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Contribution to the ethnobotanical study of antidiabetic medicinal plants of the Central Middle Atlas region (Morocco)/Contribucion al estudio etnobotanica de plantas medicinales antidiabeticas de la region central Oriente Atlas (Marruecos).

Introduction

Worldwide, both in developed and developing countries, diabetes has been considered for several years as one of the scourges of the third millennium. Alarmingly, the number of people with diabetes continues to grow. There were 366 million diabetics in 2010 and 552 million are expected in 2030 (Whiting, 2011). The World Health Organization (WHO) foresees that if we do not take urgent measures, diabetes deaths will increase by more than 50% over the next ten years.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease that is characterized by a disorder in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in a hyperglycemia. Originally, the term "diabetes" referred to various diseases that are characterized by a marked increase in urine excretion, dehydration and excessive thirst (Calop & al, 2008). Blood glucose is the main parameter in diabetes mellitus; it is the level of glucose in the blood (Menat, 2005). A person has diabetes when the fasting blood glucose is greater than or equal to 1.26 g/l. According to the cause of the disease (etiology), there are four types of diabetes mellitus, the most common types are diabetes type 1 and 2 (WHO, 2002). Type 1 diabetes (ex-insulin-dependent IDDM) accounts for about 10% of all cases of diabetes (WHO, 2002), most of them concern children, but it can occur at any age. Up to 90% of the normal amount of P cells secreting insulin is destroyed (autoimmune or idiopathic causes (Raccah, 2004; Calop & al., 2008). Type 2 diabetes (non-ex-insulin dependent NIDDM) begins usually after the age of 40 and it represents 90% of all cases of diabetes (Buysschaert & al., 1999; Raccah, 2004). It is a result of the inability of the body to respond properly to the action of insulin. Insulin is either low or high (predominant insulinopaenia or predominant insulin resistance) (Calop & al., 2008; Raccah, 2004). The latter case leads to an increase in the hepatic production of glucose and a decrease in the translocation of glucose transporters in muscles (Schulman, 2000).

The Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with organic complications involving, particularly, eyes, nerves, kidneys, heart and blood vessels; these complications are what make diabetes mellitus very dangerous. All these adverse effects of hyperglycemia justify the need to balance, as perfectly as possible, the glucose levels in the blood (Jaspreet & al., 2003). In fact, diabetes is a public health problem in many countries since it is an important cause of premature morbidity. It is a little known but a costly disease for the individual, the family and the community (Mangambu, 2014). Morocco is no exception to this global trend. Diabetes in Morocco is a major public health problem. Its prevalence has increased from 2.26% in 1976 to 6.6% in 2000. This increase is due to the epidemiological transition, characterized by a westernization of lifestyle, increasing obesity and stress (Karam, 2010).

Diabetes is considered as a public health priority given its clinical, human and financial major impacts. Also, the poor monitoring of people with diabetes often leads to their death (Kasali & al., 2013a). The chronicity of this disease requires a lifelong, a very expensive and well followed treatment for a diabetic, using a combination of several therapies (Bouxid, 2012) and a regular self-monitoring (Mangambu & al., 2012; Singh & Singh, 2012).

Moreover, in African developing countries, the medical management of diabetes is limited by the inaccessibility of certain populations to health centers and the high cost of conventional medicine. Under these conditions, people often use medicinal plants to heal. Also, there are problems of intolerance, hypersensitivity and resistance, things which are associated with antidiabetic drugs (Jayakumar & al., 2010).

In addition, plants are increasingly recognized as a wonderful source of medication. Currently, 1200 species of plants are used as drugs for the traditional therapy of diabetes (Marles & Farnsworth, 1995).

Facing the expansion of this disease and its highly expensive care, the WHO, in its resolution of 31st August 2000, encouraged African countries to promote regional pharmacopoeia and traditional medicine, to ensure their primary health care needs. To this end, an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out in the Central Middle Atlas region. This study helps to identify antidiabetic medicines and to provide a database of medicinal plants, in order to preserve the ancestral knowledge that is essentially based on an oral tradition. This knowledge contributes undoubtedly, to a better understanding of plant resources, which leads to a rational and sustainable exploitation, that takes into account the equitable sharing of products for the common good of local stakeholders and the community development of their lands.

Material and methods

Study area

The Central Middle Atlas region represents the ethnobotanical and floristic study area of the antidiabetic medicinal plants used by its population (Figure 1). The Middle Atlas is part of the field of Atlas chains (Michard, 1976). It occupies an intermediate position between the Rif to the north, and the High Atlas to the south. Along an EW section, the Middle Atlas is bordered by the high plateaus of the Oran-Moroccan meseta to the east and the coastal meseta to the west. To the north, it is limited by the plain of Sais (Neogene sediments) and the front of the nappe Rifain. To the northeast, it is limited by the basin of Guercif and to south and southeast, it is limited by the depression of Moulouya (Arboleya & al., 2004).

