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Core competences of piracy and maritime terrorism.

If we think wrongly, that the measurement is meant to comply with almost unattainable standards of certainty, hardly anything proves to be measurable. Douglas Hubbard

The problem well-defined is problem mid solved. Charles Kettering


The growing threat of piracy and maritime terrorism is a derivative of finishing the Cold War and the collapse of the bipolar balance of power in the world. The legal status of marine areas, expansion of areas of instability on land, limiting the presence of naval forces, relatively low price and availability of ships, as well as poverty, also influence the situation [1]. This suggests that marine areas may become another arena for global war.

The purpose of this article is to show terrorist organizations and maritime piracy in the light of the theory of resources, skills and competences of strategic management. It is this way of thinking that has dominated the approach to the strategy of the organization in the early nineties. In economics and sciences on organizations, analyzes of the importance of intangible assets, among others, inter alia the knowledge and the ensuing innovation, began to appear more and more often, as well as changes in the approach from competition to cooperation [2], which significantly lead to the success of the organization. It is therefore necessary to ask if there are universal success holders for all organizations, or whether they depend on the type of business. Holders of success--key competences--of terrorist organizations and maritime piracy, in this case, are harm generators to national security.

Research for this article was performed by "desk research", supported with diagnostic survey using technique of unfinished sentences, which was conducted in 2015-2016. Its aim was to illustrate the main features of piracy and maritime terrorism. The question asked related to the comparison of piracy and maritime terrorism to animals that are endowed with specific characteristics. The respondents were students of military universities, focused on security, defense, international relations and political science [3].


Maritime piracy accompanies humanity since ancient times, because transported goods were prey for robbers of the sea. Revival of this practice took place in the early 90s of 21st century. This is a period that marks the creation of powerful gangs, living nicely from the sea loot, meaning very well-organized structures in the shape of a small armies, which travel by very fast boats, often armed with machine guns, RPGs and mortars, attacking certain ships. They have the GPS receivers, devices for eavesdropping and interfering with radio communications, coded means of communication, diving equipment and watercrafts. They have corruption ties with local police, coastguard, shipping companies, port workers, often with crews of ships--all to ensure their freedom of action and information on valuable cargo. However, modern pirates are also small groups derived from the poor port thieves and impoverished fishermen in primitive boats. They sail on primitive boats, usually get on ships which stand at moorings near the shore at night, terrorizing the crew and passengers with knives, machetes, sometimes firearms, and then rob what they are able to take [4].

It should be defined what piracy means. The Geneva Convention defined piracy as any illegal act of violence, detention or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft [5].

The number of pirate attacks, robberies on global water reservoirs is not high, the Report of the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) devoted to marine piracy states that their number fluctuated over the past 20 years in the range of 200 - 470 a year. It may be concerning that there is an increase of the degree of brutality, kidnappings for ransom, the higher amount of ransom, prolongation of the time of detention of individuals and crews [6]. It should be noted that some attacks are not reported. The damage is estimated to be the around 7 - 12 billion USD. 95% of the costs due to the activities of Somali pirates. Also increases the activity of Nigerian pirates. Attacks most often occur in the waters of Southeast Asia, Africa (Gulf of Guinea, coast of Somalia, Tanzania, Senegal), Black Sea, South America (near the ports of the Caribbean, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru). Two incidents, which took place in 2008, should be mentioned. They motivated the international opinion to take a closer look at the groups operating off the coast of East Africa. It was kidnapping an Ukrainian vessel "Faina" transporting Russian tanks, rocket-propelled grenades and ammunition and supertanker Sirius Star, worth $ 150 million while 300 thousand tons of oil carried in its tanks represented a value of more than $ 100 million [7].

Over time, in the 60s of the twentieth century, the source of potential threats at sea increased by acts of terrorism. Maritime terrorism means planned and organized violent attack resulting from political, religious and ideological motives, directed against persons, ships, port facilities, installations at sea. It aims to force the state authorities, societies or individuals to perform specific behaviors, give concessions or financial benefits [8].

Maritime terrorism has been launched in January 1961 by acquiring the passenger liner Santa Maria. The most spectacular attacks were made: in September 2000 on the destroyer USS Cole, in October 2002 on the oil tanker MV Limburg, since most desirable targets of terrorist attacks are marine tankers, passenger and cruise vessels, as well as ships with dangerous cargo and warships. The attacks are carried out using fast boats, bombs set in vehicles and containers. To put pressure on governments, terrorists use hijacked ships as a weapon (ships traps), threatening to cause an environmental disaster.

