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Correlation between ruminal pH and body condition score in cows with subacute ruminal acidosis/Correlacion entre el pH ruminal y el fndice de condicion corporal en vacas con acidosis ruminal subaguda.

INTRODUCTION

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA),a well known digestive disorder, has been characterized by repeated bouts of low ruminal pH (1-3). SARA generally results from diets low in digestible fiber or rich in simply fermentable carbohydrates (4,5). Cows with SARA exhibited decreased rumen motility, loss of body condition score (BCS), diarrhea, depression,reduced milk production and laminitis (6,7). Ruminal pH values detected between 5.5 and 6.0 were denoted for cows experiencing SARA or being at risk for SARA (7,8).

The prevalence and the clinical consequences of (SARA) in dairy cows are still poorly understood. Given previous literature connecting SARA to health problems i.e. metabolic diseases of dairy cattle (9), the evidenced proof is relatively weak. SARA has previously been linked to cause systemic inflammation (7) and to participate in BCS loss of affected cows prone to be in poorer condition post calving (10,11). On the other hand regarding SARA detection of pathophysiological route remains difficult because of a) database from field conditions remains insufficient, b)less is known about real consequences, incidence and regional distribution of SARA on the field (11). Furthermore experimental modelling for conceiving SARA in trial animals differ considerably from conditions detected in natural dairy herds. Therefore warranted research regarding the field, is necessary to better understand SARA(11). In the present study the purposes were to a) confirm the presence of SARA in Turkish dairy herds in Aydin region, b) record its regional distribution and c) determine whether there is a relationship between among condition scoring, ruminal contractions and ruminal pH.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Farm data. The data from 5 dairy farms in Aydin municipality Eagean Region of Turkey, were collected. In an attempt to organize for the dairy herd health management program, one MS Agriculture Engineer [D.A.U. who is the director of Faculty Farm, Faculty of Veterinary, Adnan Menderes University and is specialized (author of many scientific reports on this subject) on BCS] and two Veterinary Surgeons (K.U. and O.O.) (from animal hospital, Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Internal Medicine, Adnan Menderes University), visited these farms regularly. During the visits, health status and reproductive performance were checked, at least once a month. The details of feeding management on these farms were similar to a previous study (12). All farms included fed cows on total mixed ration (TMR). In the present study TMR was composed of forages, whole cottonseed, grains, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements mixed together to for a balanced ration

INTRODUCCION

La acidosis ruminal subaguda (SARA), un trastorno digestivo bien conocido, se ha caracterizado por episodios repetidos de pH ruminal bajo (1-3). La SARA generalmente resulta de dietas bajas en fibra digestible o ricas en carbohidratos simplemente fermentables (4,5). Las vacas con SARA mostraron disminucion de la motilidad ruminal, perdida del indice de condicion corporal (BCS), diarrea, depresion, reduccion de la produccion de leche y laminitis (6,7). Los valores de pH ruminal detectados entre 5,5 y 6,0 fueron indicados para vacas que experimentaron SARA o que estaban en riesgo de SARA (7,8).

La prevalencia y las consecuencias clinicas de (SARA) en las vacas lecheras son aun poco conocidas. Dada la literatura anterior que conecta SARA a problemas de salud, es decir, enfermedades metabolicas de ganado lechero (9), la evidencia probada es relativamente debil. La SARA se ha asociado previamente para causar inflamacion sistemica (7) y participar en la perdida de BCS de la cowsprone afectada para estar en mal estado despues del parto (10,11). Por otra parte, en lo que respecta a la SARA, la deteccion de la ruta fisiopatologica sigue siendo dificil porque a) la base de datos de las condiciones de campo sigue siendo insuficiente, b) se sabe menos sobre las consecuencias reales, la incidencia y la distribucion regional de SARA en el campo. Ademas, los modelos experimentales para la concepcion de la SARA en los animales experimentales difieren considerablemente de las enfermedades detectadas en los rebanos lecheros naturales. Por lo tanto, se justifica la investigacion sobre el campo, es necesario para comprender mejor SARA (11). En el presente estudio se pretendian: a) confirmar la presencia de SARA en los rebanos lecheros turcos en la region de Aydin, b) registrar su distribucion regional y c) determinar si existe una relacion entre el puntaje de la condicion, las contracciones ruminales y el pH ruminal.