Globally, the Middle Atlas structure corresponds, on one hand, to large synclinal basins with axes that are parallel to the chain and, on the other hand, to narrow anticlinal ridges, sometimes, intruded with gabbroic rocks (Fedan, 1988). It consists of two structural assemblies that are separated by the North Middle Atlas fault (Arboleya & al., 2004): The tabular Middle Atlas or Middle Atlas plateau to NW and the folded Middle Atlas to SE. The first it is mainly formed by a Paleozoic basement covered with a large Mesozoic cover, all of it is dotted with scattered volcanic effusions of the quaternary age (Texier & al., 1985; Herbig, 1988). The folded Middle Atlas corresponds to the east part of the chain, it is distinguished from the sub-tabular plateau by the presence of ridges that form reliefs, and those reliefs are pointing toward the chain direction. These anticline ridges, framing the synclinal depressions, continued to function, during the Middle Jurassic, as depocentres and quite thick calcareous marls (Fedan, 1988). The climate in the Middle Atlas is of a mountain Mediterranean type, it is characterized by a wet and cold climate. That unique climate is due to its altitudinal position, its location and exposure to marine influences (Martin, 1981). The Middle Atlas, known as the key water tower of Morocco, is the mountain range that is the better watered and with the richest wetlands, including natural lakes, rivers and fresh sources, offering varied ecological habitats and fostering a great biodiversity (Chillasse & Dakki, 2004).

The Middle Atlas is generally very rich in plant species, because of the great diversity of the ecosystems held within this area (forests, grasslands, scrublands, steppes, wetlands, saline soils). The Phytocenoses found there are organized by the following tree species: Cedrus atlantica (Atlas cedar), Quercus faginea (Zeen oak), Quercus suber (cork oak), Quercus rotundifolia (green oak), Tetraclinis articulata (Barbary thuja), Juniperus thurifera (Spanish juniper), Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus pinaster var. maghrebiana (Maghreb maritime pine) and spiny Xerophytes.

The Moroccan endemic tree species found in the Middle Atlas are Juniperus phoenicea, Juniperus thurifera and Ceratonia siliqua (Chillasse & Dakki, 2004). Two major biogeographic zones are distinguished in the Middle Atlas (Lecompte, 1986):

1) The Area occupied by vegetation that is adapted to the wetter climate conditions. It takes place throughout west and northwest of the Guigou plain, on the limestone causse plateaus of the Middle Atlas and their northern foothills.

2) Zones of xeric vegetation of the folded Middle Atlas and its borders (Moulouya and Sebou rivers).

Methodology

In order to identify medicinal herbs and gather all information on the therapeutic uses that are practiced by the local population of the Central Middle Atlas region, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 using a pre-quiz sheet with specific questions about the common name of each species, the used part, methods of preparation, methods of administration and the treated disease. The towns, villages and Douars (small villages) of the surveyed area are determined through the probabilistic stratified sampling techniques (Godron, 1971, 1982).

The study area is divided into 39 homogeneous strata: Immouzer kandar, Aioun sename, El hajeb, Tazouta, Dar Mimoun Ou Ahmed, Tagnanait, Bou Sedra, Adarouch, Ifrane, Skoura, Taghzout, Azrou, Boulmane, Bouchbel, Ain Leuh, Ait Ghanem, Timahdite, M'rirt, Zaouit Ifrane, Enjil, Wiwane, Sources Oum Rabia, Bakrit, Aguelmama Sidi Ali, Taoureda, Aguelmam Azegza, Khenifra, Jnane lmes, Ait Oufella, Itzer, Kerouchen, Tighssaline, El Kebab, Ouaoumana, Sidi Yahya Ou Saad, Aghbalou N'serdane, Zaouit Cheikh, Moulay Ya'qoub and Aghbala (Figure 2). By adopting a stratified random sampling, the survey was conducted among 1560 people, randomly selected from the population of the study area, with a sample of 40 individuals per stratum. This helped to sort the antidiabetic medicinal plants; however, this list enables a monograph of these plants according to the family, the scientific name, the common name and the local therapeutic use.