Attacks on objects of the sea represent only about 2% of the total number of events on the ground of terrorism that took place in the last 30 years. However, it is unsettling thought that the main objective of the terrorist attack at sea basins is not vessels but critical infrastructure facilities of international importance. Concerning is their level of resistance to this threat [9].

It is noted that the links between piracy and terrorism strengthen, however, it does not entitle us to regard this as same practices [10]. Frederick Chew presents them in three categories: ends, means / resources and effects [11]. The aforementioned ends of the attack and used resources are therefore not the only difference between terrorism and maritime piracy. In contrast to piracy, due to fuzziness of terrorist organizations, they are extremely difficult to locate with the certain territory. Furthermore, this territorial coverage generated by these threats is different. Therefore, to acts of terror restrictions as to the purpose, place, object, time or method do not apply. This is an advantage over the security services. The significant difference is also apparent from the motivation of both acts. Pirates are motivated by personal gain, whether it is from the sale of stolen goods, the ransom for the vessel or the crew. They make effort to cover their tracks and not arouse media attention. Another motivation can be attributed to terrorist activities, which are supposed to be spectacular to attract media attention, which enhance the feeling of fear. Apart from the physical annihilation of the enemy, this is one of the main goals of a terrorist attack. These actions stem from religious or political motives. Thus, in a category of its effects, maritime piracy is concentrated at the operational level, while maritime terrorism at the strategic level. When it comes to resources, piracy has less developed means and skills than terrorists [12].

The effects of piracy and maritime terrorism, meaning distortion of international shipping, trade, threat to life and property of many people, cause the international organizations (UN, NATO, EU, ASEAN [13]) to debate on how to counter threats in the aquatic environment, with what kind of fight, and thus, to detect and transmit data on the possible occurrence of these risks. For this purpose, it becomes necessary to recognize the enemy, including using the concepts of school of resources, skills and competences of strategic management.

Do these differences affect the specificity of key competences? Do these competences are the same as business model? We try to provide preliminary answers.


The article The Core Competence of the Corporation [14] initiated thinking about the organization as a set of resources [15] and capabilities. However, we already find reasons for such thinking in books of W Ouchi Theory Z [16] and T. Peters and R.H. Waterman In Search of Excellence [17].

Therefore, what do we mean by the basic concepts: resources, skills, competences of the organization. Resources are what the organization is and / or controls. The organization has the greatest control over material resources. Over the intangible assets it has only partly control. Intangible resources are both internal and external factors, for which the organization has access and which it can use. Therefore, not all resources can be bought and sold on the market, imitated or substituted [18]. This is called strategic assets (strategic assets), which are: know-how of the organization's members, accumulated knowledge, organization's reputation and loyalty of beneficiaries. Since these are intangible resources, they are not are recorded by organization [19].

Capabilities are processes and are what the organization can do best, using strategic resources as the basis. This involves building a competitive advantage by such use specific skills that lets it stay ahead of the competition, which in this case are the state institutions responsible for the security of states. Briefly determining, resources are what the organization owns and the skills and competences refer to what it does [20].

For the purposes of this article it is worth noting that for consulting companies, key skills are: systematic acquisition of very good employees, developing effective teams. However, ownership of strategic resources and key skills is not the end of the search for success of the organization.

The organization is building its advantage based on the configuration of resources and skills in core competences. Base resources are the basis for the organization to build them. Skills of permanent coordination and use of resources for achieving the objective prove the acquisition of specific competence by organizations. This is basis for a complex resources [21]. They are the more valuable for the organization, the more of the possessed resources are rare, valuable, difficult to be imitated and efficiently organized - Figure 1.

The organization, therefore, should focus on creating their own resources and competences in areas where it can make the greatest strategic value, reject the activity of marginal importance. The most important factor in business organizations in creating advantages are intangible resources, the culture of organization and leadership included [22].