MATERIALES METODOS

Datos de la granja. Se recolectaron los datos de 5 granjas lecheras en el municipio de Aydin, region Eagean de Turquia. En un intento de organizar para el programa de gestion de la salud del ganado lechero, un ingeniero de agricultura MS [D.A.U. Quien es el director de la Facultad de Farmacologia de la Facultad de Veterinaria de la Universidad Adnan Menderes y es especialista (autor de numerosos informes cientificos sobre este tema) en BCS] y dos Veterinarios (KU y O.O) Veterinaria, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Universidad Adnan Menderes), visitaron regularmente estas fincas. Durante las visitas, se comprobo el estado de salud y el rendimiento reproductivo, al menos una vez al mes. Los detalles del manejo de la alimentacion en estas fincas fueron similares a un estudio previo (12). Todas las fincas incluyeron vacas alimentadas con racion mixta total (TMR). En el presente estudio TMR se compuso de forrajes, semillas de algodon entero, granos, proteinas, vitaminas y suplementos minerales mezclados juntos para una racion equilibrada

Cow data. A total of 120 cows (n=24 in each farm) with one lactation per cow, were included in the study. The cow data with lactation number, birth date, calving date and general health status were detected and noticed on farm visit. All included cows were examined for physiological reproductive function via rectal palpation 30 days following calving. There was no evidence of postpartum disorders (such as endometritis, displacement of abomasum, ketosis, as beacuse farmers or owners were routinely calling responsible farm veterinarian for examination, diagnosis if necessary).Two groups of 12 cows (13), were selected randomly in each herd. First group consisted of early lactation cows (0-70 days in milk) whereas other relevant composed of mid-lactation cows (70-140 days in milk).

Rumenocentesis and ruminal pH detection. Ruminal fluid collection was carried out via rumenocentesis by experienced researchers (K.U. and O.O) 4-8 hours after morning TMR feeding, from 264 selected cows through a period of January to September 2016. Ruminal fluid pH was determined immediately with a portable pH-meter (Edge pH meter, HANNA, Spain) able to detect pH changes from 0 to 14. All cows were checked for number of rumen contraction at the same time.

Body condition scoring. A previously described United States BCS (USBCS) system (14) through visual estimation composed of a 1-5 scale with 0.25 intervals, as was also adopted by some researchers (15,16). After morning milking in farm, BCS data were collected and assessed by one of the present researchers (D.A.U), who is experienced, having MS and PhD degrees in Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Faculty. The latter author assessed BCS on visual observing flowcharts developed and used previously (14) and recently described in a very updated study (15).

Datos de la vaca. Se incluyeron en el estudio 120 vacas (n=24 en cada finca) con una lactancia por vaca. Los datos de la vaca con el numero de lactancia, fecha de nacimiento, fecha de parto y estado general de salud fueron detectados y se notaron en la visita a la granja. Todas las vacas incluidas fueron examinadas para la funcion fisiologica reproductiva a traves de la palpacion rectal 30 dias despues del parto. No hubo evidencia de trastornos posparto (como endometritis, desplazamiento de abomaso, cetosis, ya que los agricultores o propietarios estaban rutinariamente llamando al veterinario responsable de la finca para su examen y diagnostico si fuera necesario). Dos grupos de 12 vacas (13) fueron seleccionados al azar en Cada rebano. El primer grupo consistio en vacas de lactancia temprana (0-70 dias en leche), mientras que otras fueron compuestas por vacas de lactancia media (70-140 dias en leche).

Ruminocentesis y deteccion ruminal del pH. La recoleccion de liquido ruminal se realize a traves de rumenocentesis por investigadores experimentados (KU y O.O) 4-8 horas despues de la alimentacion TMR matutina, de 264 vacas seleccionadas a traves de un periodo de enero a septiembre de 2016. El pH del fluido ruminal se determine inmediatamente con un pH portatil (Medidor de borde, HANNA, Espana) capaz de detectar cambios de pH de 0 a 14. Todas las vacas fueron controladas para el numero de contraccion ruminal al mismo tiempo.

Puntuacion de condicion corporal. Un sistema BCS (USCS) de EE. UU. Descrito previamente (14) a traves de una estimacion visual compuesta de una escala de 1-5 con intervalos de 0,25, como tambien fue adoptado por algunos investigadores (15,16). Despues del ordeno de la manana en la granja, BCS datos fueron recogidos y evaluados por uno de los actuales investigadores (D.A.U), que tiene experiencia, con maestria y doctorado en el Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Agricultura. Este ultimo autor evaluo la BCS en diagramas de observacion visual desarrollados y utilizados previamente (14) y recientemente descritos en un estudio muy actualizado (15).