Results and Discussion

In the case of diabetes, there is variety of plants originating in traditional medicine with antidiabetic effects. In fact, many drugs known on the market are derived from a plant extract. The Galegine (antihyperglycemic agent) isolated from Galega officinalis L. (Fabaceae). The Galegine has served as a synthesis model of Metmorfin and other antidiabetic drugs (Sneader, 1985). Recently, diabetologists concluded that a therapeutic complement consisting of plant extracts is necessary to optimize the diabetes treatment (Bagchi & al., 1997. Kim & al., 2002; Jin & al., 2008). The ethnobotanical study is of great importance in the search for new Herbal active substances that can deal with problems, for which, the conventional medicine have no answers yet.

Thus, the floristic analysis of the catalog that was developed during this ethnobotanical study has identified 76 species distributed in 40 botanical families and 67 genera (Appendix 1). These species are divided into the following systematic groups: gymnosperms are represented by two families (Cupressaceae, Ephedraceae), three genera (Juniperus, Tetraclinis, Ephedra) and four species (Juniperus phoenicea, J. thurifera, Tetraclinis articulata and Ephedra nebrodensis). Angiosperms include 38 families, 64 genera and 72 species. Among these latter, Dicotyledons are dominant with 65 species and Monocotyledons are dominant with 7 species. Among the 40 identified families, some are more represented than others in this region: Lamiaceae (12 species), Asteraceae and Brassicaceae, each with 4 species and which are also the richest families in Morocco. While families Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cupressaceae, Fabaceae, Oleaceae and Poaceae include only 3 species each one. The Thymus genus is the most represented with 4 species, Allium, Pistacia, Brassica and Juniperus are represented by two species. Those results are similar to those already obtained by Orch & al. (2015) in the region of Izarene, but they are slightly different from those reported by Ghourri & al. (2013) in the Moroccan Sahara and Benkhnigue & al. (2014) in Al-Haouz Rhamna region. In fact, these studies have shown that families Fabaceae and Asteraceae are the most represented. This can be comprehensible because the geographical area of studies is different. The indicated dosage is based primarily on a clear predominance of leaves as the most used plant organs (38%), it is maybe due to their availability throughout the year, their easy access, removal and manipulation (Trabi & al., 2008), the decoction is the most used way (50%). The remedy is, almost, always administered orally (97%); this requirement can be explained by the fact that this disease is linked to deep organs. To reach them, any compound must pass through the digestive system to facilitate its assimilation (Trabi & al., 2008). These results are consistent with those reported by Ghourri & al. (2013) in the Moroccan Sahara, by Benkhnigue & al. (2014) in the Al-Haouz Rhamna region and by Orch & al. (2015) in the region of Izarene.

Comparing the results with those of previous studies (Bellakhdar, 1997; Ghourri & al., 2013; Benkhnigue & al., 2014; Orch & al., 2015) we can confirm the existence of 14 unreported medicinal species in the traditional treatment of diabetes such as Pistacia atlantica, Ptychotis verticillata, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Alyssum spinosum, Cistus albidus, Juniperus thurifera, Ephedra nebrodensis, Thymus algeriensis, Th. munbyanus, Th. zygis, Abelmoschus esculentus, Fraxinus augustifolia, Sorghum vulgare and Eriobotrya japonica. This can be explained by the richness and diversity of the medicinal flora of the Central Middle Atlas that is characterized by a particular geographical position, orography, edaphic structure and geological and climatic conditions.

Despite the therapeutic effects of Medicinal plants, they should be used with great caution, since they may have a toxicity risk (Fouche & al., 2000). They are complex mixtures of various molecules. Their often poorly defined composition is formed by molecules with a known biological activity, these components may, to a certain degree of concentration, present an intrinsic toxicity. Like all compositions of plant products, which vary in many ways, the content of these constituents can naturally vary from one preparation to another. In fact, during our investigation, herbalists have reported a risk of toxic effects when talking about colocynth (Citruiius coiocynthis), oleander (Nerium oleander) and spurge (Euphorbia resinifera).

Conclusion

Diabetes is the first non-communicable disease to be recognized by the United Nations as a threat to global health. It was defined as dangerous as the infectious epidemics such as: malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS. It is a disabling and costly chronic disease with serious complications; it presents severe risks for families, Member States and the whole world. Thus, the coverage of medical expenses becomes a real social problem, especially in developing countries, such as Morocco, where the low economic system induces insufficient resources. The use of, readily, available local resources constitutes a suitable palliative alternative. In this context, an ethnobotanical study has been conducted in the Central Middle Atlas region, and helped to identify a list of hypoglycemic medicinal plants used by the population of the study area. This investigation has helped to set up an inventory of 76 antidiabetic species used by the local population, including 14 antidiabetic species that are listed for the first time in Morocco. This ethnobotanical study will be useful to scientists for further study. These studies will help the isolation and identification of active ingredients that could lead to diabetes medications for the welfare of diabetics.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/LAZAROA.51854

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Appendix 1. Catalog of antidiabetic medicinal plants.

