Contribucion al conocimiento de las especies de la tribu Acratini de Panama y Guyana Francesa (Brentidae: Trachelizinae).
The Acratini Alonso-Zarazaga, Lyal, Sforzi and Bartolozzi, 1999 is a tribe of neotropical Brentidae comprising 11 genera (MANTILLERI et al., 2014) and more than 100 species. Several taxonomical works treating the Acratini have been published since the XIXth (SHARP, 1895; KLEINE, 1921, 1927, 1938; BOHEMAN in SCHOENHERR 1840) and XXth century (SOARES, 1970; SOARES & DIAS, 1971; SOARES & SCIVITARO, 1972), making great advances in our knowledge. However, examination of material from many neotropical regions has revealed numerous undescribed taxa (MANTILLERI, 2014a; MANTILLERI et al., 2014) indicating that this tribe is in need of further revision at the generic as well as the specific level.
This tribe, mostly from South America and finds its greatest diversity in Brazil. According SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI (2004), four genera are represented in Panama: Neacratus Alonso-Zaragoza, Lyal, Sforzi and Bartolozzi, 1999; Nemocoryna Sharp, 1895; Nemobrenthus Sharp, 1895 and Proteramocerus Kleine, 1921, while in French Guyana there are five: [Neacratus, Proteramocerus] Acratus Lacordaire, 1866, Nemocephalinus Kleine, 1927 and Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840; nevertheless, MANTILLERI (2015 a,b,c) has made important contributions about knowledge of tribe Acratini in Central and South America.
From among the unidentified material stored in museums and insect collections in Panama and French Guiana, I report seven new records of Acratini in both countries. A complete diagnosis to identify the species and distribution maps are presented.
Several dry pinned species of brentids were studied and illustrated from the institutions listed below. Their abbreviations are used throughout the paper: MIUP--Museo de Invertebrados G.B. Fairchild, Universidad de Panama; Coleccion Entomologica, PCMENT--Programa Centroamericano de Maestria en Entomologia, Universidad de Panama, STRI--Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Insect Collection in Panama; specimens from French Guiana are present in the private collection of Jean Louis Giuglaris--CJLG. I didn't have access to the type material of each species mentioned on this paper; nevertheless it's important to mention their current location in the following collections: IPEACS--Instituto de Pesquisas e Experimentacao Agropecuarias do Centro-Sul, Manicore, Amazonas, Brazil; IBSP--Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo, Brazil; IOC--Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; MZSP--Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; MNRJ--Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; MNHN--Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; NHM--The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom; NHRS--Naturhistoriska Rikmuseet, Estockholm, Sweden; NMW--Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria; ZMUC--Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Type's abbreviations: AT: Allotype, HT: Holotype, LT: Leptotype, PLT: Paralectotype, PT: Paratype, ST: Syntype; synonyms and unintentional spelling errors [lapsus] are listed.
All species examined for this paper were collected from 1969 to 1993 in Panama, and 2001 to 2012 in Commune La Regina and Cacao, French Guiana; specimens and external structures were examined using a Leica GZ-6 stereomicroscope. Panamanian specimens were photographed using a Canon SX-500 camera and the Visionary Digital Passport optical equipment; photographs of French Guiana specimen are courtesy of Jean-Louis Giuglaris, each of them was edited using GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) (KIMBAL et al., 2008). For brentid species, determinations were made using the published descriptions of SHARP (1895), KLEINE (1927), SOARES (1970), SOARES & DIAS (1971), SOARES & SCIVITARO (1972) and MANTILLERI (2015a). Indeed, taxonomical classification of tribe Acratini is controversial; many authors (SHARP, 1895; KLEINE, 1927, 1938; SOARES & DIAS, 1971; SOARES & SCIVITTARO, 1972) stablished the genera Proteramocerus, Teramocerus, Acratus and Nemobrenthus; according MANTILLERI (2015) based in misinterpretations and wrong descriptions; a thorough examinations of sclerites and internal sac of aedeagus and phylogenetical analyses can stablish that Proteramocerus and Acratus are artificial taxa and moving as synonyms of Teramocerus; some Proteramocerus and Teramocerus species recently have been moved to new genera Rugosacratus and Teramoceroides respectively; thus, for species taxonomy and new combinations I followed the proposal of MANTILLERI (2015a,b,c), but keeping traditional taxonomy of Acratini at genera level (other Acratus and Proteramocerus which haven't been accommodate yet in a new taxon are remarked with a * in the key) described on this paper and make some comments about taxonomic position changes (remarks). Distributional data were imported into Map Creator 2 (PRIMAP SOFTWARE, 2007) for mapping based on published information by SHARP (1895); SOARES & DIAS (1971); WOLDA et al. (1998), and SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI (2004).