According to MERITUM project Measuring Intangibles To Understand And Improve Innovation Management [23], the classification of intangible assets is: human capital, organizational/structural capital, relational capital. Human capital is defined as knowledge, skills, experience and abilities that employees take with them when they leave the organization, it is therefore a set of features that allows to perform tasks, solve problems in the organization, creating innovation collectively, to build relationships, reasoning, and decision-making. This capital consists of the capital of knowledge, social and developmental skills. Structural capital is defined as a body of knowledge that arises at the end of the working day, and these are all resources that support the work of members of the organization: the organizational structure, databases, procedures, processes, organizational culture, organization knowledge, learning, flexibility, willingness to change. This capital consists of organizational, process and innovative capitals. Relational capital determines resources related to interpersonal and inter-organizational relations, ability to establish and maintain a close and lasting relationships, build a social network, meaning factors related to external relations. This capital is the market, standing out and customers' capital.

The last element of presented theory, is the assumption that there must be a dynamic fit, stretch between resources and intentions of the organization. It is meant to remain in equilibrium with the environment, efficient resource allocation, the use of resources to push up [24].


Terrorist organizations and piracy can be compared to Japanese companies, whose strength lies in human capital. Human capital is defined as the sum of the capacity, the knowledge, skills and experience of the members of the organization and management that are useful to perform complex tasks, and the ability to expand these resources by way of learning [25]. It creates added value for the organization in two ways: direct application of knowledge and skills of members of the organization in the process of taking action, for example, implementation of attack, the negotiation process and the accumulation of knowledge in intangible assets. The aim of the organization is therefore not to gain "labor" but knowledge workers, which can be characterized by a certain state ofmind and attitude [26]. Management of such people requires adequate organizational culture and leadership. These are two factors that contribute to the formation of structural capital of organization [27].

Organizational culture is a social environment that creates organizational, formal and informal behavior, defines the nature of the members who will be best at achieving the objectives of the organization, shapes the scope of individual freedom to take action without prior approval and influences the way in which people interact with themselves inside and outside the organization [28]. It consists of history of the organization, in the case of terrorism characterized by religion and politics and in the case of piracy by poverty, the traditions of the sea, with its successes and failures. Organizational culture is like the body's immune system, rooted in the organizational subconscious and it decides on the organizational development of core competences [29].

Confirmation to these claims can be found in the texts of Ouchi, who wrote that the strength of Japanese firms comes from the proximity of mutual relations, loyalty and trust between members of the organization and is characteristic of clans and tribes, just like in the case of terrorism and piracy. Similarly, Peters and Waterman, who sought the perfection of US companies in the eight principles of action, where community norms and values has been recognized by them as one of the most important. Are criminal organizations--as in theory of excellent organizations a group characterized by: an obsession for action, close contact with the customer, autonomy and entrepreneurship, focus on values, treating people as the most effective resource of organization, restricted activity profile, limiting the number of management, discipline and ease[30]?

It seems that the source of success: advantages and creating organizational values are intangible resources. In particular, knowledge contributes to the creation of values, more precisely the ability of criminals to use the latest technology, weapons, GPS, satellite communications [31]. Its optimum utilization depends on the culture of the organization, whose mission is to create such an environment that a member of organization wanted to share their secret knowledge. Culture is the result of formal and informal relationships, processes, systems, as well as the strategies and goals of the organization. It depends, in large part both for piracy and terrorism, on the cultural factor, which is the product of the local tradition [32]. Creativity is a factor associated with knowledge, which also - it appears - fundamentally creates activities of terrorist organizations, maritime piracy. Creativity is defined by creative attitude, which contributes to the creation of new, original ideas, solutions. It may be stimulated internally (for example by suitable selection of members of the organization, motivation system) or external pressure (the activities of other criminal organizations, political or religious considerations). Knowledge however, is not long-lasting factor in value creation. Reproduction of knowledge, its imitation by others, results in loss of advantage. That is why creativity is so important, for example continuously changing the way of conducting terrorist services and maritime piracy. Non-standard and audacity is in fact difficult to predict by the security services. Thus, a particular resource of organization is secret knowledge, laying in the members of the organization [33]. There is some concern here, however, limiting value creation to this resource, because part of this knowledge is lost in the event of suicide bombings. Nevertheless, this translates into strengthening the organization's brand.

Martin N. Murphy points seven factors, four of which claim the potential of pirates, namely: the mobility of the pirates, the ability to use the latest technology, maritime traditions and the availability of suitable hiding places [34]. The first two classify human capital, next two the relational capital.

An extremely important internal factor of a terrorist organization, maritime piracy, as well as business organization, seems to be leadership, because it influences creating strategic architecture of an organization which will be the roadmap of the future. Leadership in hierarchical structures like piracy and maritime terrorism pose the kind of relationship between management and subordinates. It is the ability to mobilize others resulting not only from the possession of specific knowledge but rather from charisma and authority [35]. The map leaders will create is supposed to determine the key competences and their components, which make advantage in the market of security risks now and in the future [36].