Statistical analysis. In an attempt to perform analysis, determination of the effects of the factors on ruminal pH in the models were carried out using a General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SPSS Release 18.0. According to evaluation predicated on 5 traits (farm, lactation period, health status, BCS and ruminal contraction), it was stated that those characters had effect on ruminal pH. The model of this purpose was shown below. The differences between subclass means were determined by Duncan's multiple range test (17). The statistical model used for the analysis is as follows:

[Y.sub.ijklm] = [mu] + [s.sub.i] + [IP.sub.j] + [hs.sub.k] + VK[P.sub.l] + [b.sub.yx]*[X.sub.ijklm] + [b.sub.yx]+ [e.sub.ijklm]

Where; Yijkl: i. farm, j. lactation period, k. health status, l. body condition score, m. cow's 305-day lactation milk yield,

[mu] :population mean,

[s.sub.i] : i. farm's effect (i: 1, 2, 2, 4, 5),

[lp.sub.j] : j. lactation period's effect (j: 1, 2),

[hs.sub.k]: k. health status's effect (k: 1, 2, 3),

VK[P.sub.l]: l. body condition score's effect (l: 1, 2, 3)

[X.sub.ijklm] : i. farm, j. lactation period, k. health status, l. body condition score , m. cow's ruminal contraction,

[b.sub.yx] : partial regression coefficient with regard to ruminal contraction of ruminal pH,

[e.sub.ijklm]: residual error.

The relations between traits and ruminal pH were investigated by Pearson Correlation Test (SPSS, 2009).

RESULTS

Lactation data. In each herd 2 groups of 12 cows were enrolled randomly in each herd. To those of an overall 120 animals included 13 were (10.83 %) classified as affected with SARA (pH< or=5.5) whereas 8 other cows (6.6%) were marginal (pH=5.6-5.8). To those of cows with SARA were detected in 1 out of 5 farms, in farm V. Out of those 13 cows, 7 were in early lactation and 6 were in midlactation period.

Ruminal contractions. Regarding health status (SARA, SARA suspected or healthy controls) of animals,group comparison showed statistical significance (p<0.01) for ruminal contractions.

Ruminal pH analysis. It was possible to draw a ruminal fluid from all initially selected 120 animals (60 in early lactation and 60 in midlactation period). Overall, 13 cows (10.83%) had a ruminal pH<5.5 at the time of rumenocentesis. In farm V mean (st. dev) ruminal pH was 5.55[+ or -]0.087, presenting statistical significance in contrast to other 4 farms without SARA positive animals. The minimum and maximum pH values were found to be 5.06 and 6.79, respectively. On the other side on farm V, marginal pH values, between 5.6 and 5.8, were found in 8 cows (6.6%) out of all cows, 4 (12%) early lactation and 4 (23.9%) mid-lactation cows.

Analisis estadistico. En un intento de realizar un analisis, la determinacion de los efectos de los factores sobre el pH ruminal en los modelos se realizo mediante un procedimiento del modelo general lineal (GLM) del SPSS release 18.0. De acuerdo con la evaluacion basada en 5 rasgos (finca, periodo de lactancia, estado de salud, BCS y contraccion ruminal), se afirmo que estos caracteres tenian efecto sobre el pH ruminal. El modelo de este proposito se muestra a continuacion. Las diferencias entre las medias de subclase fueron determinadas por la prueba de rango multiple de Duncan (17). El modelo estadistico utilizado para el analisis es el siguiente:

[Y.sub.ijklm] = [mu] + [s.sub.i] + [lp.sub.j] + [hs.sub.k] + VK[p.sub.l]l + [b.sub.yx]* [X.sub.ijklm] + [b.sub.yx]+ [e.sub.ijklm]

Donde; [Y.sub.ijkl]: i. Granja Periodo de lactancia, k.