Seven species of Acratini are recorded in this paper; five of them are new records for Panama and two for French Guiana. The new records extend the distribution of Proteramocerus disparilis Soares y Dias, 1972, Acratuspohli Soares, 1970; Acratus diringshofeni Soares, 1970, Acratus bellus Soares, 1970, Acratus mendax Soares, 1970, Nemobrenthus helmenreichii (Redtenbacher, 1868) and Teramocerus punctirostris Boheman, 1840. Meanwhile, I made mention of several Acratini species has been recorded recently in both countries: Rugosacratus eximius Mantilleri, 2015, Teramoceroides belti Sharp, 1895 and Teramocerus rileyi Mantilleri, 2015. Identification of specimens of Acratini based solely of external morphological characters or without a taxonomical key may sometimes be tricky particularly in males, nevertheless isolate females are very difficult to identify if not impossible, for this reason, I present an identification key for separating Acratini genera treated here.
[FIGURES 1-9 OMITTED]
Key to separate Genera of Acratini (Coleoptera: Brentidae)
1a. Antennae long, last antenonomere acuminate, elongate, first tarsal segment very long or as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together ... 2
1b. Antennae longer or shorter, last antennomere acuminate or normal, first tarsal segment when it is long not as above ... 3
2a. Antennae longer, extending beyond the neck, first tarsal segment at most as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together, elytra apical tooth without dense pubescence ... Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840
2b. Antennae long, slender, extending beyond the neck, first tarsal segment very long, at least one a half times the 2nd and 3rd together, elytra apical tooth provided dense pubescence ... Teramoceroides Mantilleri, 2015
3a. Antennae long, reaching the base of metarostrum (except T. punctirostris), head weakly puncturate with numerous transverse wrinkles, first tarsal segment at most as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together ... Rugosacratus Mantilleri 2015
3b. Antennae reaching the neck of prothorax ... 4
4a. Antennae extending to the prothorax, first tarsal segment longer or shorter than length of 2nd and 3rd together, sturdy body ... 5
4b. Antennae shorter, at least just reaching the neck, first tarsal segment at most as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together, slender body ... Proteramocerus Kleine, 1821
5a. Antennae extending to the medial side of the prothorax, first tarsal segment almost as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together ... Acratus Lacordaire, 1866 *
5b. Antennae extending to the apical side of the prothorax, first tarsal segment shorter than length of 2nd and 3rd together ... Nemobrenthus Sharp, 1895
Acratus Lacordaire, 1866
Acratus lacordaire, 1866: Brentides: in Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Genera des Coleopteres. VII: 166. Type specie: Brenthus suturalis by original designation.
Acratus is considered a genus between the Ithystenini and the Nemocephalini (SOARES, 1970); it differs from slender Proteramocerus and Teramocerus by the sturdy body (except Acratus apicalis); the head and rostrum are shorter than either Proteramocerus or Teramocerus; the prothorax is pyriform or cylindrical, sulcate; the elytral apex is rounded; the first tarsal segment is almost as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together.
Acratus diringshofeni Soares, 1970 (Figure 4)
diringshofeni Soares, 1970; Studia Entomologica, 13 (1-4): 206; Type depository: MZSP (Diringshofen Coll.) (HT).
Diagnosis: A. diringshofeni is recognized by the following set of features: head longer than broad, rostrum ventrally without dense pubescence, prothorax reddish-brown, opaque, pyriform, with three longitudinal black bands, one in the median groove and one on each side; elytra green with golden highlights, elytral suture, I-II striae and I-II interstriae reddish-brown; elytral apex reddish-brown, rounded; pro and mesofemora clubbed, metafemora not laminate at base.
