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Coproscopic Study to Evaluate the Prevalence of Endoparasites in Wild boars (Sus scrofa).

Introduction

In general, free ranging wild boars are found in and around human habitat and are commonly encountered in wild forest areas. Primarily, these wild boars scavenge in their habitat and are mainly dependant on low planes of nutrition. The easy accessibility of food contaminated with parasitic stages viz. egg, cysts, oocysts and also the availability of paratenic hosts during scavenging has rendered the wild boars particularly more prone to the endoparasitic infections (Kassai, 1999). In tropical and sub-tropical countries like India, the warm and humid environmental conditions favour the survivability and development of these parasitic stages. In addition, deforestation and destruction of forest lands by human population has rendered the wild boars to get more accessibility to human habitats and inturn becoming more susceptible for endoparasitic infections. However, in general wild boars harbor helminth parasites viz. Ascaris suum, Trichuris spp., Fasciolopsis spp. and Strongyle infections. Among intestinal protozoans, beside Eimeria and Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium has been identified as an emerging pathogens in both domestic and wild animals and its potential for being zoonotic in nature (Soulsby, 1982). There are only a few reports in India on endoparasitic infections in wild boars from zoological gardens. Hence, a study has been undertaken to understand the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild boars.

Materials and Methods

A total of sixty four faecal samples were collected from wild boars at Bandipur Tiger Reserve Forest, Karnataka, India. The fresh faecal samples were collected from herd in natural habitat in clean sterile polythene sealed bags and were subjected to sedimentation and centrifugal flotation techniques (Soulsby, 1982).

Quantitative Estimation of Parasitic Eggs

The quantitative estimation of the strongyle eggs was estimated by Mc Master's method and its units were expressed in EPG.

Faecal Culture Studies

The faecal samples positive for strongyle eggs were processed for culture studies to recover the third stage larvae by Baermann apparatus.

Modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique

For examination of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the faecal smears were prepared and stained by Modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique using ZN Acid Fast Stains Kit (Himedia, India) (Henriksen and Pohlenz, 1981). The smears were examined under 1000x magnification.

Results and Discussion

Out of sixty four faecal samples examined by sedimentation method for presence of gastrointestinal parasites, 29 (45.3 percent) samples were found to be positive for A. suum eggs, 20 (31.2 percent) for strongyle eggs, 14 (21.8 percent) for E. neodebliecki oocysts, 4 (6.2 percent) for Trichuris suis eggs and 3 (4.6 percent) for Balantidium coli cysts. The micrometry of A. suum and strongyle eggs revealed length and breadth of 72.5 x 60 mm and 41 x 30 mm respectively. Eimeria oocysts measured 17.5 x 12.5 mm in length. Whereas, cysts of Balantidium coli were spherical in shape and measured 48-50 mm in size (Fig. 1-5). None of the samples were found to be positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Faecal culture studies revealed third stage larvae of O. dentatum (Fig. 6a and 6b) and were identified based on their morphological characters (Anonymous, 1977).

In contrast to present findings, Nuria et al. (2001) on necropsy examination observed Taenia hydatigena cysticercus (19%), Ascarops strongylina (89%), Physocephalus sexalatus (6%), A. suum (2%), Metastrongylus spp. (85%), Capillaria spp. (2%) and Macrocanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (21%) in 47 wild boars in Spain. Whereas Pilarczyk et al. (2004) on feacal examination of 147 wild boars reported 58.5 percent of Eimeria oocysts and 83.67 percent of gastrointestinal nematodes (Oesophagostomum dentatus, Metastrongylus, T. suis and A. suum) from north-west Poland. The present findings were also in concurrent with Allwin et al. (2015) who carried out parasitological examination of ninety faecal samples (30 wild pigs, 30 desi pigs and 30 crossbred pigs) from Tamil Nadu state in India and recorded A. suum, T. suis, strongyles and Strongyloides sp. with a mean EPG of Strongyle and Strongyloides spp. eggs ranging from 75[+ or -]14.43 to 133.33[+ or -]33.33.