Numero de lactancia, l. Rendimiento de leche de lactacion de 305 dias de vaca,

[mu]: media poblacional,

[S.sub.i] yo Efecto de la finca (i: 1, 2, 2, 4, 5),

Lpj: J. Efecto del periodo de lactancia (j: 1, 2),

[Hs.sub.k]: k. El efecto del estado de salud (k: 1, 2, 3),

VK[P.sub.l]: l. El efecto de la condicion corporal (l: 1, 2, 3)

[X.sub.ijklm]: i. Granja Periodo de lactancia, k. Estado de salud, l. Indice de condicion corporal, m. La contraccion ruminal de la vaca,

[b.sub.yx]: coeficiente de regresion parcial con respecto a la contraccion ruminal del pH ruminal,

[E.sub.ijklm]: error residual.

Las relaciones entre los rasgos y el pH ruminal fueron investigados por la prueba de correlacion de Pearson (SPSS, 2009).

RESULTADOS

Datos de lactancia. En cada hato 2 grupos de 12 vacas fueron matriculados aleatoriamente en cada rebano. A los de un total de 120 animales incluidos 13 fueron (10.83%) clasificados como afectados con SARA (pH[less than or equal to]5.5), mientras que otras 8 vacas (6.6%) fueron marginales (pH=5.6-5.8). A las de vacas con SARA se detectaron en 1 de cada 5 fincas, en la finca V. De esas 13 vacas, 7 estaban en lactancia temprana y 6 en periodo de media laca.

BCS anaysis. In healthy animals mean (st. error) BCS were detected as 3.45[+ or -]0.037, whereas in SARA suspected cows and in cows with SARA were deemed 3.43[+ or -]0.122 and 4.30[+ or -]0.075, respectively with a statistically significance (p<0.01). Overall interpretation revealed increased BCS in cows with SARA (Table 1).

Descriptive statistics. The descriptive statistics of all type traits according to lactation number for farms were calculated and were shown in Table 2. The effects of farms on ruminal pH were found statistically significant (p<0.01). The means of ruminal pH were found similarly at lactation period and the effects of lactation period were found non-significant (P>0.05). The mean values of ruminal pH were found 5.26, 5.68 and 6.57 according to health status (respectively, SARA, SARA suspected and healthy) (Table 2). Finally, the means for BCS were ranged from 5.90 to 6.55 (Table 2). The effects of health status and BCS on ruminal pH were found significant (p<0.01). The effects of ruminal contraction on ruminal pH were found significant (p<0.05).

The correlations between factors and ruminal pH were presented in Table 3. The highest correlations among ruminal pH and ruminal contraction were found (0.622) and statistically significant (p<0.01). The lowest and negative correlations were found between ruminal pH and health status (r=-0.770) and was found significant (p<0.01). Also, correlations between rumen contraction and health status were found positive (r=0.546) and significant (p<0.01).

Contracciones ruminales. En cuanto al estado de salud (SARA, SARA sospechosos o controles sanos) de los animales, la comparacion de grupos mostro significacion estadistica (p<0.01) para las contracciones ruminales.

Analisis de pH ruminal. Se pudo extraer un liquido ruminal de todos los 120 animales seleccionados inicialmente (60 en lactancia temprana y 60 en periodo de lactancia media). En total, 13 vacas (10.83%) tuvieron un pH ruminal [less than or equal to]5.5 en el momento de la rumenocentesis. En el pH ruminal de la finca V (st. dev) fue 5.55[+ or -]0.087, presentando significacion estadistica en contraste con otras 4 fincas sin animales positivos para SARA. Los valores de pH minimo y maximo fueron de 5.06 y 6.79, respectivamente. Por otro lado, en la finca V, se encontraron valores de pH marginales entre 5.6 y 5.8 en 8 vacas (6.6%) de todas las vacas, 4 (12%) lactancia temprana y 4 (23.9%) vacas en lactancia media.

BCS anaysis. En animales sanos se detecto una media de 3.45[+ or -]0.037, mientras que en SARA se sospecho que las vacas y en vacas con SARA se consideraron 3.43[+ or -]0.122 y 4.30[+ or -]0.075, respectivamente, con una significacion estadistica (p<0.01). La interpretacion general revelo un aumento de BCS en vacas con SARA (Tabla 1).