Family            Scientific name             French name

Amaranthaceae     Chenopodium ambrosoides     Chenopode
                  L.

Amaryllidaceae    Allium cepa L.              Oignon
                  Allium sativum L.           Ail

Anacardiaceae     Pistacia atlantica Desf.    Pistachier de l'atlas
                  Pistacia lentiscus L.       Lentisque

Apiaceae          Ammi visnaga L.             Khella
                  Daucus carota L.            Carotte cultivee
                  Ptychotis verticillata      Ammi ptychotis
                  Dub.

Apocynaceae       Caralluma europaea          Carallume d'europe
                  (Guss.) N.E. Br.
                  Nerium oleander L.          Laurier rose

Arecaceae         Chamaerops humilis L.       Palmier doum/ Palmier
                                              nain
                  Phoenix dactylifera L.      Palmier-dattier

Asparagaceae      Asparagus albus L.          Asperge blanche

Asteraceae        Anacyclus pyrethrum L.      Pyretre d'afrique
                  Artemisia herba-alba        Armoise blanche
                  Asso.
                  Dittrichia viscosa (L.)     Aunee visqueuse
                  Greuter
                  Scolymus hispanicus L.      Scolyme d'Espagne

Brassicaceae      Alyssum spinosum L.         Alysson epineux
                  Anastatica hierochuntica    Rose de Jericho
                  L.
                  Brasica oleracea L          Chou
                  Brassica rapa L.            Navet

Buxaceae          Buxus balearica Lam         Buis des baleares

Cactaceae         Opuntia ficus indica (L)    Figuier de barbarie
                  Mill.

Capparaceae       Capparis spinosa L.         Caprier

Caryophyllaceae   Corrigiola telephiifolia    Corrigiole a feuilles de
                  Pourr.                      telephium

Cistaceae         Cistus albidus L.           Ciste blanc

Cucurbitaceae     Citrullus colocynthis       Coloquinte
                  (L.) Schrader.
                  Cucumis sativus L.          Concombre
                  Cucurbita pepo L.           Citrouille

Cupressaceae      Juniperus phoenicea L.      Genevrier de phenicie
                  Juniperus thurifera L.      Genevrier thurifere
                  Tetraclinis articulata      Thuya de berberie
                  (Vahl) Mast.

Ephedraceae       Ephedra nebrodensis Guss.   Ephedra

Ericaceae         Arbutus unedo L.            Arbosier

Euphorbiaceae     Euphorbia resinifera        Euphorbe resinifere
                  Berg

Fabaceae          Medicago sativa L.          Luzerne
                  Phaseolus vulgaris L.       Haricot
                  Trigonella foenum-graecum   Fenugrec
                  L

Gentianaceae      Centaurium erythraea L.     Petite centauree

Geraniaceae       Pelargonium roseum Willd.   Geranium-rosat

Globulariaceae    Globularia alypum L.        Globulaire turbith/
                                              Turbith blanc

Juglandaceae      Juglans regia L.            Noyer

Lamiaceae         Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb.H.    Bugle-Ivette
                  Lavandula stoechas L.       Lavande pedoncule
                  Marrubium vulgare L.        Marrube blanc
                  Mentha pulegium L.          Menthe pouliot
                  Ocimum basilicum L.         Basilic
                  Origanum compactum Benth.   Origan
                  Rosmarinus officinalis L.   Romarin
                  Salvia officinalis L.       Sauge officinale
                  Thymus algeriensis Boiss.   Thym
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus munbyanus Boiss.     Thym
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus vulgaris L.          Thym
                  Thymus zygis L.             Thym

Lauraceae         Cinnamomum cassia (Nees     Cannelle
                  & T. Nees) J. Presl

Linaceae          Linum usitatissimum L.      Lin cultive

Lythraceae        Punica granatum L.          Grenadier

Malvaceae         Abelmoschus esculentus      Gombo
                  (L.) Moench

Moraceae          Ficus carica L.             Figuier
                  Morus alba L.               Murier noir

Myrtaceae         Eucalyptus globulus         Eucalyptus
                  Labill.
                  Myrtus communis L.          Myrte

Oleaceae          Fraxinus augustifolia       Frene
                  Vahl.
                  Olea europaea L.            Olivier
                  Olea europaea var.          Olivier sauvage
                  sylvestris (Mill.) Brot.

