen occurrence and distribution records were compared to data available in the Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b). Voucher specimens were deposited in the Tarleton State University Herbarium (TAC). Taxa new to Somervell County but occurring in bordering counties are listed in Table 1. Those not reported from bordering counties are discussed as major range extensions for the region.
Table 1. Floral records for Somervell County that have also been
reported  from bordering counties (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b)
including Bosque  (B). Erath (E). Hood (H). and Johnson (J).
Common names are included in brackets. Plants that are native
(N) to Texas or introduced (I) are indicated. I'arleton State
University herbarium (TAC) accession numbers are included.

Family/Species/Common name          Bordering   N/I   TAC


Ruellia drummondiana (Nees.) A.     B           N     4183
Gray [Drummond's rucllia]


Rhus lanceolata (A. Gray) Britton   B, E, H. J  N     4063
[prairie sumac]

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kunlze  E, H, J     N     4101
subsp. verrucosum (Scheele) Gillis


Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook.     J           N     4084
var. dasycarpum Hook, ex S. Watson
[hairy-fruit chervil]


Amsonia ciliata Walter var. texana  B. E. H. J  N     4082
(A. Gray) J. Coult. [Texas


Asclepias asperula (Decne.)         B. E, H, J  N     4081
Woodson subsp. capricornu
(Woodson) Woodson

A. viridis Walter [green            J           N     4116

Matetea hi flora (Raf.) Woodson     E           N    41 14
[two-flowered milkvine]


Arnoglossum plantagineum Raf.       E. H        N     4191

Gaillardia pulchella Foug. |        E, J        N      907

Grindelia nuda A. Wood [ray less    B, J        N     4122

Gutierrezia dracimculoides (DC.)
S. F.

Blake [common broomweed]            B           N     4149

Helenium elegans DC. [sneezew       J           N     4150

Hymenopappus tenuifolius Pursh      B. E, J     N     4124
[old plainsman]

Lvgodesma texana (Torrey & A.

Greene [Texas skeleton-plant]       B. E. H. J  N     4115

Thelespermafilifolium (Hook.) A.    B. E, .1    N     4159
Gray var. filifolium

Verhesina virginica L. [frost       J           N     4121

Vernonia lindheimeri A. Gray &      B. E, J     N     4119
Engelm. [woolly ironweed]


Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.)        E           I     4156
Mcdik. [sheperd's purse]

Draba cuneifolia Nutt. ex Torr. &   B, E, H. J  N     4135
A. Gray [wedge-leaf draba]

Lepidium virginicum L [Virginia     E           N     1365


Lonicera albiflora Torr. & A. Gray  E, J        N     4108
[white honeysuckle]


Cerasliwn brachypodum (Englem. ex   E           N     4083
A. Gray) B. L. Rob. [short-stalk


Cornus drummondii C. A. Mey.        B, E        N     4112
[rough-leaf dogwood]


Euphorbia spathulata Lam. [warty    B, E, J     N     4187

Stillingia texana I. M. Johnst.     B, E, J     N     4182
[Texas stillingia]


Astragalus nuttallianus DC. var.    E           N     4172
nuttalianus [Nuttall's

Lupinus texensis Hook. [Texas       B, H        N     4132

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.     B, E        I     4141
[yellow sweet-clover]

Senna roemeriana (Scheele) H.       E           N     4189
Irwin & Barnaby [two-leaf senna]


Quercus fusiformis Small [live      B. E        N     4070

Q. stellata Wangenh. [post oak]     E           N     4053


Centaurium calycosum (Buckley)      E           N     4181
Fernald [Buckley's centaury]

Eustomarussellianum (Hook.) G. Don  E, J        N     4118


Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. ex   E, J        1     4129
Aiton [pin-clover]

E. texanum A. Gray [stork's-bill]   B, E, H, J  N     4096


Sisyrinchium langloissi Greene      E, J        N     4090
[pale blue-eyed-grass]


Salvia engelmannii A. Gray          B.E.J       N     4164
[Engelmann's sagej

S. texana (Scheele) Torr.) [Texas   E, J        N     4177

Scutellaria wrightii A. Gray        E, J        N     4188
[Wright's skill leap |


Allium drummondii Regel             E, J        N     4171
[Drummond's onion]

Zigadenus nut tallii (A. Gray) S.   B           N     4094
Watson [death-camass]


Callirhoe involucrata (Nutt.) A.    E, H        N     4127
Gray var. involucrate [low


Melia azedarach L. [China-berry]    E           I     4093


Cocculus carol in us (L.) DC.