However, comparative coproscopic examination of 142 faecal samples by Popiolex et al. (2010) in wild boars revealed seven nematode species viz. Oesophagostomum sp., Globocephalus sp., Metastrongylus sp., T.suis, A.suum, Ascarops-strongylina and Physocephalus sexatus. Senlik et al. (2011) on necropsy examination reported lungworms infection with Metastrongylus apri (59%), Metastrongylus salmi (52%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (52%) in wild boars at Bursa province of Turkey. Similarly, Mansouri et al. (2016) carried out necropsy examination of twenty five wild boars and detected Cysticercus tenuicollis, Macrocanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Metastrongyles infection with Ascarops and hydatid cyst in lungs from Southwestern Iran.

In the present study, A.suum eggs were found to be predominant followed by strongyle eggs, E. neodebliecki oocysts, T. suis and Balantidium coli cysts. Mixed infections of A. suum and Oesophagostomum spp. eggs were more commonly observed during the study. The mean epg count of strongyle eggs ranged from 100 to 1200.

In contrast to present findings, Zewdneh et al. (2013) found Ascaris suum (25.9%) to be the most predominant followed by Fasciola hepatica (1.8%), Eimeria spp. (1.7%), Trichuris suis (0.3%) and Cryptosporidium oocysts (7%). Taposhi et al. (2014) reported Ascaris suum (50.9%), Strongyloides spp. (29.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (12.7%), Trichuri suis (9.1%), Ancylostomum spp. (3.6%), Eimeria spp. (56.4%), Balantidium coli (40%) and Isospora suis (9.1%) by faecal examination in domestic pigs at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The differences in the prevalence may be due to the differences in climatic conditions, husbandry practices, breeds and inherent characteristics such as host immunity, period and place of study and environmental factors.

References

Allwin, B., Jayathangaraj, M. G,. Palanivelrajan, M., Gomathinayagam, S., Raman, M. and Binosundar, S.T. (2015). Prevalence of helminthic parasites in wild pigs in comparison with domestic pigs. A study in adjoining areas of Madumalai, Annamalai and Satyamangala Tigers reserve forests, Tamilnadu South India. J. Parsitol. Vec. Bio. 7: 46-52.

Anonymous (1977). Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques. Technical Bulletin No. 18. London.

Henriksen, S. A. and Pohlenz, J.F.L. (1981). Staining of Cryptosporidia by modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Acta Vet. Scand. 22: 594-96.

Kassai, T. (1999). Veterinary Helminthology. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, Auckland, Boston, Johannesburg, Melbourne, New Delhi.

Mansouri, M., Bahador Sarkari and Gholam Reza Mowlavi (2016). Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Susscrofa, in Bushehr Province, South-Western Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 11: 377-82.

Nuria De-La-Muela, Sebastian Hernandez-De-Lujan andlgnacioferre (2001). Helminths of wild Boar in Spain. J. Wildlife Dis. 37: 840-43.

Pilaarczyk. B., Balicka-Ramisz, A., Cisek, A. and Szalewskakand Lachowska, S. (2004). Prevalence of Eimeria and intestinal nematodes in wild boar in northwest Poland. Wiad Parazytol. 50: 637-40.

Popiolek, M.D., Knecht, J.S., Staskiwicz, A. and Czerwinska, R. (2010). Helminths of the wild boar (Susscrofa L.) in natural and breeding conditions. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy 54: 161-66.

Senlik., B, Cirak, V.Y., Girisgin, O. and Akyol, C.V. (2011). Helminth infection of wild boars (Sus Scrofa) in Bursa province of Turkey. J. Helminthol. 85: 404-08.

Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982). A Textbook on Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edition, ELBS and Bailliere Tindall, London. p. 765-66.

Taposhi Rani Dey, Anita Rani Dey, Nurjaham Begum, Sonia Akther and Bikash Chandro Barmon (2014). Prevalence of end parasites of pig at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. J. Agri. Vet. Sci. 7: 31-38.

ZewdnehTomass, Ekwal Imam, Tsegabirhan Kifleyohannes, Yohannes Tekle and Kidane Weldu (2013). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of Southern zone of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Vet. World 6: 433-39.

G.S. Mamatha (1), K. Chaitra, B.M. Chandranaik, G.C. Puttalakshmamma and Placid Eugene D'Souza

Centre of Advanced Faculty Training Department of Veterinary Parasitology Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries University (KVAFSU) Hebbal Bengaluru - 560024 (Karnataka).

(1.) Corresponding author.

E-mail: drmamathags@gmail.com
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Mamatha, G.S.; Chaitra, K.; Chandranaik, B.M.; Puttalakshmamma, G.C.; D'Souza, Placid Eugene
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Clinical report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2018
Words:1287
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