Poaceae           Avena sativa L.             Avoine cultive
                  Phalaris canariensis L.     Alpiste de canaries
                  Sorghum vulgare Pers.       Sorgho

Ranunculaceae     Nigella sativa L.           Nigelle

Rosaceae          Eriobotrya japonica         Neflier
                  (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rutaceae          Ruta montana L.             Rue des montagnes/
                                              Rue sauvage.

Sapotaceae        Argania spinosa L.          Arganier

Solanaceae        Capsicum frutescens L.      Piment enrage

Urticaceae        Urtica pilulifera L.        Ortie a pilules

Zygophyllaceae    Peganum harmala L.          Harmel
                  Zygophyllum gaetulum Enb.   Zygophylle
                  & Maire.

Family            Scientific name             Vernacular name

Amaranthaceae     Chenopodium ambrosoides     Mkhinza
                  L.

Amaryllidaceae    Allium cepa L.              Lbesla Azalim
                  Allium sativum L.           Toum / Tichert

Anacardiaceae     Pistacia atlantica Desf.    Lbtem Ijj
                  Pistacia lentiscus L.       Trou

Apiaceae          Ammi visnaga L.             Bachnikha / Barghanisse
                  Daucus carota L.            Khizou
                  Ptychotis verticillata      Nounkha
                  Dub.

Apocynaceae       Caralluma europaea          Daghmus
                  (Guss.) N.E. Br.
                  Nerium oleander L.          Defla / Allili

Arecaceae         Chamaerops humilis L.       Doum / Tiguezden / Ignadd
                  Phoenix dactylifera L.      Tmar / Nakhla / Tazdayet
                                              / Tini/

Asparagaceae      Asparagus albus L.          Sekkum / Azzu

Asteraceae        Anacyclus pyrethrum L.      Iguntas / Tagundecht
                  Artemisia herba-alba        Chih / Ifzi / Izri
                  Asso.
                  Dittrichia viscosa (L.)     Terehla
                  Greuter
                  Scolymus hispanicus L.      Gurnina / Taghdiut

Brassicaceae      Alyssum spinosum L.         Aguerbaz
                  Anastatica hierochuntica    Chajarat maryem
                  L.
                  Brasica oleracea L          Krumb
                  Brassica rapa L.            Left beldi

Buxaceae          Buxus balearica Lam         Azazer / lbakous

Cactaceae         Opuntia ficus indica (L)    Handiya/ za'boul
                  Mill.

Capparaceae       Capparis spinosa L.         Kabar / Taylulut

Caryophyllaceae   Corrigiola telephiifolia    Sarghina / Tawsarghine
                  Pourr.

Cistaceae         Cistus albidus L.           Boutour

Cucurbitaceae     Citrullus colocynthis       Lhdej / Tafrzizte
                  (L.) Schrader.
                  Cucumis sativus L.          Lkhiyar
                  Cucurbita pepo L.           Gar'a l-hamra / Takhsait

Cupressaceae      Juniperus phoenicea L.      L'araar finiqui
                  Juniperus thurifera L.      Tawayt
                  Tetraclinis articulata      L'araar
                  (Vahl) Mast.

Ephedraceae       Ephedra nebrodensis Guss.   Timitrte

Ericaceae         Arbutus unedo L.            Sasnu

Euphorbiaceae     Euphorbia resinifera        Tikiwt
                  Berg

Fabaceae          Medicago sativa L.          Fessa
                  Phaseolus vulgaris L.       Lubya
                  Trigonella foenum-graecum   Lhalba
                  L

Gentianaceae      Centaurium erythraea L.     Qusset el-hayya/ ahchlaf
                                              n' tawrra
Geraniaceae       Pelargonium roseum Willd.   Laattercha

Globulariaceae    Globularia alypum L.        A' yen lerneb / Taselgha

Juglandaceae      Juglans regia L.            Swak / Gargaa

Lamiaceae         Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb.H.    Tuf tolba / Chendgoura
                  Lavandula stoechas L.       Lhalhal
                  Marrubium vulgare L.        Mriwta / Mriwa
                  Mentha pulegium L.          Fliyyo
                  Ocimum basilicum L.         Lahbaq
                  Origanum compactum Benth.   Zaater
                  Rosmarinus officinalis L.   Azir
                  Salvia officinalis L.       Salmiya
                  Thymus algeriensis Boiss.   Aduchen / Azukni / Zaitra
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus munbyanus Boiss.     Aduchen / Azukni / Zai'tra
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus vulgaris L.          Aduchen / Azukni / Zaitra
                  Thymus zygis L.             Aduchen / Azukni / Zaitra

Lauraceae         Cinnamomum cassia (Nees     Qarfa
                  & T. Nees) J. Presl

Linaceae          Linum usitatissimum L.      Zriaat al kettane

Lythraceae        Punica granatum L.          Qchour romman

Malvaceae         Abelmoschus esculentus      Lmloukhia
                  (L.) Moench

Moraceae          Ficus carica L.             Karma Tazarett
                  Morus alba L.               Tut lbari

Myrtaceae         Eucalyptus globulus         Calitous
                  Labill.
                  Myrtus communis L.          Rihane

Oleaceae          Fraxinus augustifolia       Touzalt
                  Vahl.
                  Olea europaea L.            Zitoune
                  Olea europaea var.          Azemmour/ zabouj
                  sylvestris (Mill.) Brot.