snailseed]                          E, J        N     4180


Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var.     B. H        N     4054
glabrifolia Shinners [smooth-leaf


Calylophus berlandieri Spaeh        E, H.J      N     4184
subsp. pinifolius (Engelm. ex A.
Gray) Towner [Berlandier's

Oenothera macrocarpa Nutt. subsp.   B, E, J     N     4185
macrocarpa [flutter-mill]

O. speciosa Nutt.                   E           N     4133


Plant ago rhodosperma Decne.        B.E         N     4074
[red-seed plantain]


Ipomopsis rubra (L.) Wherry         B, E. H, J  N     4091


Polygala alba Nutt. [white          B, E. J     N     4142
milkwort |


Clavtonia virginica L. [Virginia    H, J        N     3208


Samolus valerandi L. subsp.         E           N     4111
parviflorus (Raf.) O. Hulten
[thin-leaf brookweed]


Ceanothus herbaceus Raf.            B, J        N     4089

Frangula caroliniana (Walter) A.    E           N     4190
Gray [Carolina buckthorn!


Primus persica (L.) Batsch | peach  B           1     4137


Cephalanthus occidental us L.       E           N     4120
[common buttonbush]


Zanthoxylum hirsutum Buckley        B, E        N     4078


Populus deltoides Bartram ex.       E, J        N     4088
Marshall subsp. deltoides [eastern


Sideroxylon lanuginosum Michx.      B           N     4056
subsp. oblongifoliuim (Nutt.) T.
D. Penn. [chittamwood]


Penstemon cobaea Nutt. [foxglove]   B, E.J      N     4087

Veronicaperegrina L. subsp.         E           N     4075
xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell [Jalapa


Smilax bona-nox L. [saw             E           N     4058


Solatiumptvehanthum Dunal           B. E        N     4186
[American nightshade]


Ulmns crassifolia Nutt. [cedar      E           N     4050

Celtis laevigata Willd. var.        E.J         N     4130
laevigata [sugarberry]


Glandularia bipinnatifida (Nutt.)   E, H, J     N     4134
Null. var. bipinnatifida [prairie

G. pumila (Rydb.) Umber [pink       E. H.J      N     4168

Verbena haleii. K. Small [slender   E.J         N     4126


Vitis mustangensis Buckley          E.J         N     4109
[mustang grape]

Plants were compared to those that occur on the Texas State-listed Noxious Weeds (USDA, 2010), state threatened and endangered plant species list (TPWD, 2010), and rare plants of Texas (Poole et al. 2007). None of the taxa collected occurred in the aforementioned electronic databases or in Poole et al. 2007. The following taxa, organized by family, represent major range extensions into Somervell County.


Erigeron tenuis Torr. & A. Gray (slender fleabane; TAC 4102) is a native composite widely distributed from the southeast and east of Somervell County. Its collection extends the known range north and west from its nearest localities in McLennan and Dallas counties, respectively (Turner et al. 2003a).

Senecio vulgaris L. (common groundsel; TAC 4138) is a groundsel introduced from Europe (Diggs et al. 1999). It has been reported from Brown County in the west and Tarrant and McLennan counties to the east (Turner et al. 2003a). Common groundsel is a common weed found mostly in disturbed areas. Its presence in Somervell County fills a distribution gap in the West Cross Timbers.


Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz (rocketweed; TAC 4099) is an introduced mustard from Europe (Diggs et al. 1999). Its collection in Somervell County represents a westward range extension from Hill and Tarrant counties from the southeast and northeast, respectively (Turner et al. 2003a).

Sibara virginica (L.) Rollins (Virginia sibara, TAC 4098) is a native mustard from Somervell County that represents a range extension from Callahan County to the west and Tarrant County to the east (Turner et al. 2003a).

Sisymbriurn irio L. (rocket-mustard; TAC 4140), an introduced European mustard (Diggs et al. 1999), is known from Comanche and Dallas counties (Turner et al. 2003a). Its collection in Somervell County fills in a distribution gap between the two counties.


Opuntia engelrnannii Salm-Dyck var. lindheimeri (Engelm.) B.D. Parfitt & Pinkava (Texas prickly-pear; TAC 4064) is a native variety of cactus known from Coleman County to the west, Ellis County to the east, Coryell County to the south, and Dallas County to the northeast of Somervell County (Turner et al. 2003a). Its presence in Somervell is a major range extension for the cactus.


Stellaria media (L.) D. Vill. (common chickweed; TAC 4392), an introduced chickweed from Europe (Diggs et al. 1999), has been collected from the north and east of Somervell County in nearby Parker, Tarrant, and Dallas counties (Turner et al. 2003a).


