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Correlation studies of chemical characteristics of distillery effluents.

Introduction

Industrialization has brought in water pollution, which is one of the major hazards facing environment today. Since many industries discharge their effluent and inadequate sewage treatment facilities, effective and profitable utilization of the effluents of the industries needs greater attention. The rapid rise in population and speedy industrialization on large scale has place an over increasing demands on lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers or the provision of potable or drinking water, fish products and as well as depositories or store house of waster and sewage effluents. Organic pollutants are commonly present in the wastewaters of the paper, dyestuff, textile, tannery, pharmaceutical and distillery industries [1,2,3]. This created several problems.

An interesting aspect of these reservoirs is the drastic change due to seasonal variation resulting in water volume, self concentration, dissolved substances, gases and organic matters and thereby in the plant life. The diversity in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of industrial effluent is so great that each wastewater habitat requires a separate study.

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to correlate chemical picture of polluted water discharged from distillery

Materials and Methods

The distillery, Unnao commonly called as Saral Mills effluent run with a canal nala for about 1/2 kilometer or so and then if mixes effluents of other factories.

A sample of effluent obtained by collecting samples all round the area from four or five days intervals from the spots fixed. The samples were collected in wide mouth glass bottle (1.0 litre) and bottles were corked immediately and all the samples were brought to the laboratory and stored at 4[degrees]C temperatures in refrigerator till the analysis was completed. All chemical analysis was done in evening or the following days. All four or five samples of different sites were combined to get an integrated sample of the water. This sample was used for the tests given below. The details of sampling procedure were same as described in Indian standard methods of sampling and test for water used in industries, I.S.I. New Delhi.

The important physical and chemical characteristics analyzed for the effluents were colour, temperature, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, total alkalinity, nitrite, total hardness, alkaline hardness, non alkaline hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, oxygen consumed by KMn[O.sub.4], biological oxygen demand, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, nitrogen, iron and manganese. The pH and temperature measurements were performed for each of the above given components were same as described in IBH Hand Book No.-8 [5], USDA Hand Book No.-60 [6], Laboratory methods for blue green algae [7]," Indian standard methods for sampling and test for water used in industries, ISI New Delhi is 2490 [8] and as earlier used by Mohan [9].

Entire data have been statistically analyzed and tested for significance at 5% and 10% probability levels. For significant and highly significant 'r' values respectively one and two asterisks have been used.

Results

The physico-chemical characteristics of the distillery effluent were found to be highly variable according to season (table 1.1). The correlation-ships between various characteristics of effluent tested were worked out. The following relationships between the characteristics were found (table 1.2).

* Significant positive correlation-ships were observed between:Temperature with nitrite.

* pH with each dissolved oxygen and oxygen consumed by KMn[O.sub.4].

* Carbonate with each bicarbonate, chloride, total hardness, alkaline hardness, total solids and total suspended particles.

* Bicarbonate with each chloride, total hardness, alkaline hardness and total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids.

* Chloride with each nitrite, total hardness, alkaline hardness, alkaline hardness, total solids and total suspended particles.

* Total alkalinity with each nitrite, total harness and total dissolved solids.

* Total hardness with each alkaline hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended particles. Nitrite with each alkaline hardness, total dissolved solids and B.O.D.

* Alkaline hardness with total suspended particles.

* Total solids with each total dissolved solids, total suspended particles and dissolved oxygen.

* Total dissolved solids with total suspended particles.

* Dissolved oxygen with oxygen consumed by KMn[O.sub.4].

* Calcium with each potassium, magnesium and sulphur.

* Magnesium with sulphur.

* Significant negative correlation ships were observed between :

* pH with each carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, total hardness alkaline hardness, total solids and total suspended particles.

* Carbonate with each bicarbonate, total hardness alkaline hardness and total suspended solids with dissolved oxygen and oxygen consumed by KMn[O.sub.4].

* Chloride with dissolved oxygen.

* Nitrite with each oxygen consumed by KMn[O.sub.4], magnesium, sulphur, iron and manganese.

* Total solids with oxygen consumed by KMn[O.sub.4].

Conclusion

Gross pollution of water can be estimated by studying both physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Cairn and Lonza [10] advocated the need of both chemical and biological characteristics for meaningful results and interpretation. Many wastes have placed greater emphasis on the biological monitoring of pollution than as chemical aspects [11,12]. Pollutants manifest in three progressive fine stages viz. suspended, colloidal and dissolved. Concentration of specific pollutants changes with timers [13]. Behavior of ionic chemicals follows the solubility product consideration and common ion effect at pH and temperature [14]. Total dissolved solids are constitutes of inorganic salt small quantity of organic matter and dissolved materials [15]. The seasonal variations in transparency are quite in confirmatory with the observations of Goldman and Wetzel [16] in a clear water. The poor sulphate content is in conformity with the findings of yourself [17]. Thus, the seasonal variations appears mainly due to ionic composition of water, rainfall, drainage and biota changes.