Estadisticas descriptivas. Se calculo la estadistica descriptiva de todos los rasgos de tipo segUn el numero de lactacion para las fincas y se mostro en la Tabla 2. Los efectos de las explotaciones en el pH ruminal se encontraron estadisticamente significativos (p<0.01). Las medias del pH ruminal se encontraron de forma similar en el periodo de lactancia y los efectos del periodo de lactancia fueron no significativos (P>0.05). Los valores medios del pH ruminal se encontraron 5.26, 5.68 y 6.57 segun el estado de salud (respectivamente, SARA, SARA sospechosos y sanos) (Tabla 2). Finalmente, los medios para BCS oscilaron entre 5.90 y 6.55 (Tabla 2). Los efectos del estado de salud y BCS en el pH ruminal se encontraron significativos (p<0.01). Los efectos de la contraccion ruminal sobre el pH ruminal fueron significativos (p<0.05).

Las correlaciones entre los factores ruminal y el pH ruminal se presentaron en la Tabla 3. Las correlaciones mas altas entre pH ruminal y contraccion ruminal fueron encontradas (0.622) y estadisticamente significativas (p<0.01). Las correlaciones mas bajas y negativas se encontraron entre pH ruminal y estado de salud (r=-0.770) y se encontro significativa (p<0.01). Ademas, las correlaciones entre la contraccion ruminal y el estado de salud se encontraron positivos (r=0.546) y significativo (p<0.01).

DISCUSSION

Altough there has been several literature regarding SARA, an uncertainty is still evident for interpretation of ruminal pH values truly to diagnose SARA (7,18). In practice by ruminocentesis manuplation, ruminal pH analysis was recommended for evaluation of SARA incidence in dairy farms (10). In the present study all 5 farms participated were employed within 24 cows per each.For the herd level, analysis of ruminal pH in a sample of 5-19 cows per herd might be of beneficial specifically at the postpartum period (10,19). Most Turkish dairy cows are raised in small-medium sized farms [herd size ranges from 25 to 100 milking cows].All forages, protein supplements, minerals, vitamins and grains are thoroughly mixed in TMR, in which the cows were fed in the present study.

In the present study as was also aformentioned above at the time of rumenocentesis, 7 early lactation cows in and 6 other relevant mid-lactation cows in farm V were found to be experiencing SARA (cows with a ruminal pH [less than or equal to]5.5). Similarly on that farm 4 early lactation cows and 4 other relevant mid-lactation cows were marginally acidotic. Interestingly out of 5 different farms enrolled, solely the farm V were composed of 21 (out of 24) SARA positive or SARA risk animals. At herd level if 1/3 or more of the cow population present rumen pH between 5.6-5.8, the animals were detected as marginally acidotic (13). Both SARA positive and SARA risk animals were located on the same farm, in which whole animals were fed TMR ration, similar to other farms (I to IV) involved where all cows were healthy. The difference might be briefly explained with either errors in ration formulation or inappropriate TMR particle size (20). Similar findings were previously reported by Morgante et al. (19) detected that feeds chopped extremely fine were in association with SARA, in which could be the key factor in our study. The farm ration was formulized by the owner who has no sicentific education. Ration formulation and mixing errors were reported as foremost risk factors related to existence of SARA (21). Lastly regular interpretation of both ration formulation and feed particle size has growing interest (20).

DISCUSION

Aunque ha habido varias publicaciones con respecto a SARA, todavia es evidente una incertidumbre para la interpretacion de los valores de pH ruminal para diagnosticar verdaderamente SARA (7,18). En la practica mediante la manufactura de ruminocentesis, se recomendo un analisis del pH ruminal para la evaluacion de la incidencia de SARA en las granjas lecheras (10). En el presente estudio se emplearon las 5 granjas participantes en 24 vacas por cada una. Para el nivel del rebano, el analisis del pH ruminal en una muestra de 5-19 vacas por rebano podria ser beneficioso especificamente en el periodo postparto (10,19). La mayoria de las vacas lecheras turcas se crian en granjas pequenas y medianas (el tamano del rebano oscila entre 25 y 100 vacas lecheras). Todos los forrajes, suplementos de proteinas, minerales, vitaminas y granos se mezclan a fondo en TMR, en el que las vacas fueron alimentadas en el presente estudio.