In case of a terrorist organizations, and to a lesser extent in case of maritime piracy, Internet is a particular resource that flows from the outside. It is an effective way to communicate for the organization's members in case of distributed organizations. It also allows quick contact with the public.

In conclusion, analyzing the literature on the subject, it seems that human capital, organizational culture and leadership (Figure 2) are those specific factors in these organizations that create value of piracy and maritime terrorism and the advantage over the institutions responsible for national security. Features of the resources of piracy and maritime terrorism (durability, transparency, transferability and susceptibility to copy [37]) forming the advantage, seem to be immune to erosion, because constantly there is a similar number of attacks in the areas of water.

One cannot forget that intangible resources are not sufficient for effective action. Financial resources, technical equipment are essential to carry out the attack.

A study conducted between students of military academies:

Naval Academy and National Defence University of Poland are supplementary to analyses resulting from the review of the literature. Used method, a diagnostic survey technique of unfinished sentences, corresponds with the type of respondents and objective measurement, meaning reducing uncertainty by nominal measuring through small sampling [38]. The results will form the basis for stating and subsequently verification of hypotheses in terms of the perception of piracy and maritime terrorism [39]. Results of the survey were as follows:

1) Among the NDU students, responses to question determining the animal which corresponds with the activities of pirates were narrower in relation to the terms for terrorism at sea. Pirates frequently been likened to sharks, hyenas and foxes. In the case of terrorism they were: sharks, lions, wolves, and sheepdogs;

2) In the opinion of NDU students, typical modus operandi of pirates is characterized by: cunningness, aggressiveness, ruthlessness, speed, mobility, deceit, acting in a group, using the occasion, attacking the weak, feeding on foreigners, getting richer at the expense of others, concealed activities. Terrorists can be characterized as a symbol of fear, strength and size, tranquility and efficiency, planning and coordination of activities, ferocity, action in herds, loyalty to the leader, defending its values, the environment, loyalty, concealed activities, gaining at the expense of others;

3) Among the NA students, responses to question determining the animal which corresponds with the activities of pirates and terrorists were comparable. Pirates frequently been likened to hyenas, foxes and magpies [40]. In the case of terrorism, they were lions, tigers, sharks and foxes [41];

4) In the opinion of NA students, typical modus operandi of pirates is characterized by: cunningness, greed, deceit, ruthlessness, taking care of their own interests, feeding on foreigners, attacking by surprise, achievement of the objectives regardless of the circumstances, dangerousness. Terrorists can be characterized as dangerous organization, cunning, clever, strong, unpredictable, brave, tenacious, efficient, active in the group.

Summing up surveys it may be noted that:

* in both groups of respondents there is great indecision, the difference between comparisons of pirates and terrorists to animals (NDU students indicated 6 different animals in reference to pirates, 16 in reference to terrorists; in the case of NA students the difference is insignificant 10 and 11). This may be a result of operating history, the more complex nature of the organization;

* indications suggest that actions of piracy and terrorism are perceived as similar practices, as indicated by the four repetitions in case of NDU students (sharks, hyenas, lions, wolves) and three in the case of NA (sharks, hyenas, foxes). The similarities stem from defining characteristics: activities in secret, surprise attack, obtaining benefits at the expense of others. And it stresses that these organizations are threatening and dangerous;

* students asses the characteristics of terrorist organizations with more positive tone than maritime piracy because they are better organized, work in a group, they are strong and effective, their mode of action is based on a different organizational culture.


[1] M.N. Murphy, Future Scenarios and Future Threats: What Happens if Piracy is not Controlled, and How Might Manifestations Change?, [in:] Conference on Global Challenge, Regional Responses: Forging a Common Approach to Maritime Piracy, Dubai 2011, pp. 36-37; E. Frecon, Piracy in the Malacca Straits: notes from the field, "IIAS Newsletter" 2005, p. 36; J. Machowski, Piractwo w swietle historii i prawa, Warszawa 2000, p. 34.