References

[1] Dr, Gioia, D., Fava, F., Bertin, L. and Marchetti, L.,2001, "Biodegradation of synthetic and natural occurring mixtures of mono-cyclic aromatic compounds present in olive mill wastewaters by two aerobic bacteria". Appl. Microbial. Biotechnol, 55, 619.

[2] Fava, F. and Di, Gioia, D., 2001, "Soya lecithin effects on the aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyl in an artificially contaminated soil". Biotechnol, Bioeng. 72,177.

[3] Sozen, S. et al., 1998, "Respirometric analysis of activated sludge behavior-II. Heterophilic growth under aerobic and anoxic conditions", Water Res., 32(2), 476.

[4] APHA 1995, "Standard methods for analysis of water and wastewater. 19th ed. American Public Health Association", Washington, DC.

[5] IBH Hand Book No. 8, 1978, "Method for Physical and chemical analysis of fresh waters Black well scientific Publications Oxford Edinburgh London Melbourne".

[6] Richards, L.A., 1954, "Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils". U.S. Salinity Laboratory staff USDA Hand Book No. 60.

[7] Kaushik, B.D., 1987, "Amelioration of salt affected soils with blue green algae", Proc., A.I.A.P.C. Kanpur, 60-76.

[8] Indian standard institution, New Delhi, 1964, "Tolerance limit for industrial effluents discharged into inland surface waters." IS: 2490 part-I.

[9] Mohan, Narendra, 1989, "Influence of water pollutants on algal flora", UGC, MRP 3-33/86 (SR-II), 1-110.

[10] Cairns, J.J. and Lonza, G.R., 1972 "Pollution controlled changes in algae and protozoan communities", water pollution microbiology (ed. Mitchell, R.). John, Wiley and sons, New York.

[11] Nygaard, g., 1949, "Hydrobiological studies of some ponds and lakes", K. Wanske Vidensk selsk. Bio. Skr. 7 (1) : 1-293.

[12] Ratrick, R., 1973, "Use of algae especially diatoms in the assessment of water quality", Bio. Methods for the assessment of water quality. ASTM, STP 528 Amer. Soc. For test and materials, 76-95

[13] Suffect I.H., 1977, "A fame work of reference fate of pollutants in the air and water environment fate of pollutants in the air and water environment", (ed. Suffect, I.H.) Pt. J. John Willey and sons, New York.

[14] Trivedi, R.C., 1979, "Pollution studies of chemical river due to to Nagda industrial company", Ph. D. thesis, Vikram Univ Vijjain.

[15] Sawyer, G.N., 1947, "Fertilization of lake agriculture and urban drainage. J. New Eng. Wat. Wks", Ass. 61, 107-127 (1947).

[16] Goldman, C.R. and Wetzel, R.G., 1963, "Primary productivity of clear lake", California, Ecology 44:283-294.

[17] Yousuf, A.R., 1979, "Studies on the limnology and fisheries of Lake Mensral Kashmir", Ph.D. Thesis Univ. of Kashmir, J.K.

D. P. Rao * (1), Rajul Saxena (2) and Vishal Saxena (3)

* (1,2) Department of Chemistry, D.A-V. College, Kanpur--208001, India

(3) Department of Botany, D.A-V. College, Kanpur-208001, India

* (1) Corresponding author

E-mail: devendraprataprao@yahoo.com
Table 1.1: Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Distillery Effluent.

Period of CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFLUENT
Sample
 Colour Temperature pH Carbonate
 ([degrees]C)

 meq. / L

Oct. 07 Brown 24.5 5.3 4.7
Nov. 07 Yellowish 22.5 7.1 2.3
Dec. 07 Yellowish 21.9 7.0 1.8
Jan. 08 Light Yellow 24.0 7.2 1.0
Feb. 08 Yellow 22.5 7.1 0.9
Mar. 08 Brown 22.7 6.5 7.2
Apr. 08 Brownish 21.2 4.6 5.2
May. 08 Brown 20.1 4.7 4.3
Jun. 08 Brown 20.9 5.5 4.9
Jul. 08 Brown 21.0 5.4 5.2
Aug. 08 Brown 29.2 5.7 5.4
Sept. 08 Brown 28.8 4.9 5.3