Distribution map: Figure 10: Brazil (SOARES, 1970; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004); Panama (first record).
Examined material: lago Alajuela, area del Canal de Panama, 1 ([male]) (MIUP). Acratus pohli Soares, 1970 (Figure 7 & 8)
pohli Soares, 1970: Studia Entomologica, 13 (1-4): 229; Type depository: MZSP (Diringshofen Coll.) (HT).
Diagnosis: Head longer than broad, rostrum ventrally densely pubescence; prothorax pyriform-shaped, evenly green without bands; elytra green with bronze highlights according the light incident, elytral suture, I-II striae and I-II interstriae reddish-brown, post-median black blotch; elytral apex rounded, elytral declivity reddish-brown; pro and mesofemora clubbed, metafemora laminate at base.
Distribution map: Figure 11: Brazil to Paraguay (SOARES, 1970; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004); French Guiana (first record).
Examined material: French Guiana, Track Kapiri, RN2 PK 125 commune de Regina, Nov. 15, 2010, Jean-Louis Giuglaris, interception trap (trap glass), 1 ([female]) (CJLG); Track Kapiri, RN2 PK 125 commune de Regina, Nov. 29, 2012, Jean-Louis Giuglaris, interception trap (trap glass), 1 ([male]) (CJLG).
Acratus mendax Soares, 1970 (Figure 5)
mendax Soares, 1970: Studia entomologica, 13 (1-4): 225; Type depository: MNRJ (Campos Seabra Coll.) (HT).
Diagnosis: A. mendax is recognized by the following combination of characters: head wider than long, prorostrum slender, barely dilated at apex; antennae reach the middle of prothorax, 1-8 antennomeres are conical, 9-11 cylindrical, last antennomere acuminate; prothorax pyriform, dorsally green-purple; elytra green without golden highlights, elytral declivity and caudal appendices purple. The species can be distinguished from A. gracillipes by the size of the rostrum; all tarsal segments are the same length (A. gracillipes first tarsal segment as long as 2nd and 3th tarsal segment together).
Distribution map: Figure 10: Panama (first record); Brazil (SOARES, 1970; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004)
Examined material: Panama, Barro Colorado Island, May 22, 1973, H. Wolda, Light Trap, 1 ([male]) (STRI).
Acratus bellus Soares, 1970 (Figure 6)
bellus Soares, 1970: Studia entomologica, 13 (1-4): 203; Type depository: MZSP (Campos Seabra Coll.) (HT, AT, PT).
Diagnosis: A. bellus can be confused with A. bechynei, It can be distinguished from A. bechynei by the following characters: A. bechynei: head slighlty longer than prorostrum (A. bellus head shorter than prorostrum); prothorax in A. bechynei elongated and strongly angulate (A. bellus prothorax pyriform-shaped); Hind femora laminated, base of the femora angulate (A. bellus without angulate structure).
Distribution map: Figure 10: Brazil (SOARES, 1970; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004); Panama (first record).
Examined material: Canal Zone, Fort Kobbe, Nov. 12, 1984, H. Stockwell, 1 ([male]) (STRI); El Valle, Altos de Campana National Park, May 22, 1998, Bryan K. Eya, 1 ([male]) (MIUP)
Nemobrenthus Sharp, 1895
Nemobrenthus Sharp, 1895 Biologia Centrali Americana 4(6): 71. Neobrenthus, Kleine, 1937 entomologisches Nachrichtenblatt 11(2): 102 [lapsus]; Type specie: Nemobrenthus aeneipennis Sharp, by original designation.
Nemobrenthus is a small group of medium size brentids that resemble Acratus by the sturdy body, head and rostrum are shorter, collar constriction well marked; prothorax pyriform longer than broad, longitudinally grooved, not punctate; elytral apex rounded without apical tooth; femora not pedunculate; at base, dorsal part of femora slightly flattened and grooved. Differs them by first tarsal segment broader than long; shorter than 2-3 together, looking sub-equals; tarsomeres 2-3 impressed on upper side; tarsomere 2 broader than long.