[2] Brandenburger, B. Nalebuff, Cooperation, Doubleday, New York 1996. Evidenced by - among others - recruiting attempt of allies for September 11 attacks by bin Laden in 2000. See: 11 wrzesnia oczami Al Kaida, video/209952fc, (Access: 15.09.2015). The possibility of cooperation between pirates and terrorists, which is likely to cause a synergy effect, raises concerns about security. The perception of the organization as an open system increases the flexibility of the network participants, alliances. This enables achievement of scale effect and overcoming the barrier of time compression diseconomies. Contacts between Asian piracy and contacts of Asian pirates with separatist and terrorist groups in politically unstable regions in Indonesia and the Philippines can be an example of these connections. In 2000, on behalf of the Muslim rebel group Abu Sayyaf, pirates kidnapped 21 foreigners off the coast of Malaysia.

Cooperation is also reflected in the security studies. The concept of cooperative security has been developed by NATO and implies the development of a system of co-dependent, co-operating with each other and complementary subjects of international relations and security, as well as comprehensive recognition of security, as a reacti on to the exi sting and anti cipated threats. This system requires the establishment and efficient functioning of the division of labor between various actors shaping security. K. Malak, Typologia bezpieczenstwa. Nowe wyzwania, http://stosunki-miedzynarodowe. pl/bezpieczenstwo/954-typologiabezpieczenstwa-nowe-wyzwania?start=2, (Access 7.12.2015)

[3] The study included two randomly selected groups of students: 20 students of the National Defence University in Warsaw (5 women, 15 men; 14 in 15-24 age group, 2 in 25-34 age group, 4 in the range of 3544, they had secondary education: 5 people with technical profile, one economic and humanistic, concerning security); 18 students of the Naval Academy in Gdynia (13 women, 5 men, all aged 15-24, 13 people profiled for security, 5 humanities).

[4] Terroryzm morski - niedoceniane zagrozenie. Wywiad z Sebastianem Kalitowskim, terroryzm-morski-niedoceniane-zagrozeniewywiad-z-sebastianem-kalitowskim/, (Access 30.11.2015 r.).

[5] Konwencja o morzu pelnym sporzqdzona w Genewie dnia 29 kwietnia 1958 r. No.33 pos.187, art. 15.

[6] Bomba, Piractwo morskie, http://www.repozytorium.uni.wroc. pl/Content/59706/04_Alina_Bomba. pdf, (access 27.11.2015), p. 5, 7; [in:], Organizacje miedzynarodowe w dzialaniu, A. Flarczak, A. Lisowska (edited), OTO Agencja Reklamowa, Wroclaw 2014.

[7] K. Wardin, Wspolczesne piractwo morski e zagrozeni em dl a miedzynarodowego transportu morskiego. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Marynarki Wojennej, 3 (178) 2009, p. 95.

[8] K. Wardin, op. cit., p. 92.

[9] S. Kalinowski, Morski Terroryzm, "Special Ops" 2010, no 7/8(5), pp. 34-35.

[10] There are views that there should be a common legal definition, recognizing the link between piracy and terrorism, or even replacing the term piracy under international law by the notion of maritime terrorism. P. Mickiewicz, Terroryzm morski i piractwo. Analiza zjawiska i formy przeciwdzialania na wybranym przykladzie, Przeglqd Bezpieczenstwa Wewnetrznego 2(2)2010, p. 43, pbw/publikacje/przeglad-bezpieczenstw2/642,Przeglad-Bezpieczenstwa-Wewnetrznego-nr-2-2-2010.html.

[11] F. Chew, Piracy, martime terrorism and regional interests, "Geddes papers" 2005, p. 75.

[12] F. Chew, op. cit.; K. Kubiak, Przemoc na oceanach. Wspolczesne piractwo i terroryzm morski, Wyd. TRIO and European Centre NATOLIN, Warszawa 2009; K. Kubiak, Piractwo czy terroryzm?, [In:] "Stosunki Miedzynarodowe" 2009, no 56 57, p. 31; Terroryzm morski - niedoceniane zagrozenie., op. cit.; A. NowakowskaKrystman, W. Zubrzycki, P. Daniluk, E. Mazur-Cieslik, Terroryzm w ujeciu analiz strategicznych, Difin, Warszawa 2015; K. Jaloszynski, Koncepcja wspolczesnych dzialan antyterrorystycznych, pp. 51-52.

[13] A. Bomba, op. cit., pp. 7-17.

[14] C.K. Prahalad, G. Hamel, The Core Competence of the Corporation, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1990.