Sedum nuttallianum Raf. (yellow stonecrop; TAC 4113 is a native stonecrop (Diggs et al. 1999). It has been collected from many counties to the east of Somervell County as well as Eastland and Brown counties to the west (Turner et al. 2003a). Specimens from Somervell County fill a distribution gap between known eastern and western localities.


Medicago arabica (L.) Huds. (spotted bur-clover; TAC 4097) is an introduced legume from southern Europe and southwest Asia (Diggs et al. 1999). The specimen from Somervell County represents a range extension from Callahan County to the west and Dallas County to the east (Turner et al. 2003a).

Medicago polymorpha L. (bur-clover, TAC 4176) is an introduced legume from Eurasia (Diggs et al. 1999). It has been collected north of Somervell County in Tarrant County, east in Navarro County, and south in Coryell County (Turner et al. 2003a).


Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten. (starch grape-hyacinth, TAC 4167) is an introduced lily from the Mediterranean region (Diggs et al. 1999). It has been collected from nearby Hill County to the southeast and Comanche County to the west (Turner et al. 2003b).


Mentzelia oligosperma Nutt. ex Sims. (stickleaf; TAC 4117) is a native plant and has been reported from Dallas, Hill, Palo Pinto, and Tarrant counties (Turner et al. 2003a). This record from Somervell County extends its range southeast toward Hill County.


Sida abutifolia Mill. (spreading sida; TAC 4153) is a native mallow reported from Tarrant County northeast of Somervell County and from the southeast in Hill County (Turner et al. 2003a). Collection of spreading sida in Somervell County fills a distribution gap between the above-mentioned localities and numerous southwestern counties where it is reported (Turner et al. 2003a).


Oenothera triloba Nutt. (stemless evening-primrose; TAC 4136) is a native primrose reported from the northeast of Somervell County in Tarrant County and from the southeast in McLennan County (Turner et al. 2003a). This collection in Somervell County fills in a distribution gap between the above-mentioned localities and numerous western counties where it is reported (Turner et al. 2003a).


Avena fatua L. (wild oats; TAC 4092) is an introduced grass from the Mediterranean that occurs in Hill and Tarrant counties to the southeast and northeast of Somervell County, respectively (Turner et al. 2003b). Its presence in Somervell County extends its range westward, where the nearest locality is Brown County (Turner et al. 2003b).


Rumex crispus L. (curly dock); TAC 4162) is an introduced dock from Europe (Diggs et al. 1999). It has been collected from Tarrant and McLennan to the east and Brown County to the west (Turner et al. 2003a). The specimen from Somervell County fills a distribution gap between known eastern and western localities.


Ungnadia speciosa Endl. (Mexican-buckeye; TAC 4131) has not been reported from counties adjacent to Somervell County but occurs in nearby Hamilton, Palo Pinto, and Tarrant counties (Turner et al. 2003a). This collection of Mexican-buckeye, which is native, fills a distribution gap southwest of Tarrant County.


Castilleja indivisa Englelm. (Texas paintbrush; TAC 4128) reported from nearby Hamilton, Hill, and Tarrant counties (Turner et al. 2003a) is a native paintbrush. This collection extends the range of Texas paintbrush northwest from Hill County.

Verbascum thapsus L. (common mullein; TAC 4125) has been reported in Dallas and McLennan counties (Turner et al. 2003a). Its presence in Somervell County extends the range of this introduced species southwestward.

Veronica persica Poir. (Persian speedwell; TAC 4139) has been reported from nearby Hamilton County with sporadic collections from most of the state (Turner et al. 2003a). It is an introduced species from Eurasia (Diggs et al. 1999), and its presence in Somervell County as well as nearby Hamilton County indicates that it has spread into the North Central Texas region.


Physalis mollis Nutt. (field ground-cherry; TAC 4123) is a native nightshade reported from Dallas County to the northeast, Falls County to the southeast, and Coleman County to the west (Turner et al. 2003a). Its presence in Somervell County fills a distribution gap westward to Coleman County.


Celtis laevigata C. von Willd. var. reticulata Torr. (net-leaf hackberry; TAC 4061) is a native tree that has not been reported in Somervell County or adjacent counties. However net-leaf hackberry has been reported from nearby Comanche, Coryell, Hill, and Parker counties (Turner et al. 2003a).


Verbena neomexicana (A. Gray) Small var. neomexicana (hillside vervain; TAC 4145) is a native vervain previously only reported from counties within the Big Bend region of Texas (Turner et at. 2003a). Diggs et al. (1999) considered it a component of the North Central Texas flora and listed its range as the western two-thirds of Texas. The collection of hillside vervain represents a major range extension of the species' previously known range.


Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Engelm. ex A. Gray (mistletoe, TAC 3888) is a native hemiparasite that has been collected to the west of Somervell County in Comanche County (Turner et al. 2003a). Its presence in Somervell County fills a distribution gap westward into East Texas where it has sporadically been collected.


Diggs, G. M., B. L. Lipscomb, & R.J. O'Kennon. 1999. Shinners & Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 1626 pp.

Poole, J. M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price. & J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. 640 pp.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2010. Endangered and threatened plants in Texas and the United States. Austin. Texas. Accessed 9 December 2010.

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols. G. Denny, & 0. Doron. 2003a. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas, Volume I. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 648 pp.

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & 0. Doron. 2003b. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas, Volume 11. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 240 pp.

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2010. Texas State-listed Noxious Weeds. The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Center. Baton Rouge, LA. Accessed 9 December 2010.

ADN at:


Tardigrades (Phylum Tardigrada), commonly known as water bears, are microscopic animals found in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. Terrestrial species occur in mosses, lichens, liverworts, and leaf litter, and are renowned for their ability to enter a cryptobiotic state (anhydrobiosis) in response to desiccation. Over 960 species of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial tardigrade are known worldwide (Guidetti & Bertolani 2005; Degma & Guidetti 2007; Degma et al. 2010). The presence of more than 200 freshwater and terrestrial species has been reported in North America (Meyer 8z Hinton 2007).

The first investigations of water bears in the West Indies were made in the mid-Twentieth Century, when du Bois-Reymond Marcus (1960) found four species in the Netherlands Antilles. Since then, there have been few studies of terrestrial and freshwater tardigrades from the islands of the Caribbean Sea. These studies have been limited to Puerto Rico (Fox & Garcia-Moll 1962; Beasley 1981), Dominican Republic (Schuster & Toftner 1982; Kaczmarek et al. 2007), and Cuba (Kaczmarek & Michalczyk 2002) in the Greater Antilles; and Curacao (du Bois-Reymond Marcus 1960), Los Testigos (du Bois-Reymond Marcus 1960), and Saint Lucia (lharos 1982) in the Lesser Antilles. This paper represents the first record of tardigrades from the Caribbean island of Saint Martin.

Saint Martin, a small (87 km2) island in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, is divided politically into a northern, French portion (Collectivite de Saint-Martin) and a southern, Dutch portion (Sint Maarten). Formed by volcanic activity about 17 million years ago (Christman 1953), the island is very hilly in topography (maximum elevation 424 m). There are no rivers; rainfall averages 99.5 cm per year. The interior hills still contain substantial areas of dry tropical forest.

Four samples of cryptogams were collected at two sites in the French portion of the island: one moss sample from rocks alongside a tropical forest trail at Loterie Farm (18[degrees]04'40.0"N, 63[degrees]03'40.6"W; 77 m elev.; collected 4 January 2011), and one squamulose lichen and two moss samples from a stone wall alongside Rue de Colombier, a rural road leading to the interior village of Colombier (18[degrees]04'34.3"N, 63[degrees]03'52.5"W; 57 m elev.; collected 6 January, 2011). This collection offers only a preliminary look at the tardigrade fauna of Saint Martin; it should not be considered a comprehensive survey. Samples were stored in sealed paper envelopes. In the laboratory samples were soaked in water overnight, thus rehydrating anhydrobiotic water bears. After sieving (42 gm mesh diameter), the samples were examined with a dissecting microscope. Tardigrade specimens and eggs were mounted on slides in polyvinyl lactophenol. Sample processing was completed by early February 2011. Comparisons with species not personally examined were based on their description.

The four samples contained 55 tardigrades and 2 eggs, representing six species: Milnesium cf. tardigradum Doyere, 1840 (two specimens), Doryphoribius quadrituberculatus Kaczmarek and Michalczyk, 2004 (six specimens), Macrobiotus rubens Murray, 1907 (two specimens), Paramacrobiotus cf. richtersi (13 specimens), Macrobiotus coronatus de Barros, 1942 (32 specimens and two eggs), and Minibiotus cf. intermedius (two specimens). Moss at Loterie Farm had four species of tardigrade (Macrobiotus coronatus, Macrobiotus rubens, Paramacrobiotus cf. richtersi, and Minibiotus cf. intermedius). At Rue de Colombier the lichen contained Milnesium cf. tardigradum and Macrobiotus coronatus and the moss contained Dotyphoribius quadrituberculatus and Macrobiotus coronatus. Specimens are archived in the W.A.K. Seale Museum, MeNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609, USA (slides SM LA 9901-9910).