[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]
Nemobrenthus helmenreichii (Redtenbacher, 1868) Comb. Nov. (Figure 9)
helmenreichii Redtenbacher, 1868 (Trachelizus); Syn. Kleine, Coleopterum Catalogus 1927:74; helmenreichi: Schoenfelt, 1908: GeneraInsectorum: 22 (Trachelizus) [lapsus]; Type depository: ZMUC (B. suturalis) (HT); NMW (T. helmenreichii) (HT).
Diagnosis: N. helmenreichii can be recognized by the following combination of characters: body reddish brown, elytra strongly metallic green, dark post-median elytral blotch hardly distinct; head not punctate, interocular fovea weak but distinct. antennae short, antennomeres 2-8 broader than long, 9-10 longer than broad, 11 two times as long as 10.
Distribution map: Figure 10: Brazil (SOARES, 1970; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004); Panama (first record).
Examined material: Cerro Campana, Aug. 13, 1974, H.P. Stockwell, 1 ([male]), 5 ([female]) (STRI); Cerro Campana, Aug. 17, 1974, H.P. Stockwell, 2 ([female]) (STRI)
Remarks: N. helmenreichii was described on the one female specimen by Lund (1800) as Trachelizus helmenreichii, nevertheless, Kleine and Soares place T. helmereichii as a synonym of Teramocerus suturalis (Acratus); this concept as understood erroneously by them and referring completely different species according MANTILLERI (2015b). For this reason he propose remove it from synonymy.
Proteramocerus Kleine, 1921
Proteramocerus Kleine, 1921, Brenthidenstudien-Entomologische Blatter 17(7/9): 129; Type specie: Brenthus acutipennis by original designation.
Proteramocerus is a group of slender brentids that differs from Acratus by the head very long, longer than broad, antennae longer or shorter at least just reaching the neck, prothorax slender, elytra with thorn-shaped caudal appendices present in both sexes or at least in males, or rarely absent, legs slender, femora clubbed, first tarsal segment at most as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together.
Proteramocerus disparilis Soares y Dias, 1971 (Figures 2 and 3) disparilis Soares y dias, 1971. Rev. Brasil. Entomol. Vol. 15 (7): 56. Type depository: MNRJ (Campos Seabra Coll.) (HT, AT, PT), IBSP (PT), IOC (PT), MNRJ (PT), MZSP (Diringshofen Coll.) (PT).
Diagnosis: P. disparilis is recognized by the following set of features: body dark-brown, slender; head very long, dorsally glabrous with transversal striae, antennae with third antenomere longer than others; prothorax strongly longer, than broad, smooth, rhomboid-like appearance, apically with transversal striae, longitudinally grooved; elytra without obvious puncturation, elytral apex rounded without an evident declivity; femora clubbed; first tarsal segment as long as the length of 2nd and 3rd together.
Distribution map: Figure 11: Panama (first record); Brazil and Peru (SOARES & DIAS, 1971; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004).
Examined material: Chepo, Altos del Maje, May 17, 1975, Stockwell & Engelman, Light Trap, 1([male]) (STRI); Barro Colorado Island, Aug. 15, 1984, H. Wolda, 1 ([male]) (MIUP); Panama, Interamericana Highway, E. Ipeti, May 3, 1993; H. Stockwell, 2 ([male]), 1 ([female]) (STRI).
[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]
Remarks: according SOARES & DIAS (1971), P. disparilis belongs to a Proteramocerus restricted group without elytral thorn-shaped caudal appendices, taxonomically close to Proteramocerus fidus (KLEINE, 1927). The distribution from Peru (Paratype) cited by SOARES & DIAS isn't mentioned by SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI (2004), but is very doubtful. See remarks on the map [Figure 12. Squares (?)]
Rugosacratus Mantilleri, 2015
Rugosacratus Mantilleri 2015c, Bulletin de la Societeentomologique de France, 120(3): 268; Type specie: Proteramocerus chontalensis by original designation.
Rugosacratus is new genera proposed by Mantilleri 2015, differs from Proteramocerus by the following set of characters: Head weakly punctuated with numerous transverse wrinkles clearly visible (especially in males). Head without or with only a few sensory pores. Below the suture head gular fairly marked without sensory pores behind the median post-ocular foveole. Antennae longer reaching the metarostrum, antennomeres much longer than wide, segments 2-8 significantly widened at the apex; 9-10 subcylindrical to ovoid slightly narrowed at the base. First tarsal segment much longer than wide, longer the following two together; Abdomen elongated sternites III-IV non-depressed or furrowed, punctuated on sides.