Period of CHARACTERISTICS OF
Sample EFFLUENT

 Bicarbonate Chloride Total Nitrite as
 Alkalinity N
 as CaC[O.sub.3]

 meq. /L

Oct. 07 2.1 -- 1040 Nil
Nov. 07 0.4 -- 990 Nil
Dec. 07 0.5 -- 1070 Nil
Jan. 08 0.7 49 1225 Nil
Feb. 08 Nil 59 1350 Nil
Mar. 08 0.5 50 1310 Nil
Apr. 08 3.5 525 1350 Nil
May. 08 2.9 553 1225 Nil
Jun. 08 3.0 549 1353 Nil
Jul. 08 3.1 546 1335 0.04
Aug. 08 3.2 493 1229 0.01
Sept. 08 2.7 521 1249 Nil

Period of
Sample
 Total Alkaline Total Total
 Hardness Hardness Solids Dissolve
 as CaC[O.sub.3] as CaC[O.sub.3] Solids

 meq. / L

Oct. 07 1260 724 1447 1007
Nov. 07 691 371 772 880
Dec. 07 784 345 806 977
Jan. 08 960 225 1060 1250
Feb. 08 847 272 729 1191
Mar. 08 919 371 1020 1421
Apr. 08 2300 860 2008 1425
May. 08 1240 846 1920 1400
Jun. 08 1720 835 1847 1360
Jul. 08 2100 825 2053 1323
Aug. 08 1477 853 1840 1550
Sept. 08 2351 849 1912 1252

Period of CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFLUENTS
Sample
 Total Dissolved B.O.D. Oxygen Ca
 Suspended oxygen consumed
 Solids by KMn[O.sub.4] mg / L
 in 3 hrs. effluent
 meq. / L

Oct. 07 789 0.9 3600 1.2 210
Nov. 07 691 1.4 4000 1.6 170
Dec. 07 624 1.6 4100 1.7 225
Jan. 08 772 1.7 4500 1.7 222
Feb. 08 712 2.1 3900 1.9 346
Mar. 08 742 2.0 4000 2.1 170
Apr. 08 912 Nil 4200 1.0 234
May. 08 925 Nil 4100 1.1 130
Jun. 08 872 Nil 3800 1.2 318
Jul. 08 960 Nil 4200 1.2 98
Aug. 08 847 Nil 4000 1.1 98
Sept. 08 919 190

Period of K Mg P S N Fe Mn
Sample
 mg / L effluent

Oct. 07 82 23.5 109 190 1050 4.20 0.83
Nov. 07 67 27.2 110 180 1120 4.90 1.16
Dec. 07 116 21.7 115 210 1200 3.89 0.53
Jan. 08 127 24.0 118 207 1175 4.40 0.66
Feb. 08 135 32.8 103 197 1150 4.75 0.68
Mar. 08 63 32.0 249 273 1075 4.70 0.66
Apr. 08 95 32.8 249 289 1060 4.57 1.52
May. 08 107 6.4 192 62 1050 4.00 0.80
Jun. 08 75 37.4 192 600 1100 2.55 1.86
Jul. 08 67 6.0 22 44 1120 2.60 0.53
Aug. 08 47 31.2 124 195 1150 4.50 1.20
Sept. 08 85 25.2 152 185 1120 4.40 0.66

Table 1.2: Correlation coefficient Between Physico-Chemical
Characteristics of Distillery Effluent.

Variables pH Carbonate Bicarbonate Chloride

Temperature +0.017 +0.209 ** +0.065 ** +0.013 *
pH -0.887 -0.747 ** -0.668 **
Carbonate +0.950 +0.792 **
Bicarbonate +0.727
Chloride
Total Alkalinity
Nitrite
Total Hardness
Alkaline Hardness
Total Solids
T. Dissolved Solids
T. Suspended Solids
Dissolved Oxygen
B.O.D.
Oxy. Consumed by
KMnO4
Calcium
Potassium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Nitrogen
Iron
Manganese

Variables Total Nitrite Total Alkaline
 Alkalinity Hardness Hardness

Temperature -0.253 +0.854 ** -0.170 ** +0.140 **
pH -0.380 -0.496 -0.770 ** -0.946 **
Carbonate +0.173 +0.443 +0.790 ** +0.975 **
Bicarbonate +0.355 +0.421 ** +0865 * +0.969 **
Chloride -0.003 +0.849 * +0.570 * +0.762 **
Total Alkalinity +0.581 +0.553 * +0.273 **
Nitrite +0.433 +0.607 **
Total Hardness 0.803 **
Alkaline Hardness
Total Solids
T. Dissolved Solids
T. Suspended Solids
Dissolved Oxygen
B.O.D.
Oxy. Consumed by
KMnO4
Calcium
Potassium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Nitrogen
Iron
Manganese