[15] In the process of creating values, the organization uses different set of resources available, meaning a variety of internal and external factors accumulated for use in future. These resources are classified in different ways See: J. Barney, Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage, Journal of Management 1991, no. 17(1), pp. 99-120; R. Grant, The Resourced-based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation, California Management Review, Spring 1991, pp. 114-135.

[16] W. Ouchi, Theory Z, How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge, Addison Wesley, Reading, MA 1981.

[17] Peters, R.H. Waterman Jr., In Search of Excellence, Haper & Row, New York 1982.

[18] R. Hall, A Framework Linking Intangible Resources and Capabilities to Sustainable Competitive Advantage, Strategic Management Journal, 1993, 14, pp. 618-697.

[19] For example: bases of terrorist are material resources while their location is intangible resource.

[20] R. Hall, op. cit. pp. 607-618.

[21] C.K. Prahalad, G Hamel, op. cit. pp. 79-91.

[22] K. Obloj, Strategia organizacji. W poszukiwaniu trwalej przewagi konkurencyjnej, PWE, Warszawa 2007 G. Urbanek, Kompetencje a wartosc przedsiebiorstwa, Oficyna a Wolters Kluwer business, Warszawa 2011, p. 26, A. Nowakowska-Krystman, W. Zubrzycki, P. Daniluk, E. Mazur-Cieslik, op. cit.

[23] Measuring Intangibles To Understand And Improve Innovation Management. Preliminary Results, sti/ind/1947863.pdf (access 5.11.2015); MEesuRing Intangibles To Understand and improve innovation Management (MERITUM). Final Report, pdf_filer/FINAL_REPORT_MERITUM.pdf, (access 5.11.2015).

[24] K. Obloj, op. cit., p. 141.

[25] G. Dess, J. Picken, Beyond Productivity: How Leading Companies Achive Superior Performance by Leveraging Their Human Capital, American Menagment Association, New York 1999.

[26] P. Drucker, The Age of Social Transormation, "The Atlantic Monthly Online", November 1994.

[27] Measuring Intangibles To Understand op. cit.

[28] A.K. Gupta, V. Govindrajan, Knowledge Management's Social Dimension: Lessons from Nucor Steel, "Sloan Management Review" 2000, vol. 42, no. 1, p. 71-81.

[29] G. Urbanek, Wycena aktywow niematerialnych przedsiebiorstwa, PWE, Warszawa 2008, p. 64.

[30] T. Peters, R.H. Waterman Jr., op. cit..

[31] Action in relation to knowledge is divided into two types: the creation of knowledge and its application. The creation of knowledge is action aimed at building a resource of knowledge-based assets.

[32] J. Vagg, Rough Seas? Contemporary Piracy in South East Asia, "British Journal of Criminology" 1995, no. 1, vol. 35.

[33] G Urbanek, Kompetencje op. dt. pp. 18-23.

[34] M.N. Murphy, op. cit., pp. 36-37; M.N. Murphy, J. Saba, Countering Piracy: The Potential of Onshore Development, [in:] Conference on Global Challenge, Regional Responses: Forging a Common Approach to Maritime Piracy, Dubai 2011, p. 46.

[35] G. Urbanek, op. cit., p. 42.

[36] C.K. Prahalad, G. Hamel, op. cit. p. 79-91.

[37] R. Grant, op. cit., p. 114-135.

[38] Hubbard D.W, Pomiar uniwersalny, MTBiznes, Warszawa 2013, pp. 43, 51;

S.S. Stevens, On the theory of scales and measurement [in:] Science 103, 1946, pp. 677-680.

[39] Article being prepared: P. Gawliczek, A. Nowakowska-Krystman, Postrzeganie piractwa i terroryzmu morskiego, which will present the results of research in a detailed way.

[40] Summary: hyena - 6, foxes - 3; Magpie - 2, other: sharks, alligators, tigers, snakes, leeches, ticks, parrots: 1.

[41] Summary: lions - 4, tigers - 3, sharks and foxes 2, other: hyenas, bears, wolves, cheetahs, scorpions, hippos, whales: 1. Piotr GAWLICZEK * Aneta NOWAKOWSKA-KRYSTMAN **

* Capt. (N) ret., Associate Professor, National Defence University, Poland ** PhD, National Defence University, Poland

Caption: Fig. no. 1. Prerequisite for creating organization strategic value

Caption: Fig. no. 2. The relationship between human capital, leadership and organizational culture
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Author:Gawliczek, Piotr; Nowakowska-Krystman, Aneta
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Date:Oct 1, 2016
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