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Control of cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) through allelopathic water extracts.

Canola (Brassica napus L.) crop is among the important sources of edible oil in Pakistan. (Naeem et al., 2013; Khan et al., 2012). Canola crop is damaged by different kinds of pests including weeds, insect pests and disease pathogens (McNairn et al., 2014; Saeed and Razaq, 2014; Jabran et al., 2010a; 2008), and cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) is one of these pests (Saeed and Razaq, 2014; Razaq et al., 2012). This insect feeds on upper parts of stem, leaves and reproductive structures to disturb seed set and pod filling in conola. Insect pest infestation can reduce canola yield by more than 30% (Brown et al., 1999).

Application of insecticides is one way to control cabbage aphid in canola (Amer et al., 2010; Lashkari et al., 2007). However, aphid has evolved resistance against several insecticides in Pakistan and other parts of the world (Edwards et al., 2008; Ahmad and Aslam, 2005). Also, sometimes the insecticides fail to fully control cabbage aphid in canola (Razaq et al., 2014) and residues of applied insecticide may be included in food chain and badly affect the human health (Schecter et al., 2010). The allelopathic potential of different plants as sorghum, sunflower, brassica, and mulberry has been reported in various studies (Jabran et al., 2015; Jabran and Farooq, 2013) that can be sprayed just like insecticides (Farooq et al., 2011).

The present studies were conducted with the objective to find out the effect of allelopathic water extracts from sorghum, sunflower, brassica and mulberry on mortality of cabbage aphid which severely damages canola crop in Pakistan.

Five laboratory experiments were conducted at the toxicology laboratory of Entomological Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. All the experiments were done with randomized complete block design using eight replications.

Crop herbage (sorghum, sunflower, and brassica) was harvested at maturity; mulberry leaves were collected from the mulberry tree, dried under shade and then chopped into 2 cm pieces with the help of fodder cutter. These chopped materials were used to prepare allelopathic water extracts according to methods suggested by Jabran et al. (2010a) and Farooq et al. (2008). This chopped material was soaked in the distilled water in a tub with a ratio of1:10 (w/v) for 24 h. Water extracts were collected by passing through sieves (10 and 80 mesh). The filtrate was boiled at 100 [degrees]C for reducing the volume by 20 times. The concentrated extract was stored at room temperature and then used. The percentage of different allelopathic water extracts or their combinations used in these studies have been summarized in Table 1.

Aphids, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) and canola leaves were collected from canola crop grown at the Oilseed Research Area of Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Leaves were cut with the help of iron cutter and fitted in plastic petri plates having a diameter of 8 cm. Leaf dip method was used to treat the plant leaves with allelopathic water extracts. Canola leaves were dipped in the respective solutions for a period of 10 sec, allowed to dry under air pressured drier, and fitted in the petri plates. All petri plates were labelled for its replication number and treatment. The leaves in control were dipped in distilled water for 10 sec. Forty aphids were dropped in eight petri plates (five in each petri plate) and allowed to feed on canola leaves for 24 h. The dead and alive aphids were counted after treatment of24h.

Percent mortalities in each treatment were calculated after adjusting control mortality according to Abbott (1925). Mean mortality (%) and standard errors were calculated for each treatment using Microsoft Excel Programme. The aphid mortality caused by allelopathic water extracts was presented in the form of bar graphs fitted with vertical standard error bars. Further, the data was subjected to analysis of variance test (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 (Field, 2013). The difference among the means was calculated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The bar graphs were fitted with the lettering of respective treatments.

All allelopathic water extracts investigated in our studies had a significant effect on aphid mortality (Table 2). Sorghum water extract (8% concentration) caused the highest aphid mortality (63%) followed by 6% concentration of this allelopathic extract (Fig. 1). The sorghum water extracts with lower concentrations (0.25-0.5%) had the statistically same aphid mortality as noted for control while, sorghum water extracts (1-4% concentrations) caused an aphid mortality at par with 6% concentration as well as control (Fig. 1). Brassica water extracts (8, 6 and 2% concentrations) had caused highest aphid mortality (25-30%) (Fig. 1). Brassica water extracts (0.25 and 0.5% concentrations) had aphid mortality statistically similar with control (Fig. 1). A combination of sorghum + mulberry water extracts with 16% concentration showed highest aphid mortality compared with control and other water extract concentrations (Fig. 2). A combination of sorghum + sunflower water extract with 16% concentration resulted the highest aphid mortality followed by 8% and 4% concentrations of the same combinations (Fig. 2). For sunflower water extract, the concentrations of 16% caused significantly higher mortality over control and other treatments (Fig. 3).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The results of our studies indicated that allelopathic water extracts caused a considerable mortality (> 50%) in cabbage aphid populations at 24 h after application. This implies that chemicals from natural source can be applied to control cabbage aphid. This will help to avoid the addition of hazardous insecticide residues in canola oil.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Acknowledgement

Thanks to Dr. Muhammad Asif and other staff of Entomological Research Institute for their help to complete these studies.

References

Abbott, W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18: 265-267.

Ahmad, M., Aslam, M. 2005. Resistance of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) to endosulfan, organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 37: 293-295.

Amer, M., Aslam, M., Razaq, M., Shad, S.A. 2010. Effect of conventional and neonicotinoid insecticides against aphids on canola, Brassica napus L. at Multan and Dera Ghazi Khan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 42: 377-381.

Brown, J., McCaffrey, J.P., Harmon, B.L., Davis, J.B., Brown, A.P., Erickson, D.A. 1999. Effect of late season insect infestation on yield, yield components and oil quality of Brassica napus, B.rapa, B.juncea and Sinapis alba in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Journal of Agricultural Science, 132: 281-288.