Poaceae           Avena sativa L.             Khortal
                  Phalaris canariensis L.     Zwane
                  Sorghum vulgare Pers.       Bachna

Ranunculaceae     Nigella sativa L.           Haba souda / sanouj

Rosaceae          Eriobotrya japonica         M'zah
                  (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rutaceae          Ruta montana L.             L-Fijel / Iwermi

Sapotaceae        Argania spinosa L.          Aqqa wargan

Solanaceae        Capsicum frutescens L.      Felfel Harr/ soudania

Urticaceae        Urtica pilulifera L.        Hurriga / Tisrakmaz

Zygophyllaceae    Peganum harmala L.          Lharmel
                  Zygophyllum gaetulum Enb.   L'aggaya
                  & Maire.

Family            Scientific name             Parts used

Amaranthaceae     Chenopodium ambrosoides     The whole plant
                  L.

Amaryllidaceae    Allium cepa L.              bulb
                  Allium sativum L.           bulb

Anacardiaceae     Pistacia atlantica Desf.    Leaves/ Ecorce
                  Pistacia lentiscus L.       Leaves/ Ecorce

Apiaceae          Ammi visnaga L.             Inflorescence (umbel)
                  Daucus carota L.            Root
                  Ptychotis verticillata      Aerial part
                  Dub.

Apocynaceae       Caralluma europaea          Leaves
                  (Guss.) N.E. Br.
                  Nerium oleander L.          Leaves

Arecaceae         Chamaerops humilis L.       Root
                  Phoenix dactylifera L.      Root

Asparagaceae      Asparagus albus L.          Young sprouts

Asteraceae        Anacyclus pyrethrum L.      Root
                  Artemisia herba-alba        Leaves
                  Asso.
                  Dittrichia viscosa (L.)     Leaves
                  Greuter
                  Scolymus hispanicus L.      Leaves/ Stem

Brassicaceae      Alyssum spinosum L.         Stem with leaves
                  Anastatica hierochuntica    Stem with leaves
                  L.
                  Brasica oleracea L          Leaves
                  Brassica rapa L.            Root

Buxaceae          Buxus balearica Lam         Leaves

Cactaceae         Opuntia ficus indica (L)    Leaves/ Flowers/ Fruit
                  Mill.

Capparaceae       Capparis spinosa L.         Aerial part

Caryophyllaceae   Corrigiola telephiifolia    Root
                  Pourr.

Cistaceae         Cistus albidus L.           Leaves

Cucurbitaceae     Citrullus colocynthis       Fruit/Seeds
                  (L.) Schrader.
                  Cucumis sativus L.          Fruit
                  Cucurbita pepo L.           Fruit

Cupressaceae      Juniperus phoenicea L.      Leaves/ Young branch
                  Juniperus thurifera L.      Leaves/ Young branch
                  Tetraclinis articulata      Leaves/ Young branch
                  (Vahl) Mast.

Ephedraceae       Ephedra nebrodensis Guss.   Leaves

Ericaceae         Arbutus unedo L.            Leaves

Euphorbiaceae     Euphorbia resinifera        Leaves
                  Berg

Fabaceae          Medicago sativa L.          Leaves
                  Phaseolus vulgaris L.       Fruit
                  Trigonella foenum-graecum   Seeds
                  L

Gentianaceae      Centaurium erythraea L.     Flowering top

Geraniaceae       Pelargonium roseum Willd.   Stem with leaves

Globulariaceae    Globularia alypum L.        Leaves/ Stem with leaves

Juglandaceae      Juglans regia L.            Leaves

Lamiaceae         Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb.H.    whole plant
                  Lavandula stoechas L.       Aerial part
                  Marrubium vulgare L.        Aerial part
                  Mentha pulegium L.          Leaves/ Stem with leaves
                  Ocimum basilicum L.         Stem with leaves
                  Origanum compactum Benth.   Stem with leaves
                  Rosmarinus officinalis L.   Flowering stem
                  Salvia officinalis L.       whole plant
                  Thymus algeriensis Boiss.   Stem with leaves
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus munbyanus Boiss.     Stem with leaves
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus vulgaris L.          Stem with leaves
                  Thymus zygis L.             Stem with leaves