Como tambien se menciono anteriormente en el momento de la rumenocentesis, 7 vacas de lactacion temprana y 6 vacas de lactancia en la granja V se encontro que experimentaban SARA (vacas con un pH ruminal[less than or equal to]5.5). De manera similar, en esa finca, 4 vacas de lactancia temprana y 4 vacas de lactancia media fueron marginalmente acidoticas. Curiosamente, de 5 granjas diferentes matriculadas, unicamente la granja V estaba compuesta por 21 (de 24) animales con riesgo de SARA o SARA. A nivel de rebano, si 1/3 o mas de la poblacion de vaca presentan pH ruminal entre 5.6-5.8,los animales fueron detectados como marginalmente acidoticos (13). Ambos animales con riesgo SARA y SARA se localizaron en la misma granja, en la que los animales enteros fueron alimentados con racion TMR, similar a otras granjas (I a IV) involucradas donde todas las vacas estaban sanas. La diferencia podria explicarse brevemente con errores en la formulacion de la racion o tamano de particula inapropiado de TMR (20). Hallazgos similares fueron reportados previamente por Morgante et al. (19) detectaron que los piensos picados extremadamente finos estaban en asociacion con la SARA, en la cual podria ser el factor clave en nuestro estudio. La racion agricola fue formulada por el propietario que no tiene educacion cientifica. La formulacion de la racion y los errores de mezcla fueron reportados como los principales factores de riesgo relacionados con la existencia de SARA (21). Por ultimo, la interpretacion regular tanto de la formulacion de la racion como del tamano de las particulas del pienso tiene un interes creciente (20).

BCS possess significance during different lactation stages (fresh cows, early lactation, mid-lactation, late lactation and dry period). BCS frequently exists as 3 (5-point scale) in mid-lactation stage. If cows present over-form throughout mid-lactation, BCS varies from 3.5 to 4.0 (5-point scale) (22). In a very recent study a total of 50 head Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-lactation (at 1st-4rd parity), located in Aydin, Turkey were scored comperatively by use of the primary systems utilized within the US (1-5 scale with 0.25 intervals) and to those of Bayer Health Care Animal Health's BCS Cowdition Smartphone App. In the latter study overall mean values of BCS were found as 3.37[+ or -]0.068 and 3.45[+ or -]0.060 for BCS Cowdition and USBCS, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r=0.81, p=0.01) among BCS Cowdition and USBCS systems with a positive linear relationship (r=0.66, p=0.001) (15).

Ruminal pH was detected lower in cows with extensive loss in BCS after calving. The reason for the poor BCS in low ruminal pH cows might be similar to a dairy cow study (10) in which metabolic acidosis resulted with elevated protein catabolism accompanied by growth impairment. In general during the postpartum period a cow loses BCS because of negative energy balance in an attempt to achieve a peak milk production (23). In the present study mean BCS were detected as 3.45[+ or -]0.037, whereas in SARA suspected cows and in cows with SARA were deemed 3.43[+ or -]0.122 and 4.30[+ or -]0.075, respectively with a statistically significance (p<0.01). Overall interpretation revealed increased BCS in cows with SARA. In addition there was a significant (p<0.01) correlation (r=0.622) between BCS and ruminal pH, observed in this study. The alterations of BCS could be related to several reasons i.e. appropriate level of nutrition and a well designed ration could affect body weight of cows along with conversion of tissues for increased productivity (24-26).

BCS poseen significacion durante diferentes etapas de lactancia (vacas frescas, lactancia temprana, lactancia media, lactancia tardia y periodo seco). BCS con frecuencia existe como 3 (escala de 5 puntos) en la etapa de lactancia media. Si las vacas presentan sobre-forma a lo largo de la lactancia, el BCS varia de 3.5 a 4.0 (escala de 5 puntos) (22). En un estudio muy reciente, se anoto un total de 50 vacas Holstein-Frisia cabeza en mitad de la lactancia (en la [1.sup.a]-[4.sup.a] paridad), ubicadas en Aydin, Turquia, mediante el uso de los sistemas primarios utilizados en los EE.UU. 0.25 intervalos) ya los de Bayer Health Care Animal Health BCS Cowdition Smartphone App. En el ultimo estudio, los valores medios globales de BCS se encontraron como 3.37[+ or -]0.068 y 3.45[+ or -]0.060 para BCS Cowdition y USBCS, respectivamente. Hubo una correlacion positiva (r=0.81, p=0.01) entre los sistemas BCS Cowdition y USBCS con una relacion lineal positiva (r=0.66, p=0.001) (15).