Variables Total Total Total Dissolved
 Solids Dissolved Suspended Oxygen
 Solids Solids

Temperature +0.033 ** +0.042 -0.030 ** -0.102 **
pH +0.820 ** -0.495 -0.869 ** +0.882 **
Carbonate +0.812 ** +0.383 * +0.805 ** -0.954 **
Bicarbonate +0.815 ** +0.591 +0.893 ** -0.970 **
Chloride +0.607 +0.163 ** +0.568 -0.795
Total Alkalinity +0.402 ** +0.782 * +0.542 -0.026
Nitrite +0.973 ** +0.613 * +0.390 ** +0.516 *
Total Hardness +0.880 +0.557 +0.814 ** -0.635 **
Alkaline Hardness +0.299 +0.459 -0.964
Total Solids +0.598 +0.846 +0.847
T. Dissolved Solids +0.649 -0.488 **
T. Suspended Solids -0.875
Dissolved Oxygen
B.O.D.
Oxy. Consumed by
KMnO4
Calcium
Potassium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Nitrogen
Iron
Manganese

Variables B.O.D. Oxy. Ca K
 Consumed
 by KMnO4

Temperature +0.135 -0.185 ** -0.293 -0.396
pH +0.025 +0.939 ** +0.289 +0.290
Carbonate +0.030 -0.946 ** -0.357 -0.012
Bicarbonate +0.211 -0.928 -0.350 -0.420
Chloride -0.046 -0.206 -0.306 -0.337
Total Alkalinity +0.219 ** -0.077 ** +0.225 +0.056
Nitrite +0.767 -0.936 ** -0.624 -0.547
Total Hardness +0.071 -0.736 ** -0.159 -0.169
Alkaline Hardness +0.210 -0.920 -0.349 -0.465
Total Solids +0.104 -0.938 -0.324 -0.149
T. Dissolved Solids +0.203 -0.311 ** -0.238 -0.280
T. Suspended Solids +0.106 -0.785 ** -0.348 -0.303
Dissolved Oxygen +0.022 -0.948 +0.395 +0.292
B.O.D. -0.116 -0.071 +0.050
Oxy. Consumed by +0.305 +0.11 **
KMnO4
Calcium +0.592
Potassium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Nitrogen
Iron
Manganese

Variables Mg P S N Fe

Temperature +0.274 -0.173 -0.125 +0.319 +0.437
pH +0.252 -0.315 +0.014 +0.220 +0.319
Carbonate -0.173 +0.049 +0.044 -0.128 -0.438
Bicarbonate -0.200 +0.153 +0.073 -0.365 -0.476
Chloride -0.219 -0.011 +0.13 -0.151 -0.441
Total Alkalinity +0.283 +0.310 +0.280 -0.191 -0.311
Nitrite -0.882 -0.506 -0.97 +0.121 -0.909
Total Hardness -0.091 +0.125 +0.145 -0.191 -0.520
Alkaline Hardness +0.303 +0.152 +0.053 -0.315 -0.447
Total Solids -0.242 +0.134 +0.016 -0.132 -0.380
T. Dissolved Solids +0.075 +0.441 +0.143 +0.121 -0.168
T. Suspended Solids -0.337 +0.116 -0.075 +0.031 -0.452
Dissolved Oxygen +0.226 -0.076 -0.117 +0.210 +0.492
B.O.D. +0.021 +0.094 +0.011 +0.043 +0.244
Oxy. Consumed by +0.10 * -0.004 +0.014 +0.386 +0.390
KMnO4
Calcium +0.570 +0.188 +0.633- +0.253 +0.007
Potassium -0.096 -0.043 0.166 * +0.237 +0.165
Magnesium +0.496 +0.761 +0.277 +0.340
Phosphorus +0.489 +0.201 +0.278
Sulphur -0.053 -0.272
Nitrogen -0.027
Iron
Manganese

Variables Mn

Temperature -0.453
pH -0.195
Carbonate +0.108
Bicarbonate +0.126
Chloride +0.160
Total Alkalinity +0.028
Nitrite -0.563
Total Hardness +0.291
Alkaline Hardness +0.114
Total Solids -0.026
T. Dissolved Solids -0.168
T. Suspended Solids +0.110
Dissolved Oxygen +0.027
B.O.D. +0.108
Oxy. Consumed by -0.196
KMnO4
Calcium +0.402
Potassium +0.108
Magnesium +0.368
Phosphorus +0.501
Sulphur +0.415
Nitrogen -0.079
Iron +0.092
Manganese
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Author:Rao, D.P.; Saxena, Rajul; Saxena, Vishal
Publication:International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jun 1, 2009
Words:2771
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