Lauraceae         Cinnamomum cassia (Nees     Ecorce
                  & T. Nees) J. Presl

Linaceae          Linum usitatissimum L.      Seeds

Lythraceae        Punica granatum L.          Pericarp

Malvaceae         Abelmoschus esculentus      Fruit
                  (L.) Moench

Moraceae          Ficus carica L.             Leaves
                  Morus alba L.               Leaves

Myrtaceae         Eucalyptus globulus         Leaves
                  Labill.
                  Myrtus communis L.          Leaves

Oleaceae          Fraxinus augustifolia       Leaves
                  Vahl.
                  Olea europaea L.            Leaves
                  Olea europaea var.          Leaves
                  sylvestris (Mill.) Brot.

Poaceae           Avena sativa L.             Whole plant / Seeds
                  Phalaris canariensis L.     Seeds
                  Sorghum vulgare Pers.       Seeds

Ranunculaceae     Nigella sativa L.           Seeds

Rosaceae          Eriobotrya japonica         Leaves
                  (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rutaceae          Ruta montana L.             Stem with leaves

Sapotaceae        Argania spinosa L.          Seeds

Solanaceae        Capsicum frutescens L.      Fruit

Urticaceae        Urtica pilulifera L.        Leaves

Zygophyllaceae    Peganum harmala L.          Seeds
                  Zygophyllum gaetulum Enb.   Leaves
                  & Maire.

                                              Usage traditionnel local
Family            Scientific name             Local medicinal usages

Amaranthaceae     Chenopodium ambrosoides     Decoction / A glass
                  L.                          every day

Amaryllidaceae    Allium cepa L.              Raw
                  Allium sativum L.           Raw

Anacardiaceae     Pistacia atlantica Desf.    Decoction/ A glass in the
                                              morning after breakfast
                  Pistacia lentiscus L.       Infusion / Decoction

Apiaceae          Ammi visnaga L.             Decoction
                  Daucus carota L.            Juice / Puree
                  Ptychotis verticillata      Infusion
                  Dub.

Apocynaceae       Caralluma europaea          The orange juice or with
                  (Guss.) N.E. Br.            milk /Raw
                  Nerium oleander L.          Set foot in the
                                              decoction/ add the
                                              decoction in bath water
                                              /Put the leaves in shoes

Arecaceae         Chamaerops humilis L.       Raw / Cooked
                  Phoenix dactylifera L.      Decoction / A glass
                                              every day

Asparagaceae      Asparagus albus L.          Raw

Asteraceae        Anacyclus pyrethrum L.      Infusion / powder /Aglass
                                              in the morning after
                                              lunches
                  Artemisia herba-alba        Infusion / Aglass per
                  Asso.                       daily for one month
                  Dittrichia viscosa (L.)     Decoction / A glass per
                  Greuter                     daily for one month
                  Scolymus hispanicus L.      Raw stem or cooked
                                              /Leavees decoction

Brassicaceae      Alyssum spinosum L.         Decoction
                  Anastatica hierochuntica    Powder, associated with
                  L.                          Rosmarinus officinalis,
                                              in Decoction
                  Brasica oleracea L          Raw
                  Brassica rapa L.            juice decocted

Buxaceae          Buxus balearica Lam         Decoction

Cactaceae         Opuntia ficus indica (L)    juice small fresh leaves
                  Mill.                       with milk / Flowers
                                              associated with honey
                                              powder / The fruit is
                                              used as an antidiabitic

Capparaceae       Capparis spinosa L.         Decoction/ Infusion

Caryophyllaceae   Corrigiola telephiifolia    The root powder
                  Pourr.                      incorporated in bread

Cistaceae         Cistus albidus L.           Decoction

Cucurbitaceae     Citrullus colocynthis       The fruit divided in two
                  (L.) Schrader.              and lightly heat is
                                              placed under the heels /
                                              Add the fruit decoction
                                              in bath water / taking a
                                              seed in the morning and
                                              evening is recommended
                                              against diabetes.
                  Cucumis sativus L.          The mixed juice "Lben"
                                              (fermented milk)
                  Cucurbita pepo L.           The decoction juice

Cupressaceae      Juniperus phoenicea L.      Decoction
                  Juniperus thurifera L.      Decoction
                  Tetraclinis articulata      Decoction
                  (Vahl) Mast.