Edwards, O.R., Franzmann, B., Thackray, D., Micic, S. 2008. Insecticide resistance and implications for future aphid management in Austaralin grains and pastures: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48: 1523-1530.

Farooq, M., Jabran, K., Cheema, Z.A., Wahid, A., Siddique, K.H.M. 2011. The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management. Pest Management Science, 67: 493-506.

Farooq, M., Jabran, K., Rehman, H., Hussain, M. 2008. Allelopathic effects of rice on seedling development in wheat, oat, barley and berseem. Allelopathy Journal, 22: 385-390.

Field, A. 2013. DiscoveringStatistics UsingIBMSPSS Statistics. 4th edition. SAGE Publications Ltd. London, UK.

Jabran, K., Mahajan, G., Sardana, V., Chauhan, B.S. 2015. Allelopathy for weed control in agricultural systems. CropProtection, 72: 57-65.

Jabran, K., Farooq, M.2013. Implications of potential allelopathic crops in agricultural systems. In: Allelopathy: Current Trends and Future Applications, Cheema, Z.A. Farooq, Wahid M. A. (eds.), pp: 349-385, Springer, the Netherlands.

Jabran, K., Cheema, Z.A., Farooq, M., Hussain, M. 2010a. Lower doses of pendimethalin mixed with allelopathic crop water extracts for weed management in canola (Brassica napus L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 12: 335-340.

Jabran, K., Farooq, M., Hussain, M., Rehman, H., Ali, M.A. 2010b. Wild oat (Avenafatua L.) and canary grass (Phalaris minor Ritz.) management through allelopathy. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50: 41-44.

Jabran, K., Cheema, Z.A., Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Hussain, M., Rehman, H. 2008. Tank mixing of allelopathic crop water extracts with pendimethalin helps in the management of weeds in canola (Brassica napus) field. International Journal of Agriculture andBiology, 10: 293-296.

Khan, M.B., Khan, M., Hussain, M., Farooq, M., Jabran, K., Lee, D-J. 2012. Bio-economic assessment of different wheat-canola intercropping systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 14: 769-774.

Lashkari, M.R., Sahragard, A., Ghadamyari, M. 2007. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L. InsectScience, 14: 207-212.

McNairn, H., Wiseman, G., Powers, J., Merzouki, A., Shang, J. 2014. Assessment of disease risk in canola using multi-frequency SAR: preliminary results. In: Proceedings of 10th European Conference on Synthetic ApertureRadar, pp. 1-4, EUSAR2014, Berlin, Germany, June 2-6,2014.

Naeem, M., Cheema, Z.A., Ahmad, A.U.H., Wahid, A., Farooq, O., Saeed-ur-Rehman, H. 2013. Agroeconomic assessment of wheat (Triticum aestivum) canola (Brassica napus) intercropping systems under different spatial patterns. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15: 1325-1330.

Razaq, M., Abbas, G., Farooq, M., M. Aslam, Athar, H.R. 2014. Effect of insecticidal application on aphid population, photosynthetic parameters and yield components of late sown varieties of canola, Brassica napus L. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 46: 661-668.

Razaq, M., Maqsood, S., Aslam, M., Shad, S.A., Afzal, M. 2012. Effect of plant spacing on aphid population, yield components and oil contents of late sown canola, Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 44: 991-995.

Saeed, N.A., Razaq, M. 2014. Effect of sowing dates within a season on incidence and abundance of insect pests of canola crops. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 46: 1193-1203.

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Khawar Jabran (ab) *, Zahid Ata Cheema (a), Muhammad Bismillah Khan (c) and Mubshar Hussain (c)

(a) Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

(b) Department of Plant Protection, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey

(c) Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

(received April 29, 2015; revised January 10, 2016; accepted January 28, 2016)

* Author for correspondence; E-mail: Khawarjabran@gmail.com
Table 1: Concentrations of different water extracts used
in these studies

Study-I   Study-II   Study-III   Study-IV    Study-V
Sorghum   Brassica   Sorghum +   Sorghum +   Sunflower
                     mulberry    sunflower

Control   Control    Control     Control     Control
SWE-      BWE-       SOR+MUL-    SOR+SUN-    SNFWE-
0.25%     0.25%      1%          1%          1%
SWE-      BWE-       SOR+MUL-    SOR+SUN-    SNFWE-
0.5%      0.5%       2%          2%          2%
SWE-      BWE-       SOR+MUL-    SOR+SUN-    SNFWE-
1%        1%         4%          4%          4%
SWE-      BWE-       SOR+MUL-    SOR+SUN-    SNFWE-
2%        2%         8%          8%          8%
SWE-      BWE-       SOR+MUL-    SOR+SUN-S   NF WE-
4%        4%         16%         16%         16%
SWE-      BWE-       --          --          --
6%        6%         --          --          --
SWE-      BWE-       --          --          --
8%        8%         --          --          --

SWE = Sorghum water extract; BWE = Brassica water extract;
SOR+MUL = Sorghum + mulberry water extracts; SOR +
SUN = Sorghum + sunflower water extracts; SNFWE =
Sunflower water extract.

Table 2: Analysis of variance (p values) for indicating
significance of various allelopathic water extracts on
aphid mortality

            Study-I   Study-II   Study-III   Study-IV    Study-V
            Sorghum   Brassica   Sorghum +   Sorghum +   Sunflower
                                 mulberry    sunflower

Treatment   0.0001    0.002      0.0001      0.0001      0.0001
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Jabran, Khawar; Cheema, Zahid Ata; Khan, Muhammad Bismillah; Hussain, Mubshar
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Mar 1, 2016
Words:1832
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