Rugosacratus eximius Mantilleri, 2015 (Figure 1)
eximius Mantilleri 2015c: Bulletin de la Societe entomologique de France 120 (3): 273. Type depository: MNHN (HT).
Diagnosis: this species is recognized by the following set of features: body darkbrown, elytra metallic green, slender, head and prothorax dorsally with transversal striae, rostrum longer, strongly sulcate dorsally from metarrostrum to prorostrum, antennae long, third antennal segment longer than other antennal segments; prothorax laterally with irregular outline, elytra with regular punctures, elytral suture blackish.
Distribution map: Figure 11: Nicaragua, Costa Rica; Peru, Bolivia, Brazil (SOARES & DIAS, 1971; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004) and French Guiana (MANTILLERI, 2015c)
Examined material: French Guiana, Road of the Kaw (RD06) PK 48 commune de Cacao, May 15, 2001, Jean-Louis Giuglaris, trap light uv, 1 ([male]) (CJLG).
Remarks: prothorax on females' aren't wavy laterally; both males and females of R. eximius have spiny structures on elytral apex, however are short in females or absent.
Teramoceroides Mantilleri, 2015
Teramoceroides Mantilleri 2015c, Bulletin de la Societeentomologique de France, 120(3): 279. Type specie: Belorhynchus gracilis by original designation.
The genus Teramoceroides proposed by MANTILLERI (2015c) differs from its brother group Teramocerus by the following set of characters: below rostrum male with very long bristles, sensory pores well above the base of the prorostrum forward. Antennomeres 9-10 longer than wide, cylindrical. Pronotum furrowed, not punctuated. First tarsal segment more long as wide, the first article of the metatarsal longer than males following two together.
Teramoceroides belti (Sharp, 1895) (Figure 12)
[FIGURES 12-14 OMITTED]
belti Sharp, 1895: Biologia Centrali Americana, Vol. 4 (6): 78 (Teramocerus); Mantilleri, 2015. Bulletin de la SocieteEntomologiquede France, 120 (3):283); Type depository: NHM (LT, PLT)
Diagnosis: According Sharp (1895), T. belti can be recognized by the following set of features: rostrum of male densely covered with setae beneath, its upper surface is remarkable in being raised along the middle, making it bisulcate; head beneath is wrinkled and the sides of the prosternum are granulate; elytra are of a beautiful silky metallic-green color with the suture purplish red.
Distribution map: Figure 15: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, (SHARP, 1895; KLEINE, 1927; SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004) and Panama (MANTILLERI, 2015c)
Examined material: Panama, Chepo, Maje Station, May 18, 1974, H. Stockwell and D. Engelman (STRI); Panama, Canal Zone, Fort Kobbe, July 26, 1974; H. Stockwell (STRI); Panama, Chepo, Maje Station, May 17, 1975, H. Stockwell and D. Engelman (STRI);Fort Kobbe, May 20, 1983, H. Stockwell, 1 ([male]) (STRI); Panama, Colon, Canal Zone, Pipeline Road, May 7, 1984; H. Stockwell (STRI); Fort Kobbe, Aug. 4, 1985, H. Stockwell, 4 ([male]) 3([female]), (STRI); Panama, Canal Zone, Fort Kobbe, Aug. 24, 1985; H. Stockwell 2 esp. (STRI), Fort Kobbe, Jun. 15, 1992; Tobin, 2 ([male]) (STRI); Colon, Galeta Island, May 17-18, 2003, R. Cambra and A. Santos; 1 ([male]) (MIUP).
Remarks: WOLDA etal. (1998) refers to 52 specimens of T. belti from Barro Colorado Island, stored in the Charles W O'Brien Collection (CWOB); nevertheless they aren't cited previously by SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI (2004) for the country.
Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840
Teramocerus Schoenherr, 1840, Genera et species Curculionidum, Vol. 5(2): 556; Teramozerus; Kleine, 1920: Der Brenthidenflugel, 85 (A8): 13 [lapsus]. Type specie: Teramocerus janthinus by original designation.