El pH ruminal se detecto mas bajo en las vacas con perdida extensa en BCS despues del parto. La razon de la BCS pobre en vacas de bajo pH ruminal podria ser similar a un estudio de vaca lechera (10) en el que la acidosis metabolica resulto con un elevado catabolismo proteico acompanado de deterioro del crecimiento. En general, durante el periodo posparto, una vaca pierde BCS debido al balance energetico negativo en un intento de alcanzar un pico de produccion de leche (23). En el presente estudio, la media de BCS se detecto como 3.45[+ or -]0.037, mientras que en SARA las vacas sospechosas y en las vacas con SARA se consideraron 3.43[+ or -]0.122 y 4.30[+ or -]0.075, respectivamente, con una significacion estadistica (p<0,01). La interpretacion general revelo un aumento de BCS en vacas con SARA. Ademas, hubo una correlacion significativa (p<0.01) (r=0.622) entre BCS y pH ruminal, observada en este estudio. Las alteraciones de la BCS podrian estar relacionadas con varias razones, es decir, un nivel adecuado de nutricion y una racion bien disenada podria afectar el peso corporal de las vacas junto con la conversion de los tejidos para aumentar la productividad (24-26).

Decreased number of ruminal contractions were previously denoted as a clinical finding in relation with SARA (27). In a prior study in Iran, there were no significant differences between cows experiencing SARA and other cows in number of rumen contractions (in 2 min, p = 0.592). Furthermore no significant difference was either detected between animals with SARA and those with marginal pH values and the rest of the cows regarding number of ruminal contractions (in 2 min, p=0.455) (13). In the present study taking into account health status (SARA, SARA suspected or healthy controls) of animals, group comparison showed statistical significance (p<0.01) for ruminal contractions.

The correlation between factors and ruminal pH were investigated in the present study. The highest correlations was found between ruminal pH and ruminal contraction (0.622) with a statistical significance (p<0.01). The lowest correlation was evident between ruminal pH and health status (r=-0.770, p<0.01). Between rumen contraction and health status a positive (r=0.546, p<0.01) correlation was detected.

In conclusion in the present study an attempt is made to establish the regional distribution of SARA in selected dairy herds in Aydin mucipality of Eagean Region based on the ruminal pH determination. Consequences of SARA on individual health, production level and metabolic status for both individual and herd level were established. Therefore BCS and ruminal contractions data were used as indicators, in which correlations were found among ruminal pH and ruminal contraction and ruminal pH and BCS, favoring the usage or those parameters as probable biomarkers in cows with SARA.

In a small to middle sized farms, the problem solely in 1 cow might affect the farmer's income. Hence at the cow level, quick determination of ruminal pH in early lactation may have helped prevention and reduce economic loss (28). Given the current and different feeding management conditions in Turkish dairy farms, and the association between ruminal pH and the incidence of postpartum disorders remains unclear, the interpretation of ruminal pH might provide useful and applicable information to improve the health and milk production of dairy cows(28).Furthermore this study and previous one (29) also demonstrated the presence of SARA in this region, which may be taken into account with possible preventative measurements.

La disminucion del numero de contracciones ruminales se denoto previamente como hallazgo clinico en relacion con SARA (27). En un estudio previo en Iran, no hubo diferencias significativas entre las vacas que experimentaron SARA y otras vacas en numero de contracciones ruminales (en 2 min, p=0.592). Ademas, no se detecto diferencia significativa entre los animales con SARA y aquellos con valores de pH marginales y el resto de las vacas con respecto al numero de contracciones rumineas (en 2 min, p=0.455) (13). En el presente estudio teniendo en cuenta el estado de salud (SARA, SARA sospechosos o controles sanos) de los animales, la comparacion de grupos mostro significacion estadistica (p<0.01) para las contracciones ruminal.

Las correlaciones entre los factores y el pH ruminal se investigaron en el presente estudio. Las correlaciones mas altas se encontraron entre el pH ruminal y la contraccion ruminal (0.622) con una significacion estadistica (p<0.01). La menor correlacion fue evidente entre pH ruminal y estado de salud (r=-0.770, p<0.01). Entre la contraccion del rumen y el estado de salud se detecto una correlacion positiva (r=0.546, p<0.01).

En conclucion en el presente estudio se intenta establecer la distribucion espacial de SARA en rebanos lecheros seleccionados en la mucilidad de Aydin de la region de Eagean basandose en la determinacion del pH ruminal. Se establecieron las consecuencias de la SARA sobre la salud individual, el nivel de produccion y el estado metabolico tanto para el individuo como para el nivel del rebano. Por lo tanto, se utilizaron los datos de BCS y contracciones ruminal como indicadores, en los que se encontraron correlaciones entre el pH ruminal y la contraccion ruminal y el pH ruminal y BCS, favoreciendo el uso o esos parametros como biomarcadores probables en vacas con SARA.