Doryphoribius. quach-inthercylaitts has previously only been found in Costa Rica (Kaczmarek & Michalczyk 2004). Macrobiotus coronatus is a cosmopolitan species, and is widely distributed in the Americas, including the Dominican Republic in the West Indies (Schuster & Toftner 1982). Specimens and eggs of Macrobiotus coronatus found in Saint Martin match the illustrations and detailed morphometric data provided by Pilato et al. (2000). Although du Bois-Reymond Marcus (1960) reported the presence of Macrobiotus rubens on Los Testigos, Ramazzotti & Maucci (1983) noted that her identification was in error. Specimens from St. Martin exactly matched the original description of Murray (1907); in the absence of eggs the species can be distinguished from other Macrobiotus species with similar placoids and claws by the presence of conspicuous orange to reddish brown inclusions. Therefore this is the first record of Macrobiotus rubens from a Caribbean island.

I wish to thank Harry L. Meyer for providing logistical support. Lukasz Kaczmarek kindly loaned a paratype of Doryphoribius quadrituberculatus for comparison.

Harry A. Meyer

Department of Biology and Health Science, McNeese State University Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609


Beasley, C. W. 1981. Some Tardigrada from Puerto Rico. Texas J. Sci., 33:9-12. Christman, R. A. 1953. Geology of St. Bartholomew, St. Martin, and Anguilla, Lesser Antilles. Geol. Soc. Am, Bull., 64:65-96.

Degma, P., R. Bertolani & R. Guidetti. 2010. Actual checklist of Tardigrada species (2009-2011, Ver. 16:17-02-2010). checklist of Tardigrada.pdf. Accessed February 27, 2011.

Degma, P. & R. Guidetti. 2007. Notes to the current checklist of Tardigrada. Zootaxa, 1579:41-53.

du Bois-Reymond Marcus, E. 1960. Tardigrada from Curacao, Bonaire and Los Testigos. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, 10(45):52-57.

Fox, I. & I. Garcia-Moll. 1962. Echiniscus rnolluscorum, new tardigrade from the faeces of the land snail, Bulimulus exilis (Gmelin) in Puerto Rico (Tardigrada: Scutechiniscidae). J. Parasitol., 48:177-181.

Guidetti, R. & R. Bertolani. 2005. Tardigrade taxonomy: An updated checklist of the taxa and a list of characters for their identification. Zootaxa, 845:1-46.

Iharos, G. 1982. Tardigradologische Notizen. I. Misc. Zoo!. Hungarica, 1:8-90.

Kaczmarek, L. & L. Michalczyk. 2002. Echiniscus harharae, a new species of tardigrade from Cuba Island (Tardigrada: Fleterotardigrada, Echiniscidae, 'arctomys group'). Zootaxa, 53:1-4.

Kaczmarek, L. & L. Michalczyk. 2004. First record of the genus .Dolyphoribitts Pilato, 1969 from Costa Rica (Central America) and description of a new species Dotyphorihins quadrintherctilatus (Tardigrada: Hypsibiidae). Genus, 15:447-453.

Kaczmarek L., L. Michalczyk & P. Degma. 2007. Description of a new tardigrade, Alacrobiotus barbcnYie (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae) from the Dominican Republic. Annales Zoologici (Warszawa), 57:363-369.

Meyer, H.A. & J.G. Hinton. 2007. Limno-terrestrial Tardigrada of the Nearctic Realm. J. Limnol. 66(Suppl. 1):97-103.

Murray, J. 1907. Some Tardigrada of the Sikkim Himalaya. J. Roy. Microsc. Soc., 1907 (HD:269-273.

Pilato, G., M. G. Binda, A. Napolitano & E. Moncada. 2000. The specific value of Macrobiotus commons De Barros 1942, and description of two new species of the harmsworthi group (Eutardigrada). Boll. Ac. Gioenia Sci. Nat., 33, 103-120.

Ramazzotti, G. & W. Maucci. 1983. 11 Phylum Tardigrada. Mem. 1st. Ital. Idrobiol., 41:11012.

Schuster. R. 0. & E. C. Toftner. 1982. Dominican Republic Tardigrada. Pp. 231-235, in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Tardigrades (D. R. Nelson, ed.), East Tennessee Univ. Press, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA.

Allan D. Nelson and Shannon Burgess Department of Biological Sciences. Tarleton State University Stephenville, TX 76042
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Title Annotation:GENERAL NOTES
Author:Nelson, Allan D.; Burgess, Shannon
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Date:Aug 1, 2011
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