This group differs from Acratus and Proteramocerus by the great elongation of the first tarsal segment and the length of the antennae, which extend beyond the prothorax and body much slender.
Teramoceruspunctirostris Boheman, 1840 (Figure 14) punctirostris Boheman (in Schoenherr, 1840: Genera et Species Curculionidum: 566). Type depository: MNRJ (Campos Seabra Coll.) (HT).
Diagnosis: Teramocerus punctirostris is distinct among the species of Teramocerus by possessing the following set of features: body brown, slender, prothorax laterally with soft irregular outlines; elytra with one yellow band on each side, elytral suture and post-medial blotch blackish, elytral apex not spiny.
Distribution map: Figure 15: Brazil (SFORZI & BARTOLOZZI, 2004), French Guiana (first record).
[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]
Examined material: French Guiana, Track Kapiri, RN2 PK 125 commune de Regina, Nov. 25, 2010, Jean-Louis Giuglaris, interception trap (trap glass), 1 ([female]) (CJLG) .
Remarks: Recently MANTILLERI (2015b) propose that T. punctirostris should be moved to the genus Rugosacratus, based in the peculiar set of characters who differs from other Teramocerus. Nevertheless, I prefer maintain the original name.
Teramocerus rileyi Mantilleri, 2015 (Figure 13) rileyiMantilleri, 2015. Bulletin de la Societeentomologique de France, 120 (3): 289. Type depository: TAMU (HT); MNHN (PT)
Diagnosis: T. rileyi can be distinguished from T. belti by the following set of features: body brownish, not metallic; elytra caudal appendices ventrally covered by coarse setae.
Distribution map: Figure 15: Panama (MANTILLERI, 2015c)
Examined Material: Paraiso, Canal Zone, Oct. 4, 1969, H. Stockwell, 1 ([male]) (STRI); Gamboa, Panama, Jun. 20, 1970, Colon, Canal Zone, Coco Solo Hospital, February 01, 1974, H. Stockwell, 1 ([male]) (STRI); Parque Nacional Soberania, May 5, 1981, J.C. Chang, 1 ([male]) (MIUP); Barro Colorado Island, Light trap, June 28, 1984, H. Wolda, 1 ([male]) (MIUP); Panama, Canal Zone, Pipeline Road, Jul. 2, 1984, H. Stockwell, 1 ([male]) (STRI); H. Stockwell, 1 ([male]) (STRI); Fort Kobbe, Aug. 24, 1985, H. P. Stockwell, 1 ([male]), (STRI).
Remarks: According MANTILLERI (2015) T. rileyi is only known in Panama, however, it's may be more widespread in Central America.
In conclusion identification of Acratini species without study of the genitalia, it will be very difficult to properly identify most of Acratini as descriptions and keys given by Soares and Scivittaro are not reliable at moment. Indeed, they often based their conclusions on observations by Lacordaire or Schoenherr (especially for type species of the different genera) and those observations are almost always outdated now. Moreover, as their studies focused only on external features, they were blurred by the extraordinary variability inside a same species, leading to descriptions of several synonyms. A comprehensive study of the genitalia will understand this group and other groups of Brentidae, their phylogeny and taxonomy relations in the future.
This study would not have been possible without the help of the following persons. I would like to thank Diomedes Quintero and Roberto Cambra (MIUP), Hector Barrios and Cesar de Leon (PCMENT), Edwin Dominguez and Annette Aiello (STRI) for the loan of undetermined material and provided photographs of A. mendax, A. bellus, T. belti and T. rigely; my sincerely thanks to Jean-Louis Giuglaris who provided photographs of A. pohli, R. eximius and T. punctirostris. I also thank Antoine Mantilleri (MNHN), Yolanda Moreno de Nino (UP-CRUC) and Annette Aiello (STRI) for their support, useful comments and review in English. The author will never forget the constant support his wife Ursula Vargas-Cusatti gave him.
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Alfredo Lanuza-Garay (1)
* FR: 2-II-2015. FA: .27-VIII-2015
(1) Entomologo, Universidad de Panama, Centro Regional Universitario de Colon, Departamento de Zoologia. Panama, Panama. E-mail: email@example.com