En una pequena o mediana granjas, el problema solo en una vaca podria afectar los ingresos del agricultor. Por lo tanto, a nivel de vaca, la determinacion rapida del pH ruminal en la lactancia temprana puede haber ayudado a la prevencion y reducir las perdidas economicas (28). Dada la actual y diferente situacion de manejo de la alimentacion en las granjas lecheras turcas, y la asociacion entre el pH ruminal y la incidencia de trastornos posparto sigue siendo poco clara, la interpretacion del pH ruminal podria proporcionar informacion util y aplicable para mejorar la salud y la produccion de vacas lecheras 28). Ademas, este estudio y el anterior (29) demostraron tambien la presencia de SARA en esta region, lo que puede ser tenido en cuenta con posibles mediciones preventivas.

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Deniz Alig Ural (1*) Ph.D, Kerem Ural (2) Ph.D, Onur Ortlek (2) M.Sc.

(1,2) University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Veterinary, (1) Faculty Farm, (2) Department of Internal Medicine, Aydin, Turkey (*) Correspondence: alicdeniz@gmail.com

Received: January 2017; Accepted: May 2017.

DOI: 10.21897/rmvz.1127
Table 1. The means of BCS and Ruminal Contraction regarding Health
Status of Cows

Groups                BCS
                 N    [bar.X] [+ or -] [S.sub.[bar.x]]   Min    Max

Healthy          99      3.45 (a)[+ or -] 0.037          2.75    4.25
SARA Suspected    8      3.43 (a)[+ or -] 0.122          2.75    3.75
SARA             13      4.30 (b)[+ or -] 0.075          4.00    4.75
                      Ruminal Contraction
Healthy          99      9.48 (a)[+ or -] 0.123          7      12
SARA Suspected    8      8.63 (a)[+ or -] 0.324          7      10
SARA             13      6.85 (b)[+ or -] 0.154          6       8

(a), (b), c, d: Least square means on the same columnwithin each
factor, followed by the different letter are significantly (p<0.01), **
p<0.01. NS: Nonsignificant, BCS: Body condition score

Table 2. The mean values of Rumen pH of cows

Factors            N    Ruminal pH                         Min    Max
                        [bar.X] [+ or -] [s.sub.[bar.X]]

Farms                      (**)
I                  24      6.51 (ab) [+ or -] 0.079        5.69   7.13
II                 24      6.75 (c) [+ or -] 0.085         6.27   7.67
III                24      6.35 (a) [+ or -] 0.066         5.72   6.77
IV                 24      6.71 (bc) [+ or -] 0.069        5.96   7.21
V                  24      5.55 (d) [+ or -] 0.087         5.06   6.79
Lactation period           NS
0-70. day          60      6.36 [+ or -] 0.067             5.40   7.67
70-140. day        60      6.38 [+ or -] 0.629             5.06   7.21
Health status              (**)
Healthy            99      6.57 (a) [+ or -] 0.039         5.69   7.67
SARA suspected      8      5.68 (b) [+ or -] 0.088         5.52   5.80
SARA               13      5.26 (c) [+ or -] 0.143         5.06   5.47
BCS                        (**)
2<BCS<3            22      6.32 (a) [+ or -] 0.084         5.69   7.02
3<BCS<4            73      6.55 (a) [+ or -] 0.053         5.52   7.67
4<BCS              25      5.90 (b) [+ or -] 0.743         5.06   7.13

(a), (b), (c), (d): Least square means on the same columnwithin each
factor, followed by the different letter are significantly (p<0.01),
(**) p<0.01, NS: Nonsignificant, BCS: Body condition score

Table 3. The correlations between factors and ruminal pH

Factors         Ruminal pH    Health        BCS      Rumen
                              Status                 Contraction

                 1
Health Status   -0.770 (**)    1
BCS              0.622 (**)   -0.582 (**)    1
Rumen           -0.226         0.546 (**)   -0.175   1
contraction

(**) p<0.01
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL
Author:Ural, Deniz Alig; Ural, Kerem; Ortlek, Onur
Publication:Revista MVZ (Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia)
Date:Sep 1, 2017
Words:6699
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