Ephedraceae       Ephedra nebrodensis Guss.   Leavees decoction,
                                              associated toApium
                                              graveolens, and
                                              petroselinum sativum.

Ericaceae         Arbutus unedo L.            Decoction

Euphorbiaceae     Euphorbia resinifera        A drop latex in a glass
                  Berg                        of water once a day.

Fabaceae          Medicago sativa L.          Cooked leaves
                  Phaseolus vulgaris L.       Decoction juice
                  Trigonella foenum-graecum   Seeds, their flour or
                  L                           decoction is used
                                              conventionally in Morocco
                                              against diabetes.

Gentianaceae      Centaurium erythraea L.     Infusion

Geraniaceae       Pelargonium roseum Willd.   The stem with leaves in
                                              tea infusion.
Globulariaceae    Globularia alypum L.        Decoction/ Infusion.

Juglandaceae      Juglans regia L.            Decoction

Lamiaceae         Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb.H.    Decoction
                  Lavandula stoechas L.       Decoction
                  Marrubium vulgare L.        Infusion / Decoction
                  Mentha pulegium L.          Infusion / Decoction
                  Ocimum basilicum L.         Infusion
                  Origanum compactum Benth.   A decoction or infusion
                                              with two glasses per day:
                                              in the morning and
                                              evening.
                  Rosmarinus officinalis L.   Infusion / Decoction
                  Salvia officinalis L.       Infusion / Decoction
                  Thymus algeriensis Boiss.   Infusion / Decoction
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus munbyanus Boiss.     Infusion / Decoction
                  & Reut.
                  Thymus vulgaris L.          Infusion / Decoction
                  Thymus zygis L.             Infusion / Decoction

Lauraceae         Cinnamomum cassia (Nees     Decoction in milk.
                  & T. Nees) J. Presl

Linaceae          Linum usitatissimum L.      Powder in warm water or
                                              milk.

Lythraceae        Punica granatum L.          Decoction

Malvaceae         Abelmoschus esculentus      Maceration of 2 or 3
                  (L.) Moench                 fruits in a glass of
                                              water overnight to take
                                              fasting.

Moraceae          Ficus carica L.             Decoction
                  Morus alba L.               Fresh leaves in infusion.

Myrtaceae         Eucalyptus globulus         Decoction
                  Labill.
                  Myrtus communis L.          Infusion / Decoction

Oleaceae          Fraxinus augustifolia       Infusion
                  Vahl.
                  Olea europaea L.            Infusion
                  Olea europaea var.          Infusion
                  sylvestris (Mill.) Brot.

Poaceae           Avena sativa L.             Infusion / Decoction
                  Phalaris canariensis L.     Macerating 125 g of seeds
                                              in one liter of water
                                              overnight, drinking the
                                              mixture at morning.
                  Sorghum vulgare Pers.       Infusion / Decoction

Ranunculaceae     Nigella sativa L.           Seeds 7 in number per
                                              day.

Rosaceae          Eriobotrya japonica         The infusion for one
                  (Thunb.) Lindl.             drink each day for one
                                              month.

Rutaceae          Ruta montana L.             Decoction / one glass
                                              per day.

Sapotaceae        Argania spinosa L.          Aseed per day.

Solanaceae        Capsicum frutescens L.      Chilli pepper consumption

Urticaceae        Urtica pilulifera L.        Decoction

Zygophyllaceae    Peganum harmala L.          Infusion of some seeds.
                  Zygophyllum gaetulum Enb.   Powder / Infusion.
                  & Maire.


Maryama Hachi (1), Benkhnigue Ouafae (1), Touria Hachi (2), El Bouhaddioui Mohamed (3), Bouabadi Imane (1), Rochdi Atmane (4) and Lahcen Zidane (1)

Received: 09 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016

(1) Laboratoire de Biodiversite & Ressources Naturelles, Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences. BP 133, Kenitra, Maroc.

(2) Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, Environnement & Qualite, Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences. BP 133, Kenitra, Maroc.

(3) Laboratoire des Geosciences & des Ressources Naturelles, Groupe d'Hydroinformatique, Departement de Geologie, Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences. BP 133, Kenitra, Maroc.

(4) Laboratoire d'Agrophysiologie & Phytobiothecnologie, Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences. BP 133, Kenitra, Maroc.

Caption: Figure 1. Location of the Central Middle Atlas region.

Caption: Figure 2. Map of the study area showing the surveyed stations.
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Title Annotation:texto en ingles
Author:Hachi, Maryama; Ouafae, Benkhnigue; Hachi, Touria; Mohamed, Bouhaddioui El; Imane, Bouabadi; Atmane,
Publication:Lazaroa
Date:Jan 1, 2016
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